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高考英语写作技巧


高考英语写作技巧——陈黎

增加语法结构
一、句子开头的技巧 改变句子的开头方式,不要一味地都是主语开头,可以把状语等置于句首。如以下各个原句显得平淡 乏味,而改动句子开头后的句子则生动有趣,充满活力,自然就能提高作文档次。 (1) 以作状语的介词短语开头。如: 「原」We met at the school gate and went there

together early in the morning. 「改」Early in the morning, we met at the school gate and went there together. (2) 以作状语的不定式短语开头。如: 「原」If you want to pass the exam, you should work very hard. 「改」In order to pass the exam, you should work very hard. (3) 以作状语的副词开头。如: 「原」Students often stray into the habit of cheating on tests. 「改」Too often,students stray into the habit of cheating on tests. (4) 以宾语开头。如: 「原」We are supposed to pay much attention to the importance of listening practice. 「改」The importance of listening practice are supposed to be paid much attention to. 二、巧用非谓语动词 (1) 使用现在分词。如: 「原」We had a short rest. Then we began to play happily. We sang and danced. Some told stories. Some played chess. 「改」After a short rest, we had great fun singing and dancing, telling jokes and playing chess. (2) 使用过去分词。如: 「原」He was satisfied with the result. He decided to go on with a new experiment 「改」 Satisfied with the result, he decided to go on with a new experiment. 三、灵活使用不同句式 灵活运用省略句、倒装句、强调句、感叹句、with 的复合结构等多种句式。 (1) 省略句。如: If so, victory will be ours. (2) 倒装句。如: 「原」He didn't finish his homework until the teacher came. 「改」Not until the teacher came did he finish his work. (3) 强调句。如: 「原」Ah Fu had saved my little sister bravely. 「改」It was brave Ah Fu who had saved my little sister. (4) 分词短语。如: 「原」Many teenagers sit at their computers all day long and watch their favorite TV shows. 「改」Many teenagers sit at their computers all day long, watching their favorite TV shows. (5) 由 with 或 without 引导的短语。如: He sat in a chair with a newspaper in the hand. (6) 对比。如: When I play, I feel excited, and after it I feel relaxed. (7) there be 结构。如: 「原」People throughout the country have greatly demanded all kinds of nutritious food. 「改」There is a great demand across the country for all kinds of nutritious food. 四、巧用各类从句

使用定语从句、状语从句、名词性从句等各类从句 (1)名词性从句。如: 「原」We had to stand there to catch the offender. 「改」What we had to do was (to) stand there, trying to catch the offender. (2)定语从句。如: 「原」My aunt bought me a book. The title of the book is All about The USA. 「改」My aunt bought me a book, whose title is All about The USA. 此外,还需要注意长短句交替使用,体现表达节奏美。

巧用连接成分
我们在写作中, 在把握文章的要点后, 就要理清表达各要点的句子之间的逻辑联系, 使用恰当的连接成分, 使不同的句子间建立有机的联系,使文章使全文结构紧凑,通顺自然。下面我们将常用的连接成分归纳为 16 类。 1. 表起始的连接成分有:first of all, to begin with, in my opinion, according to, so /as far as , as you know 等。例如: In my opinion, Jiangcheng should develop its economy scientifically. (江苏卷) As far as I know, everyone is happy about this new arrangement of thing. (全国卷) 2. 表递进的连接成分有:besides, what’s more, moreover, furthermore, what’s worse = to make things worse = worse still, in , addition, still, even,等。例如: A botanical garden will be built for us to visit and practice in. Besides, we are to build a small garden in which we can do some reading and take a rest. What s more, some statues of famous people will be set up ‘ to encourage us to work harder. (福建卷) 3. 表并列的连接成分有:also, as well (as) or, either?or, neither?nor, not only?but also, , and, and then, both?and 等。例如: This will do a lot of harm not only to their Chinese learning but also to their future English learning. (2004 湖北卷) 4. 表转折或对比的连接成分有: but, yet, however, while (而、 , otherwise, on the other hand, 却) on the contrary, in spite of, after all, in fact, as a mater of fact 等。例如: I covered my ears with hands, but it was no use. (广东卷) Bus No.11 can take you straight to the school. In fact, it‘s only one stop. (全国卷) Some of us taught some drivers and conductors English, while others cleaned buses. (北京卷) On the other hand, 40% think that fees should be charged because you need more money to pay gardeners and other workers. (全国卷) 5. 表因果的连接成分有:so, thus, therefore, for, since, now that, because (of) thanks , to, as a result (of) due to, owing to, so?that, such?that 等。例如: , Internet Bars are popular today, especially among young people, for the net opens large windows to the outside world. (上海) The noise was so loud that I couldn't go on studying. 6. 表条件的连接成分有:if, as/so long as, on condition that, provided that, suppose, unless, in case, in this case 等。 If you would like to try, you'll have to go to the TV station to sign up before the end of June. (全国卷) 7. 表强调的连接成分有:above all, indeed, surely, certainly, of course, at least, obviously 等。 Above all, I can learn more about nature.(湖南卷) 8. 表解释的连接成分有:that is to say, in other words, believe it or not, to tell you the truth 等。

9. 表比较的连接成分有:just as, just like, in the same way, more or less, similarly, instead 等。 10. 表空间的连接成分有: the left/right, to the left/right of, on one side of?on the other side of?, on at the foot/top/end of, in the middle / centre of 等。例如: On one side of the road there is a new classroom building. On the other side, where the playground used to be now stands another new building—our library. (全国卷) 11. 表时间的连接成分有:at first, in the beginning, next, then, later, now, then, about two months later, after a while, soon, afterwards, since then, meanwhile, in the end, at last, finally, for the first time, as soon as, after that, the next moment, up to now, before long, as, no sooner? than, hardly?when, when, from then on, sooner or later 等。例如: After that I went to No.6 Middle School of Dalian and graduated this summer. (全国卷) Soon two policemen came in a police car and arrested him. (辽宁卷) 12. 表列举的连接成分有:for one thing?and for another (thing) first(ly) second(ly) third , , , (ly) finally , 13. 表举例的连接成分有:for example/instance, take?for example, such as, that is, as follows, and so on 等。例如: However, there are still some problems, such as water and air pollution and heavy traffic in rush hours. (江苏卷) 14. 表让步的连接成分有: as, even if / even though, although, though, while (虽然) no matter, , whether?or?等。 Although the city is modern and convenient, there are still some problems, such as air pollution, crowdedness and noise.(湖南卷) 15. 表总结的连接成分有:in short, in a word, in conclusion, in general, in brief, generally speaking, on the whole, to sum up, in all 等。例如: In short, the students have not arrived at any agreement yet. (湖北卷) 16. 其 它 起 联 接 作 用 的 副 词 : hopefully, naturally , strangely, specifically , basically, apparently, in this way 等等。

使用高级词汇
运用词汇的数量和运用较高级词汇是高考书面表达评分的一条重要依据。要做好这一点,我们可以从以下 3 点入手: 1. 尽量使用词组、习语来代替一些单词以增加文采。如:用 make use of 替代 use,用 catch sight of 替 代 see, pay a visit to 替代 visit, go on 替代 happen, of importance 替代 important, be supposed 用 用 用 用 to 替代 should,用 I come up with a good idea 替代 I have a good idea 等。 2. 使用一些很有“洋味”的单词。如: Thank you for sharing the time with us. (用 share 而不用 spend) The way he views the world is very practical. (用 view 而不用 look at)? The noise nearly drove me mad. (用 drive 而不用 make) Tom had his leg broken last week. (用 have?done 而不用 broke his leg) Our school is located in the suburb of the city. (用 is located 而不用 lies) 3. 避免重复使用同一单词或短语。 如果前文用了 interesting, 后文就可用 a lot of fun; 若前文用了 clever, 后文就可用 smart;若前文说了 a good idea 后文就可说 a lovely idea,等等。再如:用 I like reading while my brother enjoys watching TV 就比用 I like reading while my brother likes watching TV 好。这样就可以 做到“别开生面” ,给评判者以清新感,以避免文章陷入“千人一面”的窘境。


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