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高中英语必修1(外研版)Unit 3 My First Ride on a train 知识点总结


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高中英语必修 1(外研版)Unit 3 My First Ride on a train 知识点总结
一、重点词汇 distance
·原文再现 Camels were much better than horses for travelling a long distance. 对于长途旅行而言,

骆驼比马强得多。 ·基本用法 1. distance n. 距离 The noise of the car died away in the distance. 汽车的声音消失在远方。 We have covered a distance of 200 kilometers. 我们已走了 200 公里的路程。 2. distance vt. 与...保持距离 Interestingly, there are several reasons why it is so important to distance oneself from the rest. 有趣的是,一定要拉开和其他人的距离,背后有很多原因。 ·知识拓展 相关短语 1. in the distance 在远处 A lighthouse was flashing in the distance. 灯塔在远处发出闪烁的光。 2. keep sb. at a distance 对...冷淡,疏远 It was difficult to get to know her because she always kept everyone at a distance. 要了解她很难,她老是对每个人都保持一段距离。 The captain kept his crew at a distance. 船长对他的船员保持疏远。 相关单词 distant adj. 遥远的;久远的 The sun is distant from the earth.

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太阳离地球很遥远。 It snows all the year round in that distant little village. 在那个遥远的小村落里整年下雪。

abandoned
·原文再现 We saw abandoned farms which were built more than a hundred years ago. 我们看到被遗弃的农庄,这些农庄的建造历史有一百多年了。 ·基本用法 abandoned adj. 被遗弃的;无约束的 Never in her life had she felt so alone, so abandoned. 她一生中从来没有感到如此孤单,如此无助。 These abandoned children have now got a future. 这些被抛弃的孩子现在有了希望。 ·知识拓展 相关单词 abandon v. 放弃;遗弃 Those who abandon themselves to despair cannot succeed. 那些自暴自弃的人无法成功。 Despite some difficulties, they're not going to abandon the plan. 尽管他们遇到了一些困难,但并不打算放弃这个计划。 相关短语 1. abandon oneself to... 沉溺于;放纵(to 是介词,后面跟名词或动名词) They abandon themselves to drinking. 他们沉湎于饮酒。 2. with abandon 恣意地,放纵地 The girls jumped up and down and waved their arms with abandon. 那些女孩子跳上跳下尽情地挥舞着手臂。 词义辨析:abandon/ desert/ quit/ give up 1. abandon 强调“完全、永远地遗弃”,尤其是指遗弃以前感兴趣或负有责任的人或物。 She abandoned her child.

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她遗弃了她的孩子。 在表示“抛弃,离开”时,abandon 与 desert 相同,如: They decided to abandon the camp. 他们决定放弃该营地。 在表示“放弃/停止做某事”时,abandon 与 give up 相同,如: We abandoned /gave up the attempt. 我们放弃了尝试。 2. desert 强调故意违背自己的义务、责任或誓言等(擅离职守)。 The soldier deserted his country and helped the enemy. 那个士兵叛国助敌。 3. quit 强调 “突然或不经意地放弃”,常指“停止”。 She quit her job. 她放弃了自己的工作。 4. give up 是普通用语,侧重指没有希望或因外界压力而放弃。 The doctors gave my uncle up, but he lived. 医生们认为我叔叔的病无法治好,但他却活了下来。

expert
·原文再现 We ate great meals cooked by experts! 我们吃的美味饭菜是由烹饪大师们做的。 ·基本用法 1. expert n. 专家;能手 She is an expert in training animals. 她是驯兽专家。 According to expert opinions, they gave up the experiment immediately. 根据专家们的意见,他们马上放弃了这项试验。 2. expert adj. 熟练的;内行的 To her expert eye, the painting was terrible. 她以内行的眼光看,这幅画糟透了。 Could you give me your expert advice?

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你可以给我一些专业意见吗?

product
·原文再现 For many years, trained camels carried food and other supplies, and returned with wool and other products. 好多年里,训练有素的骆驼运送食品和其他给养,返回时带着羊毛和其他产品。 ·基本用法 product n. 产品;产物;结果 How can we promote the sales of this product? 我们应该如何来推销这种产品? Such a product is not found everywhere. 这样的产品不是随处可以找到的。 Poems are the product of a poet's imagination. 诗是诗人想象力的产物。 ·知识拓展 相关单词 1. produce v. 生产;提出;引起 George's jokes produced a great deal of laughter. 乔治的笑话引起了哄堂大笑。 He worked hard to produce good crops from poor soil. 他辛勤耕作,为使瘠薄的土地上长出好庄稼。 2. production n. 生产;产量;成果 We aim at doubling our production. 我们的目标是将生产增加一倍。 3. productive adj. 生产的;多产的 Our productive task is making the machine. 我们的生产任务是造机器。 词义辨析:produce/product/production 三者均可表示“产品”,其区别是: 1. produce 主要指农产品,是一个不可数的集合名词。如:

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The farmers brought their produce to town early each Saturday morning. 每星期六清早农民们就把农产品运进城。 动词用法:produce cars 生产汽车 2. product 主要指工业产品,也可指农产品,是可数名词。如: Our car is a product of that factory. 我们的车是那个工厂生产的。 注:有时用于引申义。如: He saw man as the product of society. 他把人看作是社会的产物。 3. production 通常不表示具体的产品, 它主要指生产这一动作或过程, 是不可数名词, 意为“生产; 产量”; 制作,摄制(电影、戏剧等)。如: The company is famous for the production of small cars. 这家公司以生产小型汽车闻名。 Production of computers has increased double in the last few weeks. 近几周来电脑的产量增加了一倍。 This new theater is becoming known for its good productions. 这家新剧院因上演节目的质量好而渐渐出名。

scenery
·基本用法 scenery n. 风景,景色 The scenery is beautiful beyond description. 那里的风光美得难以描述。 The beautiful scenery carried me back to my hometown. 美丽的景色使我想起了自己的家乡。 ·知识拓展--词义辨析:scene/view/sight/scenery 1. sight 意为“视力,视野,情景”。如: He lost his sight in the war. 他在战争中失去了视力。 They waited until the plane was within sight. 他们一直等到飞机进入到视野范围之内。

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After many weeks at sea, they sighted land. 经过多个星期海上航程,他们看见了陆地。 2. view: “风景”,“景象”,通常指从某个特定(或许较高的)位置所见到的事物;观点。 When we finally topped the hill we had a fine view. 我们爬到山顶时,看到了优美的景色。 In my view, he didn't tell the truth. 在我看来,他没有说实话。 3. scene:(指戏剧,电影等)“一场”;“场景”;指风景时着重指展现于眼前的景色的特征;“出事地点”。 The first scene of the play is the king's palace. 剧中的第一个场景是王宫。 A crowd gathered at the scene of the fire. 许多人聚集在火灾现场。 4. sight: 指所见到的“景象”,“情景”;作“视力”解时不可数。 So it was that he had his first sight of snow. 就那样,他第一次见到了雪。 5. scenery: “风景”,指某地的自然风景,是不可数的集体名词,不能与不定冠词连用。 Hangzhou is world-famous for its beautiful scenery. 杭州因其美丽的景色世界闻名。

shoot
·原文再现 In 1935, the police in a town shot 153 camels in one day. 1935 年,一个镇上的警察曾在一天内射杀了 153 头骆驼。 ·基本用法 1. shoot vt. 射杀;拍照 I'd shoot myself before I apologized to him! 我宁死也不向他道歉! He shot the bird with his gun. 他用枪打鸟。 Leaves begin to shoot forth early in spring. 初春时节,叶子开始长出来了。

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The film was shot in black and white. 这部电影拍成了黑白片。 2. shoot n. 射击;摄影;嫩枝 I have a photo shoot this weekend. 我这周末要去拍一套照片。 ·知识拓展--相关短语 1. shoot at... 向...射击 He shot at a bird, but missed it. 他开枪打鸟,但没有打中。 2. shoot oneself 自杀(=commit suicide) She shot herself through the head. 她一枪打穿了自己的头。

journey
·原文再现 Travelling at a speed of over 400 kilometers per hour, the train can complete the 30-kilometer journey in eight minutes. 以每小时 400 多公里的速度行驶,“磁悬浮列车”8 分钟之内就可走完这段 30 公里的行程。 ·基本用法 journey n. 旅程;旅行 It was a long journey, but we eventually arrived. 旅程很长,但我们最后还是到达了。 He told a very descriptive account of his journey. 他对旅行作了十分生动的叙述。 ·知识拓展--词义辨析:journey/tour/travel/trip/voyage 1. journey: 最普通用词,侧重指时间较长、距离较远的单程陆上旅行,也指水上或空中的旅行。 He is going to make a long journey. 他要作一次长途旅行。 2. tour: 指最后返回出发地,旅途中有停留游览点,距离可长可短,目的各异的周游或巡行。 He went on a speaking tour of the United States. 他去美国作巡回演讲。

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3. travel: 泛指旅行的行为而不指某次具体的旅行,多指到远方作长期旅行,不强调直接目的地,单、复 数 均可用。 He met many interesting people in his travels. 旅行中他遇到了许多有趣的人。 4. trip: 普通用词,口语多用,常指为公务或游玩作的较短暂的旅行。 We had a memorable trip last year. 我们去年有一次难忘的旅行。 5. voyage: 指在水上旅行,尤指海上旅行,也可指空中旅行。 The seamen equipped a ship for a voyage. 水手们装备船只准备出航。

train
·原文再现 For many years, trained camels carried food and other supplies, and returned with wool and other products. 好多年里,训练有素的骆驼运送食品和其他给养,返回时带着羊毛和其他产品。 ·基本用法 train vt. 训练,培训;瞄准 If you train hard, you'll make a good footballer. 你要刻苦训练就能成为优秀的足球运动员。 ·知识拓展 相关单词 1. training n. 训练;培养 She has acting potential, but she needs training. 她有表演潜力,但需要训练。 2. trainer n. 训练员;教练

My trainer says I should run an hour every day. 我的健身教练说我每天应该跑步一小时。 相关短语 train for 为... 训练(某人),为....而接受训练 Jim has been training for the big race for weeks now.

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几星期来,吉姆一直在为参加大赛而训练。

frighten
·基本用法 frighten vt. 使吃惊,惊吓 You frighten me, even though you're gentle with me. 你使我害怕,尽管你对我很温柔。 ·知识拓展 相关单词 1. fright n. 惊骇;惊恐 Her heart beat madly with fright. 她惊得心慌乱跳。 2. frightened adj. 受惊吓的;感到害怕的 They go to the doctor with a frightened friend. 她们陪一位受到惊吓的朋友去看医生。 3. frightening adj. 令人恐惧的;令人害怕的 The idea of death is frightening to most people. 死的想法对于大多数人都是可怕的。 相关短语 1. be frightened at... 对...大吃一惊;受到惊吓

He was frightened at the sight of the dog. 一见到那条狗他吓了一跳。 2. be frightened of... 对...感到害怕 The child has always been frightened of the dark. 这孩子一直害怕黑暗。 3. frighten sb. to death 把某人吓得要死(被动形式为 be frightened to death) I was frightened to death. You must never play these practical jokes any more. 我被吓得要死。你以后再也不能这样恶作剧了。

apartment
·基本用法 apartment n. 公寓;单元住宅

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I have an apartment in downtown Manhattan. 我在曼哈顿中心区有一套住房。 Many city dwellers live in apartment buildings. 许多城市居民住在公共住宅楼里。 ·知识拓展--词义辨析:apartment/flat 1. apartment 意思是“一套房间”,主要指一套公寓的房间,通常设有家具供出租在美国常用。 He shares an apartment with his brother. 他和弟弟同住一间公寓。 2. flat 指在一幢大楼内某一层上供居住的“一套房间”“公寓套房”,多用在英式英语中。 She is buying a flat close to her office. 她正在购买一套靠近她办公室的单元房。

interview
·基本用法 1. interview n. 面试,面谈;采访

How was your interview with Michigan? 你跟密歇根大学的人面谈得如何? He mentioned that problem at our interviews. 他在我们会谈时提到了那个问题。 2. interview vt. 采访;对...进行面试 In the prosecution of his duties, he had to interview people of all classes. 在履行职责的时候,他得会见各阶级的人。 All the applicants were interviewed one by one. 所有的申请者一个接着一个参加面试。 ·知识拓展--相关单词 1. interviewer n. 采访者;接见者;主考官 2. interviewee n. 被接见者;被采访者;被面试者

event
·基本用法 event n. 事件,大事;项目;结果 The new book was the cultural event of the year.

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这本新书的出版是今年文化界的大事。 Which events is he going in for at the Olympics ? 他将在奥林匹克运动会上参加什么项目? Which events have you entered for? 你报名参加了哪几项比赛?

exhausted
·基本用法 exhausted adj. 疲惫不堪的;耗尽的 The soldiers were exhausted after a month's fight. 士兵们经过一个月的战斗已经筋疲力尽。 The exhausted runner was gasping for breath. 那选手跑得精疲力尽,上气不接下气。 ·知识拓展--相关单词 exhaust v. 使筋疲力尽;耗尽 The expedition was forced to turn back when it exhausted its food supply. 没有了食物,这个探险队不得不返航。

downtown
·基本用法 1. downtown n. 市中心区;市中心 Most of the old buildings in the downtown were plucked down, and new ones erected. 市中心的大部分建筑物都拆掉了,建起了新的房子。 A new skyscraper has been put up downtown. 市中心又建起了一座摩天大厦。 2. downtown adj. 商业区的,市中心的 I have an apartment in downtown Manhattan. 我在曼哈顿中心区有一套住房。 She went so far as to rent downtown office space. 她甚至还在市中心租用了办公地方。

vacuum
·基本用法

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1. vacuum n. 真空;空白 The food is kept in the absolute vacuum. 这食物保存在绝对真空中。 His wife's death left him a vacuum in his life. 他妻子的去世使他的生活变得空虚。 2. vacuum adj. 真空的;利用真空的;产生真空的 Why don't you buy a vacuum cleaner? 你为什么不买个真空吸尘器? 3. vacuum v. 用吸尘器打扫 Please vacuum the carpets after the breakfast. 早饭后请用吸尘器清扫下地毯。

ceremony
·基本用法 ceremony n. 仪式;礼节;典礼 The marriage ceremony took place in the church. 婚礼在教堂举行。 There's no need for ceremony between friends. 朋友之间不必拘礼. ·知识拓展--相关短语 opening ceremony 开幕式 closing ceremony 闭幕式 graduation ceremony 毕业典礼 marriage/wedding ceremony 结婚典礼

track
·基本用法 1. track n. 轨道;跑道;踪迹 I quickly lose her track in the crowd. 我在人群中失去了她的踪迹。 I like to watch field and track events. 我喜欢观看田径比赛。

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What you just said is completely off the track. 你刚才讲的话彻底离题了。 He runs around the track every morning. 他每天清晨绕着跑道跑步。 2. track v. 跟踪,追踪 The police tracked the terrorists to their hide-out. 警方跟踪恐怖分子至其藏匿处。 They are trying to track the lost satellite. 他们正设法跟踪失踪的卫星。 ·知识拓展--相关短语 lose/keep track of 与...失去/保持联系 He's lost all track of her since they left school. 自毕业后,他完全失去了和她的联系。

souvenir
·基本用法 souvenir n. 纪念品 Can you mail this souvenir to America for me? 您能帮我把这件纪念品邮到美国吗? I bought this bag as a souvenir of my visit to London. 我买了这个袋子作为访问伦敦的纪念品。 Where's the nearest souvenir shop? 最近的纪念品店在哪里?

supply
·基本用法 1. supply n. 提供;供应品 They are at the end of their food supply. 他们的食物贮备已消耗殆尽。 2. supply vt. 补给;提供;代理 We can supply the best service for you. 我们可为您提供最周到的服务。

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·知识拓展--词义辨析: offer/ provide/ supply 1. offer 既表示主动慷慨地给别人提供某物,也可表示无主动之意地提供。常用语 offer sb. sth. 或 offer sth. to sb. Two days later I received a letter offering me the job. 两天后我收到了一封信,给我提供了这份工作。 2. provide 用于表示无主动慷慨之意地为人或物提供需要或有用的东西,仅仅是出于某种责任。常用语 provide sb. with sth. 或 provide sth. for sb. 的固定搭配中。 The children are provided with good food and clothing. 孩子们有良好的衣食供应。 It is the duty of the government to provide homes for the old. 政府有义务为老年人提供住所。 3. supply 通常指定期“供应”, 强调替代或补充所需物品。 常用语 supply sb. with sth.或 supply sth to/for sb. Cows supply us with milk. 母牛供给我们牛奶。 Our task is to supply vegetables all year round. 我们的任务是一年四季提供蔬菜。

refer to
·基本用法 refer to 谈到,涉及;查阅,参考 I will refer to this point again. 我还会提到这一点的。 When I said some people were stupid, I wasn't referring to you. 当我说一些人很愚蠢时,我指的不是你们。 This passage refers to the events of Sichuan Earthquake. 这篇文章说的是四川大地震的事。 You can refer to your dictionary if necessary. 必要的话,你可以查字典。 If you have difficulty in studying English, you can refer to your foreign teacher. 假如你学习英语有困难,你可以向外教征求意见。 ·知识拓展--相关短语

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1. refer to sb./sth. 提到某人/物;涉及到某人/物 It was unwise in your speech to refer to rising unemployment. 你在发言中提到失业人数的增长是不明智的。 2. refer to...as... 将...称为...;把...当作... The children used to refer to that old teacher as Grandpa. 孩子们通常称这位老教师为爷爷。

take off
·基本用法 take off 起飞;脱掉;取消;开始明显好转;开始获得成功 The plane took off despite the fog. 尽管有雾,飞机仍照常起飞。 He came in and took off his coat. 他走了进来,脱掉大衣。 This was the moment when Spielberg's career took off. 这是斯皮尔伯格事业真正腾飞的时刻。 ·知识拓展--词义辨析:take 词组 take along 随身带着 take down 写下;拆除 take away 带走;解除,消除 take in take on 留宿;吸入;理解,领会;欺骗 呈现;雇佣;承担;接受(工作、责任等)

take over 接管,接收 take notice of 注意 take part in 参加 take place 发生;进行 take pride in 因...而自豪 take the place of 取代,代替 take up 占据(空间),占用(时间);开始从事;继续(他人未完的事);拿起(武器)

be short for
·基本用法

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be short for 是...的缩写/简称 UN is short for the United Nations. UN 是联合国的缩略形式。 ·知识拓展--相关短语 1. in short 简言之;总之 In short, he is one of the most promising students I've ever known. 总之,他是我见过最有希望的学生之一。 2. be short of 缺少....;缺乏.... The trouble is that we are short of hand. 困难是我们缺少人手。 3. for short 缩写,简称 The boy's name was Humperdink, or "Dink" for short. 那个男孩名叫汉普丁克,或者爱称为“丁克”。

out of date
·基本用法 out of date 过时的(等于 out of fashion);废弃的;过期的 My driver's license is out of date. 我的驾驶执照过期了。 The camera you bought last year has been out of date. 你去年买的相机已经过时了。 ·知识拓展--相关短语 out of style/fashion 过时 out of touch 失去联系 out of step out of sight 步调不一致,不协调 看不见,在视野之外

out of practice 久不练习,荒疏 out of order 发生故障,失灵

out of danger 脱离危险 out of control 失去控制 out of breath 喘不过气来

--中国首家承诺学习效果的在线教育公司 二、重点句型 Where do you think most of the people live, in the central part of the country or on the coast? 你认为大部分人住在哪,是住在这个国家的中部地区还是沿海地区?
·基本用法 本句为选择疑问句;do you think 作插入语,句子的其他部分需用陈述语序。类似的插入语还有 do you expect, do you suppose, do you believe 等。 What do you think they are talking about? 你认为他们在谈论什么? How many gold medals do you think the Chinese athletes can win at the 2012 Olympic Games? 你认为在 2012 年奥运会上中国运动员将得多少金牌?

And what a ride! 一次多么美妙的乘车旅行!
·基本用法 本句为感叹句,省略了主语和谓语,完整的句子应为:And what a ride it was! 感叹句用来表示喜怒哀乐等强烈的感情,主要用 what 和 how 来引导。 what 引导的感叹句中心词为名 词, how 引导的感叹句中心词为形容词或副词。感叹句的基本句式为: What + (a/an) +形容词 +名词+ 主语+谓语动词或系动词! How + 形容词或副词 +主语 + 谓语动词或系动词! What a beautiful flower it is! 多么美的花儿啊! What an interesting story it is! 多么有趣的故事啊! What interesting work it is! 多么有意思的工作啊! How interesting the story is! 多么有趣的故事啊! How hard he works! 他工作多努力啊!

--中国首家承诺学习效果的在线教育公司
How nice you are, Helen! 海伦,你太好了! 当 what 感叹句中的名词前有形容词修饰时,可改为 how 感叹句。如: what a beautiful flower it is!= How beautiful the flower is!

We ate great meals cooked by experts! 我们吃的美味饭菜是由烹饪大师们做的。
·基本用法 cooled by experts 是过去分词短语作后置定语,修饰 great meals, 可改为定语从句 which/ that were cooked by experts. 如: I know the man called Mike. = I know the man who is called /whose name is Mike. 我认识那个叫迈克的人。

A long time age, Australians needed a way to travel to the middle of the country. 很久以前,澳大利亚人需要一条通往中部的路。
·基本用法 a way to do sth./ a way of doing sth. 做...的方法/ 途径 Our English teacher has a way of making /to make her class lively and interesting. 我们的英语老师有一种方法,能让她的课外生动有趣。 We are trying to find a way of solving the problem. 我们正试图找到解决问题的办法。 But there is a way to drive her away. 不过还是有法子可以赶她走。

They tried riding horses, but the horses didn't like the hot weather and sand. 他们尝试骑马去那儿,但马儿不适应炎热的天气和沙地。
·基本用法 此句为并列复合句, 连词 but 连接了两个表示转折关系的并列分句; try doing sth. 意为“尝试做某事”。 try to do sth. 意为“努力做某事”。如: I will try solving the problem in a new way. 我会试着用一种新方法来解决这个难题。 I have tried to make friends with him, but he seems not to care.

--中国首家承诺学习效果的在线教育公司
我一直想和他交朋友,但他似乎不愿意。 ·知识拓展--词义辨析: try to do sth. / manage to do sth. 1. try to do sth. 表示努力去做,但未必成功。 So now I have to try to do well in everything. 所以我现在所能做的就是尽力做好每一件事。 2. manage to do sth. 表示设法完成困难的事情,强调结果是成功的。 Finally they managed to finish the task ahead of time. 最后他们设法提前完成了任务。

Camels were much better than horses for travelling a long distance. 对于长途旅行而言,骆驼比马强得多。
·基本用法 much better than 是比较结构,much 修饰比较级 better。修饰比较级的程度副词还有:far, even, still, a little, a bit, a lot, a great deal, much 等。如: Tom is a head taller than Mary. 汤姆比玛丽高一头。 My mother is even better at English than me. 母亲甚至比我还擅长英语。 The price of our products is a little lower than the market price. 我们的产品价格略低于市场价格。

I'm very sorry but (this is an old ticket). 很抱歉,这张票已经过期。
·基本用法 but 用于表示歉意的话语后,引起一个分句,but 本身无意义。如: I'm sorry, but I think you are wrong when you say she did it willingly. 抱歉,你说她情愿做那件事,我觉得你搞错了。 ·知识拓展--but 的用法总结 1. 连词,可以连接两个并列成分或两个并列分句,意为“但是,然而”。 Mary likes classical music, but her husband likes rock music. 玛丽喜欢古典音乐,而她的丈夫却喜欢摇滚乐。 注意:but 不能与 though/although 连用。

--中国首家承诺学习效果的在线教育公司
2. 介词,常与 nothing, nobody, who, all 等连用,意为“除...之外”。 We had nothing to do but wait. 除了等待之外骂我们一筹莫展。 3. but for (后常接名词,代词)或 but that...意为“要不是....”,句子(主句)常用虚拟语气。 But for you, we wouldn't have carried out the plan. 要不是你,我们不可能完成那项计划。 John would have helped us but that he was short of money at that time. 要不是约翰当时缺钱,他一定会帮助我们的。 4. not that...but (that)... 不是...而是... Not that I don't want to go, but that I have no time. 不是我不想去,而是我没时间。 5. all but 除了...都,几乎,差不多 His letter is all but finished. 他的信快写完了。 6. anything but 绝不,远非 He is anything but an honest man. 他绝不是个诚实的人。

Travelling at a speed of over 400 kilometers per hour, the train can complete the 30-kilometer journey in eight minutes. 以每小时 400 多公里的速度行驶,“磁悬浮列车”8 分钟之内就可走完这段 30 公里的行程。
·基本用法 1. travelling at a speed...在句中作状语,其逻辑主语时主句的主语。现在分词作状语与句子的主语存在 逻辑上的主动关系;过去分词作状语与句子的主语存在逻辑上的被动关系。即现在分词表主动,过去分 词表被动。 Coming early, we can possible find seats. 早点来,我们才能找到座位。 Given more time, we will finish the task. 再给我们点儿时间,我们就会完成任务。 2. 30-kilometer 为复合形容词。复合形容词只能作定语,不能作表语,且不管数字是几,其中的名词都为 单数。如:

--中国首家承诺学习效果的在线教育公司
an eight-year-old child 一个八岁的孩子 a 50-meter-wide river 一条五十米宽的河 3. at a speed of... 以...的速度 The car runs at a speed of eighty miles an hour. 这辆车以每小时 80 英里的速度行驶。

The Transrapid Maglev is the world's first high-speed train using magnetic levitation technology. 超速磁悬浮列车是世界上第一列使用磁悬浮技术的高速列车。
·基本用法 using magnetic levitation technology 为现在分词短语,在句中充当定语,与其所修饰的名词 train 之间 为 主动关系,可改为定语从句“that uses magnetic levitation technology”;过去分词(短语)作定语则与其 所 修饰的名词之间为被动关系。如: Do you know the young man standing under the tree? 你认识站在树下的那位年轻人吗? Do you know the young man surrounded by the students? 你认识被学生围着的那位年轻人吗?

三、重点语法 动词过去分词作形容词的用法
·定义 动词过去分词(the past participle) 是动词的另一种非限定形式。从性质上讲,过去分词相当于形容词或 副词。因此它在句子中可以作表语、定用户、宾补和状语。过去分词一般表示完成或被动的意义。 ·用法 过去分词作表语 用来表明主语的状态。 当用作表语的分词表示人的某种感情或情绪时, 含有“感到...”的意思, 常用来指人。 I don't think I will be bored in his class. 我认为在他的课堂上我不会感到厌烦。 She was embarrassed because she didn't know the answer. 她感到尴尬,因为不知道如何回答。 过去分词作定语

--中国首家承诺学习效果的在线教育公司
1. 及物动词的过去分词单独作定语表示被动。如: abandoned farms/animals 被废弃的农场/被遗弃的动物 trained animals 受过训练的动物 2. 使用动词的过去分词作定语说明被修饰的人或物所处的状态,这些动词的过去分词常常没有了被动意 义, 而是一个形容词。如: a puzzled look 一个迷惑的表情 the disappointed children 失望的孩子们 3. 不及物动词的过去分词没有被动的意义,只表示动作的完成。如: the fallen leaves 落叶 the retired teacher 退休的老师 4. 过去分词可构成合成词作定语。如: a widely-used language 被广泛应用的语言 a school-run company 校办工厂 5. 一般来说,单个的过去分词作定语时放在被修饰词之前,分词短语则放在被修饰词之后。如: polluted air 被污染的空气 a letter written in pencil 用铅笔写的信 6. 过去分词或过去分词短语作定语时,意思上接近定语从句。如: Some of them , born and brought up in rural villages, had never seen a train. (born and brought up in rural villages=who was born and brought up ... ) 他们中有些生长在农村,从为见过火车。

一般过去时
1. 表示在确定的过去时间内发生的动作或状态。 常与表示过去的时间副词如: yesterday,last week, three hours ago 等连用。 Did you watch the football match broadcast on TV yesterday evening ? 你昨晚观看电视转播的足球赛了吗? 2.表示过去一段时间经常或反复发生的动作。这时可与频度副词如:often,usually, always 等连用。 I always got up too late,and never had enough time for breakfast. 我总是起床很晚,从来没有足够的时间吃早饭。 注意:这种情况也可用 used to 和 would 表示。

--中国首家承诺学习效果的在线教育公司
3.描述几个相继发生的过去动作。过去发生的一连串动作,若用 and,or,but 等并列连词连接,则一 律用 过去式。 The students got up early in the morning,did morning exercises and then read English aloud in the open air. 学生们起床很早,做早操,然后在室外朗读英语。 4.有时动词的一般过去时形式上为过去,而实际上却指现在,即“原来想的”与现在的实际情况不相符。 I thought you were out. 我原以为你出去了。 I didn't know you were here. 我不知道你在这里。 5.since 从句一般用过去时。 She has been living a hard life since her husband died. 自从丈夫死后,她一直过着艰苦的生活。 6. 在时间和条件状语从句中要用一般过去时代替过去将来时。 He said that he would come if you came. 他说如果你来,他就来。 7. 某些虚拟语气结构中用过去时。 It is high time that we had supper. 到了我们吃晚饭的时候了。 I would rather you lived close to us. 我宁愿你住得离我们近些。

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