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观庙高中英语语法学案五 动词的时态和语态


Pain past is pleasure .(过去的痛苦就是快乐。)
观庙高中英语语法学案五 【考点透视】 动词的时态和语态是历年高考的重点, 而且测试的难度也在逐年加大。 在单项填空题中, 每年考查动词时态的题不少于两道, 动词的语态常和时态放在一起考查。 高考命题者常从三 个角度进行命题:一是直接给定时间状语。考生能直接根据所给时间状语作出选择;二是给 定时间状语

, 但所给时间状语有着较强的干扰性和迷惑性, 考生不能直接根据时间状语作出 选择; 三是题干中不提供任何时间状语, 而给出一个上下文情景或一个结构较为复杂的句子, 考生必须仔细分析语境,才能作出正确判断。 教学目标: 了解几种常考时态的基本用法,并能够在真实的情景中灵活使用各种时态进行日常交际。 教学重点: 一般过去时、现在完成时、现在完成进行时、过去完成时、一般将来时、将来完成时的基 本用法。 教学难点: 1. 搞清楚几组动词时态的区别:过去进行时和一般过去时时,一般过去时和过去完成时, 现在完成时的区别。 2. 各种时态以及含情态动词的被动形式和应用。 动词的时态和语态 Guolei 2013-9-11

动词的时态和语态
动词的时态
在主动语态中,高中英语中常见的有 12 种时态。各种时态的谓语动词的一般形式见下表: 一般 现在 过去 将来 一. 一般现在时: 1. 表示现在的习惯,经常发生的动作或存在的状态: Every evening, after supper, he sits down with a cup of coffee before the television. Each person needs water and a diet of healthy food. 2. 表示真理,事实或自然规律: The earth moves round the sun in 365 days. The moon travels round the earth once every month. 3.表示知觉、态度、感情、某种抽象的关系或概念的词常用一般现在时:see、hear、smell、 taste、feel、notice、agree、believe、like、hate、want、think、belong seem 等。如: I know what you mean. Smith owns a car and a house. 4.表示按规定、计划、安排或时间表将要发生的情况: come、go、leave、arrive、fly、return、 start、begin、pen、close、end、stop 等 When does the train leave? The time form Liverpool arrives at 11: 15. 在时间状语从句和条件状语从句中,用一般现在时表示将来的概念。引起时间状语从句的
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连词有:when, after, before, until, as soon as;引起条件状语从句的连词有:if, unless; so (as) long as。 I will not stop my fight against slavery until all slaves are free. 但要注意由 if 引导的条件状语从句中可以用 shall 或 will 表“意愿”,但不表示时态。 If you will accept my invitation and come to our party, my family will be pleased. 如果你愿意接受并参加我们的舞会,我的家人会非常高兴。 二. 现在进行时: 1. 表示说话时正在进行的动作: Tom, I’m speaking to you. Are you listening? 2. 表示目前这个阶段正在进行着的动作: The population of the world is increasing rapidly. 3. 表示说话人厌恶、批评,不喜欢等感情色彩,常与 always,constantly, forever 等连用: She is always leaving things about. They also have bad teeth, because of the sugar which they are always eating. 4. 表示近期即将发生的动作: They are leaving for Tibet next Monday. 注:状态性动词不用进行时态 (1) be 和 have 或者含有 be 和 have 意义的动词。 (2) feel, sound, smell, taste 等连系动词。 (3) hear, see, find 等表示结果的动词。 (4) like, love, hate, care, remember, believe, want, mind, wish, agree, mean, need 等表示心理或 情感状态的动词。 注:进行时态的两种概念

现在进行时和过去进行时都具有两种不同的时间概念:瞬间概念和阶段概念。
① 现在进行时的瞬间概念就是“说话的时候”。表示瞬间概念时,现在进行时的时态特点是, 动作已经开始,正在过程中,但尚未结束。 Our country is getting stronger and stronger. I’m getting on well with my English. 过去进行时的瞬间概念通常用表示“点时间”的时间状语表达出来。 I was doing my homework this time yesterday. Mother was cooking when I came home. ② 阶段概念的时间状语是“段时间”,表示在一段时间内一直在做的动作,至于动作是否结束 则不是说话者所关心的。 He is writing a new novel these days.(没有干其他的事情) The workers were building a bridge last year. 三. 现在完成时: 1. 表示过去开始持续到现在的状况或完成的动作,通常与 yet, already, by this time, just, ever, never, now, before, several times, since, up to now, so far, recently, lately, for a long time, in the last / past few years 等连用: It has rained every day so far this month. Mr. Ball has just called on Mrs. Zhu to give her a message. 2. 表示已有的经历,往往强调过去的动作对现在造成的影响或结果: Who has taken my camera? I put it here a moment ago. 3. 在时间、条件状语从句中代替将来完成时:
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Don’t go out until you have washed your clothes. Please give the book to Lily if you have finished reading it. 4.下列句型中常用现在完成时 It is (has been) + 一段时间 + since 从句 This(That / It)is the first(second…)time that + 完成时 This(That / It)is the only … + that + 完成时 This(that / It)is the best / finest / most interesting … + that 从句 + 完成时 四. 现在完成进行时: 表示由过去开始,延续到现在并且可能还会继续进行的动作。一般可以翻译成“一直。 。 。”, 常与 the whole day, all morning 或 for 和 since 连用: People have been talking of it a lot recently. Pippa’s parents have been waiting for them. The soldiers have been struggling against the flood day and night for a week. 五. 一般过去时: 1. 表示在过去某一时间内发生的动作或存在的状态, 常与 yesterday, last year, last night, the other day, just now, then, ago, in 1989, at that time 等连用: When and where did you shoot that bear? The interview went well and I told the company about my experiences and answered their questions as honestly as I could. 2. 表示过去的习惯性动作、过去反复发生的事: In those days he took his wife and children to the cinema at least once a week. 3. 句中没有时间状语时,可依据上下文进行推测: —Haven’t you graduated from college? —Yes, I studied French for two years. 4.表示两个紧接着发生的动作, 常由以下词语连接, 用一般过去时。 如: but, and, when, as soon as, immediately, the moment, the minute。 The moment she came in, she told me what had happened to her. He bought a watch but lost it. ▲常用一般过去时的句型: Why didn’t you / I think of that? I didn’t notice it. I forgot to tell you I had been there with my brother before. I didn’t recognize him. 六.过去进行时: 1. 表示过去某一时刻正在进行的动作或某一阶段内发生或频繁发生: She was flying to Paris this time last Monday. 2. 表示过去某个动作正在进行时,另一个动作(突然)发生,其中一个在由 when 或 while 引导的时间状语从句中: We were playing football when it began to rain.当我们正在踢球的时候,突然下起了雨。 七. 过去完成时: 1. 表示在过去某一活动以前已经完成了的动作。简单地说,过去完成时所表示的时间就是 “过去的过去”,常与 for, since, already, after, never, before, by the time 等连用: The performance had started before we found our seats. She had typed all the letters by the time her boss arrived at the office. 2.表示动作或某事继续到过去某时已有一段时间: He had been ill for a week when he was sent to the hospital. By the end of last year, she had taught in this school for 30 years.
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3. 表示过去未实现的希望或计划,常与 hope, expect, suppose, mean, think, want 等连用: She had thought of paying us a visit, but the bad weather made her change her plans. ▲“时间名词 + before”在句子中作状语,谓语动词用过去完成时;“时间名词 + ago” 在句中作状语,谓语动词用一般过去式。如:He said his first teacher had died at least 10 years before. Xiao Hua left school 3 years ago. ▲表示“一……就”的几个句型:Hardly / No sooner / Scarcely had + 主语 + 过去分词 + when / than / before + 一般过去时。 如: We had no sooner been seated than the bus started. = No sooner had we been seated than the bus started. 八.过去完成进行时: 表示从过去某时起持续到过去另一时间的动作,可能刚刚终止,也可能继续下去。与现在 完成进行时用法相似,只是以过去时间为着眼点。 He had been working there for three years before he moved to London. 九.过去将来时: 表示过去某个时候将要发生的事或计划、打算要做的事。 He told me that his father was in hospital and that he would go to see him after work. They explained that they would build a dam to control flood. 十.一般将来时: 1.表示预见或说话人说话的时刻才考虑到的,还可以表示客观规律必然发生的事情: There will be a new movie shown at the Globe Cinema tonight. Go through the gate and you will find the entrance to Bear Country on the other side. Let’s go together then. I will meet you at the theatre at six-thirty. 注:如果不是表示将来的时间,而是表示“意愿、坚持、推论”等,will 也可用于条件句。 If you will learn English , I’ll help you .你若愿意学习英语,我将帮助你。 If you will kindly wait a moment , I’ll ask him to go there with you .你若耐心等一会的话,我将 叫他和你一起去那儿。 如果条件从句表示将来发生的动作或状态,主句中常用 will,从句用一般现在时表示。 If you go to England, you will like the food there . 2.be going to do 表示按照计划,打算或安排要做的事,主语是人;表示已经有迹象将要发 生的事,主语是物: I’m going to stay here until tomorrow night. Look at these black clouds . —It’s going to rain . I’m afraid I’m going to have a bad cold. 注:一般来说,“意图”是事先经过考虑的,用 be going to 表示;反之则用 will。will 还多用 于对话中,即一方听了对方的话后所作出的反应。 A. They’re going to meet at the school gate . B. ——Please bring me a cup of tea . ——I’ll do it in a minute . 3. be 动词和 come, leave, reach, return, go, start out, meet, open, die, arrive 等瞬间动作表示 “来去”“出发”“到达”等的词语和表示未来的时间副词连用,表示近期将发生的动作: —When will they leave? —They are leaving very soon. Aunt Lucy is returning home from New Zealand next week. Is anybody seeing you off? 4. be about to 表示马上发生,“就要”,“即将”,不能和 at once, immediately 和具体时间的 词语连用,常用于 be about to do …, when…:
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The plane is about to take off when the police received a phone call, saying that a bomb might have been planted on it. 5. be to do 表示按照计划或安排将要发生的动作,或表示职责、意图、约定、可能性等,还 可以表示转述第三者的话,与第二人称连用: You are to be back by 11 o’clock . We are to meet at the zoo. —Is he studying for an examination? —Yes, he’s to take it next week. 十一.将来进行时: 1. 表示将来某一时刻进行的动作或某一时段内持续的动作: Daniel’s family will be enjoying their holiday in Huangshan this time next week. 2. 表示现在进行的动作,但这个动作会持续到将来: Paul is still in the lab. I think that he will be doing the experiment until tomorrow morning. 3. 表示将来自然而然会发生的事,而非安排: The weather report says that it will be snowing when we arrive in Wuxi City tomorrow afternoon. 4. 表示委婉地或有礼貌地询问,请求对方或别人计划要做的事: Will you be playing basketball this weekend? If you will, could I join you? 十二.将来完成时: 1. 表示在将来某一时间以前已经完成或一直持续的动作,往往对将来某一时间产生影响, 经常与 before+将来时间或 by+将来时间连用, 也可与 before 或 by the time 引导的现在时的 从句连用: By the time you get home I will have cleaned the house from top to bottom. We shall have learned 12 units by the end of this term. By the time he graduates from the college, he will have learned three foreign languages. 2. 表示推测,相当于 must have done: You will have heard of this, I guess. I am sure he will have got the information. 【相关知识及运用】 1. 一般过去时、现在完成时、过去完成时的区别: 上述三个时态在使用中容易混淆是因为他们有相近的地方,这个相近之处就是“过去”。现在 完成时和过去完成时的概念都同“过去”有关,彼此之间的混淆便由此产生。只有抓住他们的 不同,才能熟练地将这三种时态区别开。 ① 一般过去时只用以陈述过去发生过的事情。 In a poor district in Paris, in the year 1775, there was a wine shop, the owner of which was Monsieur Defarge. 向读者陈述 1775 年所发生的故事的地点、人物等有关信息。 ② 现在完成时表达的动作虽然发生在过去, 但说话时要强调的是这个过去的动作与现在有关 系,语意的重心着眼于现在。这种过去的动作同现在的联系有两种情况: a)过去的动作对现在仍具有影响。 ----Would you go to see the film with me this evening? ----Sorry, I have seen it before. have seen the film 的动作肯定发生在过去,对现在的影响是“我不想和你去看了”。 b)过去的动作延续到现在。表示这种延续时经常会用到 for、since 一类时间状语。 I have worked in Beijing since I graduated from the university. (从毕业一直延续到现在)
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We have lived in Beijing for about 20 years. (20 年前发生的 “live”,一直延续到现在) ③ 过去完成时必须有一个过去的动作作为参照点,由此发生了同一般过去时混淆的问题。过 去完成时是一种相对的时态, 它必须有一个过去的动作为参照, 比这个过去的参照动作更早 的动作才能用过去完成时。如果没有这个过去的参照的动作,就没有过去完成时,即使是一 亿年前的动作也是一般过去时。 When I got to the cinema, the film had begun. got to the cinema 是过去的动作,had begun 则发生在 got to the cinema 之前。 注:某些固定句型中的固定时态 This / That / It is the first time +从句( It’s / has been +一段时间+since 从句( It will be +一段时间+before 从句( It was +一段时间+before 从句( It’s time+从句( would rather+从句( 或 / ) ) ) ) ) ) Hardly / No sooner had sb. done when / than +从句( )

2. 一般过去时与过去进行时的区别: ① 过去进行时表示动作的未完成性、持续性,着眼于动作的过程;一般过去时表示动作的完 成,即动作发生过,且已结束,着眼于结果。 She was writing a report last night and I don’t know if she has finished it.(表示昨晚一直在写) She wrote a report last night.(表示昨晚写了,并且写好了) 过去进行时与 always, forever 等词连用表示一定的感情色彩。 ② He was always throwing things about. (表示不满或讨厌) 注:时态的呼应 在复合句,从句(主要是宾语从句)中的时态,常受主句谓语动词的影响,这就叫做时态的 呼应,时态的呼应一般有如下的情况。 1. 如果主句的谓语动词为现在时态,其从句中的谓语动词应该用什么时态就用什么时态, She knows you have been in Beijing for five rears. 2. 如果主句中的谓语动词为过去时态,从句中的谓语动词就要用过去时态,但要注意到下 列情况: ①如果从句中的谓语动词所表示的动作与主句中的谓语动词所表示的动作同时发生, 从句中 须用一般过去时或过去进行时。 She said she was busy then. ②如果从句中的谓语动词所表示的动作发生在主句谓语动词所表示的动作之前, 从句中须用 过去完成时。 I didn’t know that she had been to London twice. ③如果从句中的谓语动词所表示的动作发生在主句谓语动词所表示的动作之后, 从句须用过 去将来时。 They didn’t know when they would have a rest. ④如果从句中说明的是一种普遍真理现象, 虽然主句的谓语动词为过去时态从句中仍要用一

般现在时。
When I was a little child, my father told me that the earth is round. ⑤如果从句中有表示具体过去时间的状语, 虽然其谓语动词所表示的动作发生在主句谓语动

词所表示的动作之前,从句仍用一般过去时;但如果该状语表示的时间不具体,则从句仍要
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用过去完成时。 Tome said he was born in 1975.

动词的语态
语态是表示主语、谓语和宾语之间相互关系的动词形式。在英语中有主动语态和被动语 态之分。主动语态所表达的主、谓、宾之间的关系是:主语发出或执行谓语动作,谓语动作 的对象或承受者为宾语。 即主语同谓语具有语意上的逻辑关系, 谓语同宾语具有语意上的逻 辑关系。被动语态所表达的关系是:动作的承受者做句子的主语,这时句子的主语和谓语之 间具有逻辑上的动宾关系。被动语态的基本形式:助动词 / 情态动词 / be + 过去分词 口语只也有用 get / become + 过去分词表示。被动语态的基本用法:不知道或没必要提到动 作的执行者是谁时用被动语态。强调或突出动作的承受者常用被动语态(by 短语有时可以 省略)在被动语态中,各种时态的谓语动词的一般形式见下表: 一般 现在 过去 将来 (1)使用被动语态时应注意的几个问题。 ① 主动变化被动时双宾语的变化。看下列例句。 My friend gave me an interesting book on my birthday. An interesting book was given to me(by my friend)on my birthday. I was given an interesting book (by my friend)on my birthday. ② 主动变被动时,宾补成主补(位置不变) ; (作补语的)不定式前需加 to。 The boss made him work all day long. He was made to work all day long(by the boss) ③ 短语动词变被动语态时,勿要掉“尾巴”。 The children were taken good care of (by her). Your pronunciation and spelling should be paid attention to. ④ 情态动词和 be going to、be to、be sure to、used to、have to、had better 等结构变被 动语态,只需将它们后面的动词原形变为 be +过去分词。 ⑤ 当句子的谓语为 say、believe、expect、think、know、write、consider、report 等时, 被动语态有两种形式: (A)谓语动词用被动语态,动词不定式作主补。 (B)用 it 作形式主 语,真正的主语在后面用主语在后面用主语从句来表示。如: People say he is a smart boy. It is said that he is a smart boy. He is said to be a smart boy. People know paper was made in China first. It is known that paper was made in China first. Paper was known to be made in China first. 类似句型有:It is said / known / suggested / believed / hoped/ thought that … (2)不能用被动语态的几种情况。 ① 所有的不及物动词或不及物动词词组不能用于被动语态之中如 come up, run out(用 完) , give out (耗尽) , go out (熄灭) , come out (出版) , come to light, belong to, break out, lose heart, die out, own, have, possess, happen, occur 等。 ② 表示状态的谓语动词,如:last、hold、benefit、contain、equal、fit、join、mean、last、 look like、consist to 等。 ③ 表示归属的动词,如 have、own、belong to 等。 ④ 表示“希望、意图”的动词,如:wish、want、hope、like、love、hate 等。 ⑤ 宾语是反身代词或相互代词时谓语动词用主动语态,不能用被动语态。 ⑥ 宾语是同源宾语,不定式、动名词等谓语动词不用被动语态。
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⑦ 有些动词以其主动形式表示被动意义, 特别是当主语是物时, 常见的动词有 sell、 write、 wash、open、lock 等。 (3)主动形式表被动意义。 ① 当 feel、look、smell、taste、sound 等后面接形容词时;当 cut、read、sell、wear、write 等词与 well, smoothly, easily 等连用时,说明主语内在的“性能”“特点”,用主动代替被动;当 动词表示“开始、结束、关、停、转、启动”等意义时。 This kind of cloth washes easily.这种布易洗 These novels won’t sell well.这些小说不畅销。 My pen writes smoothly.我的钢笔写起来很流畅。 The door won’t lock.门锁不上。The fish smells good.鱼闻起来香。 ② 当 break out、take place、shut off、turn off、work out 等动词表示“发生、关闭、制定” 等意思时。 The plan worked out successfully. The lamps on the wall turn off. ③ want, require, need 后面的动名词用主动表示被动含义。 ④ be worth doing 用主动形式表示被动含义。 ⑤ 在“be + 形容词(for sb) + to do”中,不定式的逻辑宾语是句子的主语,用主动代被 动。 This kind of water isn’t fit to drink. The girl isn’t easy to get along with. 另外:be to blame(受谴责),be to rent(出租)也用主动形式表被动。 (4)被动形式表示主动意义的几种情况。 ① be seated 坐着 He is seated on a bench.(He seats himself on a bench.)坐在凳子上。 ② be hidden 躲藏 He was hidden behind the door.(He hid himself behind the door.)他藏在门后。 ③ be lost 迷路 ④ be drunk 喝醉 ⑤ be dressed 穿着 The girl was dressed in a red short skirt. (5)被动语态与系表结构的区别 被动语态强调动作;系表结构表主语的特点或状态。如: The book was sold by a certain bookstore.(被动语态) The book is well sold.(系表结构) 动词 do 的时态、语态形式变化对照表 主动语态 一般现在时 一般过去时 一般将来时 现在进行时 过去进行时 现在完成时 过去完成时 过去将来时 现在完成进行时 过去完成进行时 ▲ 动词的时态考点 ▲ 考点 1.一般现在时与现在进行时 Planning so far ahead ______ no sense — so many things will have changed by next year. (2011· 全国新课标卷 23) 被动语态

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A. made

B. is making

C. makes

D. has made

考点 2. 现在完成时与一般过去时 It is the most instructive lecture that I ______ since I came to this school. (2011· 湖南卷 30) A. attended B. had attended C. am attending D. have attended

考点 3.过去进行时与一般过去时 — That must have been a long trip. — Yeah, it ______ us a whole week to get there. (2011· 北京卷 27) A. takes B. has taken C. took D. was taking

考点 4. 过去完成时与一般过去时 By the time Jack returned home from England, his son ______ from college.(2011· 辽宁卷 34) A. graduated B. has graduated C. had been graduating D. had graduated

考点 5.现在完成时与现在完成进行时 — You look so tired, what have you been doing? — We have been discussing the problem but we ______ a conclusion yet. A. haven't drawn B. have been drawing C. didn't draw D. weren't drawing

考点 6.一般将来时与将来进行时 — I hear you ______ in a pub. What's it like? — Well, it's very hard work and I'm always tired, but I don't mind. (2011· 江苏卷 21) A. are working ▲动词的语态考点 考点 1.两种特殊的被动语态 1. 双宾语动词的被动语态 She was ______ the bike for 25 dollars,but she wouldn't take it. A. provided B. supplied C. offered D. gave B. will work C. were working D. will be working

英语中有些动词可以有两个宾语, 如: give, buy, bring, show, pass, offer, lend, leave, tell, write, sing, teach 等,这些动词用于被动结构时,可以将其中任何一个宾语变为主语,而另一个宾 语仍保留在谓语后面。如: He bought me many books. → I was bought many books. 或 Many books were bought for me. 2. 短语动词的被动语态 — Why does Lingling look so unhappy?
9

— She ______ by her classmates. A. has laughed B. has laughed at C. has been laughed D. has been laughed at

短语动词是由“动词+介词”,“动词+名词+介词”等结构构成的动词短语, 在被动语态结构中, 不能漏掉其后的介词。在“动词+名词+介词”这类动词短语的被动结构,“名词+be+动词 过去分词+介词”也是高考热点。如:take care of→care be taken of; make good use of→good use be made of; take advantage of→advantage be taken of。 考点 2.主动表被动的若干情形 — Shall we go fishing tomorrow? — Sounds great, but with so much homework ______, I really can't afford the time. A. done B. to do C. being done D. doing

考点 3.不及物动词和有些及物动词(短语)无被动语态 Great changes ______ in the city and a lot of factories ______. A. have been taken place; have been set up C. are taken place; are set up 考点 4. 作状语的动词被动语态 If they win the final tonight, the team are going to tour around the city ______ by their enthusiastic supporters. (2011· 浙江卷 19) A. being cheered B. be cheered C. to be cheered D. were cheered B. have taken place; have been set up D. were taken place; were set up

考点 5. 作后置定语的动词被动语态 The Town Hall ______ in the 1800's was the most distinguished building at that time. A. completing B. completed C. having been completed D. to have been completed

考点 6. “get/become 及其他系动词+过去分词”表示被动,构成系表结构 They got ______ after returning from the big party last week. A. separate B. separating C. separated D. to separate

考点 7.形式被动意义表主动的短语一般都由“be +v.ed+介词或少量的不定式”组成,如 be faced with(面临), be determined to do(下决心干), be caught in(遇上), be devoted to (致力于), be known for(因……出名),be lost in(陷于,埋头于) 等等。在句中作状语时只需去掉 be。 ______ to achieve high grades in the final examination, he tried to study harder and harder. A. Being determining B. Determined C. To determine D. Determine

考点 8. 带复合宾语的动词被动语态结构
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The missing girl was last seen ______ under the big tree. A. read B. to read C. reading D. to be reading

考点 9.当句子的谓语为 say, believe, report, expect, think, know, consider, suggest 等动词时,被 动语态有两种形式①谓语动词用被动语态,动词不定式作主补,②用 it 作形式主语,真正 主语在后面用主语从句来表示。类似句型有:It is said/ reported/ believed/ known/ suggested/ considered/ hoped/ thought …that… The crowd cheered wildly at the sight of Bolt at the Bird's Nest, who was reported ______ the world record in the running races. A. breaking B. having broken C. to have broken D. to break

2011 全国卷 Planing so far ahead no sense—so many things will have changed by next year. A.made B.is making C.makes D.has made 2011 全国卷 I wasn’t sure if he was really interested or if he polite. A.was just being B.will just be C.had just been D.would just be 2011 全国卷 When Alice came to, she did not know how long she there. A.had been lying B.has been lying C.was lying D.has lain 2011 全国卷 II If you don't like the drink you just leave it and try a different one. A. ordered B. are ordering C. will order D. had ordered 2011 北京卷 Experiments of this kind in both the U.S. and Europe well before the Second World War. A. have conducted B. have been conducted C. had conducted D. had been conducted 2011 北京卷 Tom in the library every night over the last three months. A. works B. worked C. has been working D. had been working 2011 北京卷 ——That must have been a long trip. ——Yeah, it us a whole week to get there. A. takes B. has taken C. took D. was taking 2011 北京卷 ——Bob has gone to California. ——Oh, can you tell me when he ? A. has left B. left C. is leaving D. would leave 2011 天津卷 In the last few years thousands of films all over the world. A.have produced B. have been produced C. are producing D. are being produced 2011 天津卷 On her next birthday, Ann married for twenty years. A.is B.has been C.will be D.will have been 2011 上海春招 I’m sure you will do better in the test because you so hard this year. A. studied B. had studied C. will study D. have been studying 2011 上海春招 A lot of people often forget that oral exams to test our communicative ability. A. design B. are designed C. are designing D. are being designed 2011 山东卷 When I got on the bus, I I had left my wallet at home. A. was realizing B. realized C. have realized D. would realize 2011 山东卷 She was surprised to find the fridge empty; the child everything! A. had been e ating B. had eaten C. have eaten D. have been eating 2011 江苏卷 ——I hear you in a pub. what’s it like? ——Well, it’s very hard work and I’m always tired, but I don’t mind. A.are working B.will work C.were working D.will be working 2011 江苏卷 ——Tommy is planning to buy a car. ——I know. By next month, he enough for a used one. A. saves B .saved C.will save D. will have saved 2011 福建卷 Last month, the Japanese government expressed their thanks for the aid they
11

from China. A.receive B.are receiving C.have received D.had received 2011 安徽卷 ——I didn’t ask for the name list. Why ______on my desk? ——I put it there just now in case you needed it. A. does it land B. has it landed C. will it land D. had it landed 2011 浙江卷 The manager was worried about the press conference his assistant in his place but, luckily, everything was going on smoothly. A. gave B. gives C. was giving D. had given 2011 四川卷 All visitors to this village with kindness. A. treat B. are treated C. are treating D. had been treated 2011 四川卷 ——What a mistake! ——Yes. I his doing it another way, but without success. A.was suggesting B.will suggest C.would suggest D.had suggested 2011 重庆卷 That piece of music sounds quite familiar. Who the piano upstairs? A. has played B. played C. plays D. is playing 2011 重庆卷 Look at the pride on Tom’s face. He to have been praised by the manager just now. A.seemed B.seems C.had seemed D.is seeming 2011 陕西卷 His first novel good reviews since it came out last month. A.receives B.is receiving C.will receive D.has received 2011 湖南卷 ——John, what in your hand? ——Look! It’s a birthday gift for my grandma. A had you held B are you holding C do you hold D will you hold 2011 湖南卷 In 1492, Columbus on one of the Bahama islands, but he mistook it for an island off India. A. lands B. landed C. has landed D.had landed 2011 湖南卷 It is the most instructive lecture that I since I came to this school. A. attended B. had attended C. am attending D. have attended 2011 湖南卷 In the near future, more advances in the robot technology by scentists. A. are making B. are made C. will make D. will be made 2011 辽宁卷 I'll go to the library as soon as I finish what I . A. was doing B. am doing C. have done D. had been doing 2011 辽宁卷 By the time Jack returned home from England, his son from college. A. graduated B. has graduated C. had been graduating D. had graduated 2011 江西卷 We arrived at work in the morning and found that somebody into the office during the night. A.broke B. had broken C.has broken D.was breaking 33.【2012 全国卷 II】– Did you ask Sophia for help? – I ___ need to – I managed perfectly well on my own. A. wouldn’t B. don’t C. didn’t D. won’t 34. 【2012 全国卷 II】 The manager ___ the workers how to improve the program since 9 a.m. A. has told B. is telling C. has been telling D. will have told 35.【2012 安徽】In order to find the missing child , villagers all they can over the past five hours. A. did B. do C. had done D. have been doing 36.【2012 安徽】Grace doesn’t want to move to New York because she thinks if she there, she wouldn’t be able to see her parents very often. A. lives B. would live C. having asked D. were to live 37.【2012 安徽】Walmart, which is one of the largest American supermarket chains, some of its store open 24 hours on Mondays through Saturdays.

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A. keeps B. keep C. have kept D. had kept 38.【2012 安徽】After school we went to the reading-room to do some reading, only to be told that it . A. was decoratedB. had decorated C. had been decorating D. was being decorated 39.【2012 重庆】-Kevin, you look worried. Anything wrong? -Well, I____ a test and I’m waiting for the result. A. will take B. took C. had taken D. take 40. 【 2012 重庆】 Food supplies in the flood-stricken area ______.We must act immediately before there’s none left. A. have run out B. are running outC. have been run out D. are being run out 41.【2012 全国】"Life is like walking in the snow", Granny used to say, "because every step ” A. has shown B. is showing C. shows D. showed 42.【2012 全国】I had been working on math for the whole afternoon and the numbers _______before my eyes. A. swim B .swum C. swam D. had swum 43.【2012 北京】By the time you have finished this book, your meal ______ cold. A. gets B. has got C. will get D. is getting 44.【2012 北京】George said that he would come to school to see me the next day, but he ______. A. wouldn’t B. didn’t C. hasn’t D. hadn’t 45.【2012 北京】—Have you heard about that fire in the market? — Yes, fortunately no one _____. A. hurt B. was hurt C. has hurt D. had been hurt 46.【2012 北京】Our friendship _____ quickly over the weeks that followed. A. had developed B. was developingC. would develop D. developed 47.【2012 北京】Don’t handle the vase as if it ____ made of steel. A. is B. were C. has been D. had been 48.【2012 福建】—When did the computer crash? -- This morning, while I ______ the reading materials downloaded from some websites. A. have sorted B. was sorting C. am sorting D. had sorted 49.【2012 陕西】–Can I call you back at two o’clock this afternoon? --I’m sorry, but by then I _____ to Beijing. How about five? A. fly B. will fly C. will be flying D. am flying 50.【2012 山东】After Jack had sent some e-mails, he ______working on his project. A. had started B. has started C. started D. starts 51.【2012 山东】The manager was concerned to hear that two of his trusted workers _____. A. will leave B. are leaving C. have left D. were leaving 52.【2012 湖南】Don’t worry. The hard work that you do now ______ later in life. A. will be repaid B. was being repaid C. has been repaid D. was repaid 53.【2012 湖南】Close the door of fear behind you, and you ______ the door of faith open before you.
13

A. saw B. have seen C. will see D. are seeing 54. 【2012 湖南】 “The moment _____ soon,” he thought to himself, waiting nervously. A. came B. has come C. was coming D. is coming 55.【2012 湖南】–I remember you were a talented pianist at college. Can you play the piano for me? --Sorry, I ____ the piano for years. A. don’t play B. wasn’t playing C. haven’t played D. hadn’t played 56.【2012 天津】The letters for the boss _____ on his desk but he didn’t read them until three days later. A. were put B. was put C. put D. has put 57.【2012 天津】The three of us ________ around Europe for about a month last summer. A. traveled B. have traveled C. had traveled D. travel 58.【2012 江西】—Look! Somebody ______ the sofa. — Well, it wasn’t me. I didn’t do it. A. is cleaning B. was cleaning C. has cleaned D. had cleaned 59. 【2012 辽宁】 I feel so excited! At this time tomorrow morning I _____ to Shanghai. A. will be flying B. will fly C. have been flying D. have flown 60.【 【2012 辽宁】Mum, I was wondering if you could lend me a few dollars until I ____ on Friday. A. get paid B. got paid C. have paid D. had been paid 61.【2012 四川】—Did you catch what I said? —Sorry. I ______ a text message just now. A. had answering B. have answered C. would answer D. was answering

62.【2012 四川】They are living with their parents for the moment because their own house ____. A. is being rebuilt B. has been rebuilt C. is rebuilt D. has rebuilt

63.【2012 浙江】Peter had intended to take a job in business, but _______ that plan after the unpleasant experience in Canada in 2010. A. had abandoned B. abandoned C. abandon D. will abandon 64.【2012 浙江】— Alvin, are you coming with us? — I’d love to, but something unexpected _______. A. has come up B. was coming up C. had come up D. would come up 65.【2012 江苏】The manager is said to have arrived back from Paris where he _____ some European business partners. A. would meet B. is meeting C. meets D. had met 66.【2012 江苏】The president hopes that the people will be better off when he quits than when he ____. A. has started B. starts C. started D. will start 67.【安徽卷】I’m calling about the apartment you ______ the other day. Could you tell me more about it? A. Advertised B. had advertised C. are advertising D. will advertise
14

68. 【北京卷】Shakespeare’s play Hamlet ______ into at least ten different films over the past years. A. had been made . B. was madeC. has been made D. would be made B. will be

69.【北京卷】--- Do you think Mom and Dad ______ late? --- No, Swiss Air is usually on time. C. would be

A. were

D. have been

70.【北京卷】Hurry up! Mark and Carl ______ us. A. expect B. are expecting C. have expected D. will expect

71.【北京卷】--- So what is the procedure? --- All the applicants ______ before a final decision is made by the authority. A. interview B. are interviewing C. are interviewed D. are being interviewed

72.【福建卷】The famous musician, as well as his students, ____ to perform at the opening ceremony of the 2012 Taipei Flower Expo. A. were invited B. was invited C. have been invited D. has been invited

73.【福建卷】The girl has a great interest in sport and ____ badminton classes twice a week over the last three years. A. took B. is taking C. takes D. has been taking

74. 【湖南卷】 “What do you want to be?” asked Mrs. Crawford. “Oh, I________ president, ” said the boy, with a smile. A.have been B.am C.was D.will be

75. 【湖南卷】Around two o'clock every night, Sue will start talking in her dream. It somewhat ________ us.A.bothers B.had bothered C.would bother D.bothered

76.【湖南卷】If nothing ________, the oceans will turn into fish deserts. A.does B.had been done C.will do D.is done A.would be C. has been B.is D. will be

77.【湖南卷】—Have you heard about the recent election?

—Sure, it ________the only thing on the news for the last three days.

78.【湖南卷】—I don't understand why you didn't go to the lecture yesterday afternoon. —I'm so sorry, But I ________ my homework. A.had done B.was doing C.would do D.am doing

79.【江苏卷】Generally, students’ inner motivation with high expectations from others ______ essential to their development. A. Is B. are C. was D. Were

80.【江苏卷】—Could I use your car tomorrow morning? —Sure. I ______ a report at home. A. will be writing B. will have written C. have written D. have been writing
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81.【江苏卷】 “Never for a second,” the boy says, “______ that my father would come to my rescue.” A. I doubted B. do I doubt C. I have doubted D. did I doubt

82【江苏卷】—What about your self-drive trip yesterday? —Tiring! The road is being widened, and we ______ a rough ride. A. had 83.【江西卷】 A. come B. have C. would have D. have had

I ________ to visit you later that day, but I had to phone and cancel. B. came C. am coming D. was coming

84.【辽宁卷】He was unhappy when he sold his guitar. After all, he _____ it for a very long time. A. has had B. had had C. has D. had

85.【辽宁卷】 At no time _____ the rules of the game. It was unfair to punish them. A. they actually broke C. did they actually break B. do they actually break D. they had actually broken

86.【辽宁卷】We are confident that the environment ______ by our further efforts to reduce pollution. A. had been improved B. will be improved C. is improvedD. was improved

87.【山东卷】I didn’t think I’d like the movie, but actually it _____ pretty good. A. has been B. was C. had been D. would

88.【山东卷】--- Oh no! We’re too late. The train _____. ----That’s OK. We’ll catch the next train to London. A. was leaving B. had left C. has left D. has been leaving

89.【陕西卷】On Monday mornings it usually ______ me an hours to drive to work although the actual distance is only 20 miles. A. takes B. is taking C. took D. will take

90.【陕西卷】Jim ___ a late night film at home when, right in the middle of a thrilling scene, the television went blank. A. watched B. had watched C. was watching D. would be watching 91.【上海卷】Bob called to tell his mother that he couldn’t enter the house, for he ______ his key at school. A. had left B. would leave C. was leaving D. has left

92. 【上海卷】 The school board is made up of parents who ______ to make decisions about school affairs. A. had been elected B. had elected C. have been elected D. have elected

93.【四川卷】Hurry up, kids! The school bus ________ for us! A. waits B. was waiting C. waited D. is waiting

94.【天津卷】The water supply has been cut off temporarily because the workers ______ one of
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the main pipes.

A. had repaired

B. have repaired

C. repaired

D. are repairing

95.【新课标 II 卷】We ______ very early so we packed the night before. A. leave B. had left C. were leaving D. have left

96.【新课标 I 卷】If we _________ now to protect the environment, we’ll live to regret it. A. hadn’t acted B. haven’t acted C. don’t act D. won’t act

97.【新课标 I 卷】When I first met Bryan I didn’t like him, but I ________ my mind. A. have changed B. change C. had changed D. would change

98.【浙江卷】During the last three decades, the number of people participating in physical fitness programs ______ sharply. A was increasing B. has increased C. had increased D. will be increasing

99.【重庆卷】I felt very tired when I got home, and I ______ straight to bed. A. go B. went C. had gone D. have gone

100.【重庆卷】A Midsummer Night's Dream tours throughout Scotland.

at the Theatre Royal on 19th June, and then C. will open D. will be opened

A. Opens B. is opened

He who gains time gains all.

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