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2012届高三英语一轮复习语法精讲:专题12 主谓一致(北师大版)


专题十二

主 谓 一 致

谓语受主语支配,须和主语在人称和数上保持一致,这被称为主谓一致。但是如果主语不是 单一的,或主语名词的数比较特殊时,其主谓一致一般要根据语法一致遵循三条原则:语法 一致原则,意义一致原则和邻近一致原则。 一、语法一致原则 一般来说,语法形式是单数的主语,谓语动词用单数形式;语法形式是复数的主语,谓语动 词用复数形式。 The number of errors was surprising. 错误之多是惊人的。 They often play football on the playground. 二、意义一致原则 主、谓语的一致不是根据其外部语法形态来决定,而是 取决于主语所表达的内在含义。主语形式虽为单数,但在意义上却为复数,谓语动词应采用 复数形式;主语形式虽为复数,但在意义上视为单数,谓语动词应采用单数形式。 The crowd were fighting for their lives. 这些人正为生存而战斗。 Three years in a strange land seems like a long time. 在异乡生活的三年,仿佛是很长的时间。 (一)谓语动词为单数的情况 1.由 and 连接的并列成分指的是同一概念,兼具身份或匹配出现。 The worker and writer is from Wuhan. 那个工人兼作家来自武汉。 比较:The worker and the writer are from Beijing. 那位工人和那位作家来自北京。 Bread and butter is a daily food in the West. 黄油面包是西方的日常饮食。 2.every...and (every)...,each...and (each)..., no...and (no)..., many a...and (many a)...连接 两个单数名词作主语。 Every desk and every chair is made of wood. 桌子和椅子都是木头做的。 Many a student has been to Shanghai. 许多学生到过上海。 他们经常在操场上踢足球。

3.one / every one / each / either / the number+of +复数名词作主语。 Each boy and each girl has got a seat. 每个男孩和女孩都有一个座位。 Every man and every woman is at work. 每个男人和女人都在工作。

4.clothing, furniture, traffic, jewellery, baggage, equipment, luggage 等无生命的集合名词作主 语。

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Clothing is badly needed in this flooded area. 洪水灾区急需衣物。 5.以“s”结尾的词,但表示学科、国家、机构、书籍、报刊等名称作主语。 6.表示时间、距离、金钱、等复数名词作主语,表达一个整体概念时。 Twenty years has passed since he left his hometown. 他离开家乡已经二十年了。 7.由 any-, some-, no-和-one, -thing, -body 等所构成的不定代词作主语。 8.非谓语动词、名词性从句作主语。 Collecting stamps is what he likes. 他很喜欢集邮。 9.单数名词、抽象名词、物质名词作主语。 (二)谓语动词为复数的情况 1.由 and 连接的两个并列成分表示两个不同的概念。 Both bread and butter are sold out. 面包和黄油都已卖完了。 2.people, police, cattle 等有生命的集体名词作主语。 The police are looking for the missing child. 警察正在寻找失踪的孩子。 3.goods, stairs, arms 等名词作主语。 4.由山脉、群岛、瀑布、运动会等“s”结尾的专有名词作主语。 The Olympic Games are held once every four years. 奥运会每四年举办一次。 5.a number of / quantities of / a group of +名词作主语。 (三)谓语动词单、复数视情况而定 1.class, family, army, team, club, population, enemy, party, crowd, crew, audience, public, government 等集体名词作主语。强调整体用单数,指各个成员用复数。 His family is a great one. / His family are music lovers. 他有个大家庭。/ 他的家人都喜欢音乐。 2.means (方法), works (工厂), pains (辛苦), series (系列), species (物种)等词,根据主语表达的 概念而定。 Not every means is useful. / Not all means are useful. 并非每种方法都有效。/并非所有的方法都 有效。 3.all, none, some, any 等不定代词作主语,根据其指代的内容而定。 All are present. / All the food tastes good. 所有人都在场。/这些东西尝起来都很好。 4.“half / most / enough / part / the rest / the last / lots / plenty /分数/ 百分数 + of + 名词”作主 语, 谓语动词要和 of 之后的名词的单复数保持一致。 Half of the students have finished their composition. / Half of the apple is bad. 一半学生完成了作
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文。/这苹果一半都坏了。 三、就近原则 谓语动词根据和它最邻近的名词或代词或其他词的数的形式来决定其自身的数的形式。 1.由 or, either...or, neither...nor, not only...but also 等连接的并列主语,谓语动词常和靠近的作 主语的名词单复数上保持一致。 Not only he but also I am invited. 我和他都受邀请了。 Neither the children nor the teacher knows anything about it. 学生和老师都对此一无所知。 但注意“with / along with / together with / including / but / except / like / among / as well as / no more than / besides / rather than +名词”置于主语后,谓语和前面的名词在单复数上保持一致。 The teacher with a number of students is in the classroom. 学生们和一位老师在教室呢。 2.在由 there 或 here 引起的句子及倒装句中。 There is a pen and two books on the desk. 桌子上有一支笔和两本书。 There are two books, some paper and a pen on the desk. 桌子上有两本书,一些纸和一支钢笔。 四、其他注意事项 肯定与否定一致:下列形容词、副词、代词从肯定句变成否定句时须作相应的变化。 We've had some (money). → We haven't had any (money). I was talking to someone. → I wasn't talking to anyone. They sometimes visit us. → They rarely (never, seldom) visit us. He has arrived already. → He hasn't arrived yet. Li is coming too.→ Li isn't coming either. Both of us are going. → Neither of us are going. He likes both of them. → He doesn't like either of them. so / neither+助动词+名词/代词结构中须用倒装语序。 My wife likes classical music very much and so do I. She doesn't like jazz and neither do I. 分析近五年来的高考题可以发现,高考对主谓一致的考查几乎每年都有所涉及,但题量不大, 其因为是这项语法用法比较固定、单纯,要理清主谓一致的“三大原则”,记住这些用法就能很 好地把这项语法学会;当然高考命题多以特殊点为切入点,要注意三大原则里边的一些变化。 尤其注意:主语从句作主语时谓语的确定;主语+as well as, with, together with, along with, rather than, but, except, besides 等词时的主谓一致; 定语从句中谓语动词的数与定语从句所修饰
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的名词或代词的数保持一致。

高考真题探究(2006—2011 年)
【2011 安徽卷) The factory used 65 percent of the raw materials, the rest of which _____ saved 27】 for other purposes. A. is 【答案】D 【考点】考查主谓一致和时态。 【解析】定语从句中先行词是 the raw materials,故定语从句应与先行词数的一致,用复数, 上文时态为过去式,故选 D。句意为:工厂用了这种原材料的 65%,剩余部分节省出来作他 用。 【2011 湖南卷)26】One third of the country ______covered with trees and the majority of the citizens_______black people. A. is; are 【答案】A 【考点】考查主谓一致。 【解析】整个国家为整体,三分之一的部分当然也应用单数;而 the majority of citizens 主要指 人,是可数名词,此时的谓语动词用复数,表示“大多数,大部分”。 〖10 全国Ⅱ〗 Barbara is easy to recognize as she’s the only one of the women who _______ evening dress. A.wear 〖答案〗B 〖考点〗考查主谓一致和时态。 〖解析〗首先 the only one of ….为先行词时, 定语从句修饰的是 one, 即 one 是主语, 而非后面 的复数 women, 根据主谓一致的原则, 谓语动词应该用复数, 排除 A, D。另外, 从 “is”可以看 出句子是要表示一种习惯, 因此要用一般现在时, 排除 C, 故选 A 〖10 湖南〗Listening to loud music at rock concerts A. is 〖答案〗C 〖考点〗主谓一致 B. are C. has caused hearing loss in some teenagers. D. have B.wears C.has worn D.have worn B. is; is C. are; are D. are; is B. are C. was D. were

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〖解析〗根据动名词短语作主语, 句子的谓语动词用单数形式, 由此排除 B、D 两项, 根据主 语与 caused 的主动关系, 排除 A 项 〖10 四川〗 Such poets as Shakespeare some A. are;are 〖答案〗A 〖考点〗考查主谓一致。 〖解析〗 主句中的主语应为 poets, 谓语动词用复数, 其后的非限制性定语从句的主语应为 some of whose works, 谓语动词也应是复数。故选 A。 〖09 山东〗The number of foreign students attending Chinese universities _______ rising steadily since1990. A. is 〖答案〗C 〖考点〗本题考查主谓一致和时态。 〖解析〗主语是 the number 故谓语动词用单数, 又因时间状语是 since 1997 所以用完成时态。 〖09 四川〗The teacher together with the students _______ discussing Reading Skills that ______ newly published in America. A. are; were 〖答案〗B 〖考点〗考查主谓一致。 〖解析〗A together with B 作主语时谓语动词与 A 的单复数保持一致;第二空为定语从句 that 指代 Reading Skills, 由于 Reading Skills 是书名所以谓语动词用单数。 〖09 湖南〗Either you or one of your students ______ to attend the meeting that is due tomorrow. A. are B. is C. have D. be B. is; were C. are; was D. is; was B. are C. has been D. have been difficult to understand. B. is;is C. are;is D. is:are widely read, of whose works, however,

〖答案〗B 〖考点〗主谓一致的用法。 〖解析〗Either …or…. 连接两个主语, 按就近原则来确定谓语的单复数。One of your students 谓语应用单数形式。 〖09 陕西〗Dr. Smith, together with his wife and daughters, A. is going to B. are going to C. was going to
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visit Beijing this summer. D. were going to

〖答案〗A 〖考点〗考查动词时态和主谓一致。 〖解析〗主语中心词是 Dr. Smith, 表单数, 谓语动词用单数形式;时间状语是 this summer, 表 计划性的将来, 故时态用一般将来时, 选 A。 〖09 江西〗According to statistics, a man is more than twice as likely to die of skin cancer ______ a woman. A. than 〖答案〗D 〖考点〗本题考查比较级的结构。 〖解析〗as ….. as , 注意句中的 more than 只是修饰 twice。 〖09 辽宁〗Peter’s jacket looked just the same as Jack’s, but it cost A. as much twice as C. much as twice as 〖答案〗B 〖考点〗考查 as----as 同级比较前的修饰语位置。 〖解析〗twice 应该放在第一个 as 之前, 选 B 符合。 〖08 陕西〗—Did you go to the show last night? —Yeah.Every boy and girl in the area A.were 〖答案〗D 〖考点〗本题考查主谓一致。 〖解析〗主语是 every boy and girl, 表示单数概念, 故谓语动词用单数, 且询问昨晚的情况, 有 明确的过去时间, 所以应选择 was。 〖07 江西〗A survey of the opinions of experts good for one’s health.? A.show; are 〖答案〗B 〖考点〗本题考查主谓一致。 〖解析〗 a survey 可知第一个空用 shows, 首先排除 A、 两项; 由 C 第二个空前的时间 three hours of outdoor exercise a week 表示抽象概念, 看作单数, 故其谓语动词用单数形式。
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B. such

C. so

D. as

his.

B. twice as much as D. as twice much as

invited. C.has been D.was

B.have been?

that three hours of outdoor exercise a week

B.shows; is?

C.show; is

D.shows; are

〖07 湖南〗We live day by day, but in the great things, the time of days and weeks small that a day is unimportant.? A.is 〖答案〗A 〖考点〗本题考查主谓一致。 B.are C.has been D.have been

so

〖解析〗句意为:……几天和几周的时间是如此的渺小, 以致于一天根本微不足道。本句用来 陈述事实, 用一般现在时态;空白处所在句子的主语是 the time, 谓语动词应用单数形式。 〖07 陕西〗As a result of the serious flood, two-thirds of the buildings in the area A.need repairing 〖答案〗A 〖考点〗本题考查主谓一致和非谓语动词。 〖解析〗 分数、 百分数修饰名词, 谓语动词的单复数取决于名词, 此处 two-thirds 修饰 buildings, 故谓语动词取决于名词复数 buildings , 排除 B、 两项, need doing=need to be done 意为 “需要 C 被做”。 〖07 上海〗A survey of the opinions of experts good for one’s health. A. show; are 〖答案〗B 〖考点〗本题考查主谓一致。 〖解析〗 a survey 可知第一个空用 shows, 首先排除 A、 两项; 由 C 第二个空前的时间 three hours of outdoor exercise a week 表示抽象概念, 看作单数, 故其谓语动词用单数形式。 〖07 浙江〗Professor James will give us a lecture on the Western culture, but when and where ____ yet. A. hasn’t been decided 〖答案〗A 〖考点〗本题考查主谓一致及动词的时态。 〖解析〗根据句意, 此处应用被动语态, 不用主动语态, 故排除 B;又因为 when and where 表 示单数意义, 故排除 D;再根据句末的 yet 可知, 最好用现在完成时, 故选 A 最佳。 〖07 浙江〗It is reported that the floods have left about A.two thousand B.two-thousands? C.two thousands
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.?

B.needs to repair? C.needs repairing

D.need to repair

that three hours of outdoor exercise a week

B. shows; is

C. show; is

D. shows; are

B. haven’t decided

C. isn’t being decided

D. aren’t decided

people homeless.? D.two thousands of

〖答案〗A 〖考点〗本题考查数词的用法。 〖解析〗hundred, thousand, million, billion, dozen, score 等指具体数字时, 不用复数形式;指大 约 数 字 时 , 常 用 复 数 形 式 。 如 : one hundred, two thousand, three million, hundreds/thousands/millions/billions/dozens/scores of。 〖06 北京〗She went to the bookstore and bought A.dozen books? B.dozens books? 〖答案〗D 〖考点〗本题考查 dozen 的用法。 〖解析〗 dozen 意为 “一打, 十二个”, 与数词连用时要用单数形式。 of 连用时要用复数形式。 与 dozens of 意为 “若干, 许许多多”。dozen 与数词或 many, several 连用时其后不加 s;dozen 前 有基数词表示确切数字时, 其后一般不与 of 连用。 〖06 浙江〗The company had about 20 notebook computers but only one-third regularly.Now we have 60 working all day long.? A.is 〖答案〗D 〖考点〗本题考查主谓一致及动词的时态。 〖解析〗当分数、百分数作主语时, 要根据其后面的名词来决定其谓语动词的单复数。此处 one-third 应是 one-third of the notebook computers 的省略形式, 因此谓语动词用复数, 且句子的 时态用了过去时, 所以 D 项正确。 〖06 安徽〗Most of what has been said about the Smiths A.are 〖答案〗B 〖考点〗此题考查主谓一致的用法。 〖解析〗 名词性从句作主语时谓语动词用单数形式。 另外句中 be true of 意为 “对……也适应”。 〖06 江苏〗A poet and artist tomorrow afternoon.? A.is 〖答案〗A 〖考点〗此题考查主谓一致的用法。
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.? D.dozens of books

C.dozen of books?

used

B.are

C.was

D.were

also true of the Johnsons.? D.to be

B.is?

C.being

coming to speak to us about Chinese literature and painting

B.are

C.was

D.were

〖解析〗由时间状语 “tomorrow afternoon”判断, 此处应用现在进行时表将来, 故排除 C、D 两 项。 “a poet and artist”指一位诗人兼画家, 谓语动词用单数, 故选 A 项。 〖06 辽宁〗The father as well as his three children ____ skating on the frozen river every Sunday afternoon in winter. A. is going are going 〖答案〗C 〖考点〗此题考查主谓一致的用法。 〖解析〗 从语法讲解的角度来看, 主语 The father 是单数概念, 尽管后面跟有 as well as his three children,谓语动词仍要用单数形式。every Sunday afternoon in winter 暗示该空表示经常性、习 惯性动作, 因此应用一般现在时。从命题方式的角度看, 此题学生易弄混淆主语为 his three children 而出错, 在主语后添加 his three children 容易误导学生对主语的判断。 B. go C. goes D.

模拟试题探究
1.(2010 浙江慈溪中学月考)The atmosphere is as much a part of the earth as ________ its soil and water of its lakes, rivers and oceans. A.has B.do C.is D.are

【答案与解析】 D as 后引导的句子主语为“its soil and water of its lakes, rivers and oceans”故 须用复数,又因 as 前的句子用的是动词 is,可以推出应用一般现在时。 2.(2010 河南驻马店高中摸底考试)Either you or one of your students ________ to attend the meeting that is due tomorrow. A.are B.is C.have D.be

【答案与解析】 B

either...or...句型中动词单复数形式采取就近原则。

3.(2010 湖南浏阳一中月考)—Several department stores, including the one we usually go to, ________ sidewalk sales this week. —Let's go and have a look. A.is having C.has 【答案与解析】 B B.are having D.have had including the one we usually go to 是插入语,句子真正的主语为 several

department stores, 故动词应用复数形式,且对话时态为一般现在时。

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4.(2010 江西九江一中月考)Butter and bread ________ their daily food, but the bread and the butter ________ up now. A.is; is eaten B.are; have been eaten C.are; are eaten D.is; have been eaten 【答案与解析】 D 句子前半句将 butter and bread 看做一个整体,意为“黄油面包”,故第 1 空用 is; 后半句由于 bread 与 butter 前均加了定冠词 the, 故应看做两个个体, 且由后文 up now 的提示,应用一般完成时。 5.(2010 辽宁抚顺一中月考)An average of 200 letters a week ________ received by the newspaper's offer. Such ________ the case with us at present. A.are; is C.have been; is B.has been; has been D.is; ar

【答案与解析】 A 第 1 句的主语为 an average of 200 letters,故谓语动词用复数形式;第 2 句中 such 指代的是每周平均收到 200 封信这个事实,故谓语动词应用单数形式。且文中时态 并没有过去时作为参照,故应用一般现在时。 6. (2010 江苏扬州中学月考)Britain ________ many other industrialized countries, ________ major changes over the last 100 years. A.together with; have experienced B.as well as; have experienced C.in common with; has experienced D.instead of; has experienced 【答案与解析】 C in common with“和……一样”,与其后的名词是插入语,真正的主语为

Britain, 故其后的谓语动词应用单数形式。together with 与 as well as 虽意义也符合,但和 in common with 一样,也只能作插入语,所以其后的谓语动词也应用单数形式,故排除 A、B 两 项,D 项 instead of 与题意不符。 7.(2010 吉林实验中学一模)We all feel it is Jack as well as his wife that ________ for their son's bad behaviour at school. A.are to blame C.are to be blamed B.is to be blamed D.is to blame
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【答案与解析】 D that 引导主语从句,指代上文中的主语,而前半句的实际为 Jack as well as his wife 为插入语,故谓语动词用单数形式,而 blame 用法为主动形式表被动含义。 8.(2010 吉林东北师大附中摸底)—We'd like a double room, please. —I'm sorry, but all but two single rooms with sea view ________. A.have been reserved B.has been reserved C.were reserved 【答案与解析】 A D.has reserved 答句的主语为 all 指代 rooms,故谓语动词应用复数形式, all 与 reserve , 且

之间为动宾关系,应用被动语态。 9.(2010 江西师大附中月考)So far a series of problems ________ brought about by this decision. A.have C.have been B.has D.has been

【答案与解析】 D 由于 problems 前加了 a series of,故主语为单数,谓语动词应用单数形 式,由于 bring 与 the decision 之间为动宾关系。 10. (2010 山西太原五中月考)The sheep farmer used their dog to ________ the cattle that ________ eating the grass here and there. A.drive up; was C.round up; was B.pick up; were D.round up; were

【答案与解析】 D drive up “使……上升”; pick up “拿起;取”; round up “把……聚拢起 来”;根据题意可以排除 A、B 两项。由于 the cattle 为集体名词,故第 2 空谓语动词应用复数 形式。 11.(2010 江西九江六校一联)WHO, together with the medical workers in the different parts of the world, ________ trying to find a way to prevent the disease H1N1 from ________. A.is; spreading C.are; spread B.are; spreading D.is; spread

【答案与解析】 A together with 与其后的名词作为插入语,故真正的主语为 WHO, 故谓语 动词应用单数形式,prevent sb from doing sth 为固定搭配。 12. (2010 湖南长郡中学月考)The number of children who have lost both parents to Aids ________ to rise, reaching more than 26 million in 2010. A.are expected B.expect
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C.is expected 【答案与解析】 C

D.expects 句子的主语为 the number of children,故谓语动词应用单数形式。the

number of children 与 expect 为动宾关系,故选 C 项。 13.(2010 天津耀华中学月考)All possible means ________, but we can't persuade him to change his mind. A.has tried C.have tried B.has been tried D.have been tried

【答案与解析】 D 句子的主语为 all possible means,故谓语动词用复数形式,且 means 与 try 之间为动宾关系,故选 D 项。 14.(2010 山东实验中学诊断性测试)A certain number of tourists ________ complaining about the high accommodation price during the last month. A.is B.Are C.has been D.have been

【答案与解析】 D 句子的主语是 tourists, a certain number of 只是一个定语,故谓语动词用 复数形式,由下半句 during last month 的提示,应用现在完成时。 15.(2010 浙江杭州学军中学期中考试)If you think there ________ huge quantities of oil for the use of drivers, you are wrong. A.is B.are C.has D.have

【答案与解析】 B there be 句型中,be 动词是单数还是复数取决于其后所跟名词时单数还 是复数,本题中划线后所跟名词为 huge quantities of oil,为复数,故选 B 项。

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