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1 高考英语常考经典易错词汇短语辨析讲解


第一章 高考英语常考经典易错词汇短语辨析精析 travel, trip, journey 的用法区别 三者均可表示“旅行”,区别如下: 1. travel 泛指一般意义的旅行,是不可数名词。如: He is fond of travel (= travelling)。 他喜欢旅行。 Travel is much cheaper than it used to be. 现在旅行比过

去便宜多了。 注:有时可用复数形式,主要指时间较长的各处旅行,此时通常有物主代词修饰,但是尽管用了复数形式, 却不能与 many 或数词连用。如: He?s gone off on his travels again. 他又外出旅行了。 另外,travel 通常只是泛指旅行,而不特指某次具体的旅行,所以通常不说:How was your travel? 2. journey 通常指远距离的陆地旅行,并且不一定要返回到出发地(即通常指单程)。如: I wish you a pleasant journey. 祝你一路顺风。 He made a journey to Beijing. 他去北京旅行了。 注:journey 有时并不指真正意义的“旅行”,而只是表示走过一段距离。如: How long is your journey to work? 你上班要走多远? 3. trip 通常指近距离的为了办事或消遣而进行旅行,并且往往要回到出发点(即指双程),不过有时 trip 也 可指远距离的长途旅行,可与 journey 换用,比 journey 更通俗。如: A:Where is John? 约翰在哪里? B:He?s on a trip to Shanghai. 他去上海旅行了。 He?ll make a round-the-world trip. 他将周游世界。 affect, effect, influence 用法区别 区别一:affect 与 effect 均可表示“影响”,其区别是:前者是动词(及物),主要指一时的影响,着重影响的动 作,可指一般意义的影响(不分好坏),也可指不良影响;后者是名词(可数或不可数),两者的关系大致为: affect=have an effect on.如: To affect a policy is to have an effect on it. 影响一项政策就是对该政策具有一种影响。 The news did not affect her at all.=The news had no effect on her at all. 这条消息对她没有一点影响。 注:effect 有时虽用作动词(及物),但不表示“影响”,而表示“实现”或“产生”等。如: They effected their escape in the middle of the night. 他们半夜逃脱了。 He effected great changes in the company. 他使公司发生了巨大的变化。 区别二:influence 表示“影响”,主要指对行为、性格、观点等产生间接的或潜移默化的影响。可用作动词(及 物)或名词(通常不可数,但有时可连用不定冠词)。如: What you read influences your thinking. 你读的东西对你的思想有影响。 Television has a strong influence on people. 电视对人有很大的影响。 It?s clear that her painting has been influenced by Picasso. 她的画显然受了毕加索的影响。 aloud, loud, loudly 的用法区别 1. aloud 的用法 aloud 只用作副词,不用作形容词,注意以下用法: (1) 强调“出声”,即把话说出来,而不是在心里默默地“说”,通常与动词 read, speak, think 等动词连用。 如: read aloud 朗读 think aloud 自言自语地说 (2) 表示“大声地”,通常与动词 cry, laugh, shout, call 等动词连用,如: The boy is crying aloud. 这男孩子在大声哭。 She called aloud for help. 她大声呼救。 2. lould 的用法 loud 表示“大声”或“响亮”,可用作形容词和副词: (1) 用作形容词。如: He has a loud voice. 他嗓子大。
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The music is too loud; please turn it down. 这音乐太吵人了,请把音量关小一点。 (2) 用作副词(与 loudly 同义),一般只与动词 speak, talk, laugh, sing 等连用,且必须放在这些动 词之后。如: I can?t hear you, please speak louder. 我听不见,请说大声些。 3. loudly 的用法 loudly 只用作副词(与用作副词的 loud 同义)。如: Don?t talk so loudly [loud]. 别这么大声讲话。 注:loudly 比用作副词的 loud 使用范围更广,它除与 speak,talk,laugh 等动词连用外,还可与其他表示声 响的动词连用,且可以放在这些动词之前或之后。如: The man snored loudly. 这个人鼾声打得响。 He heard a cocklock loudly crow. 他听见雄鸡大声啼叫。 另外,在用于比较级或最高级时,通常用 loud,而不用 loudly.如: Who laughed loudest? 谁笑的声音最大? in the air 与 on the air 1. in the air 在空中;在流传中;渺茫。如: Birds fly in the air. 鸟在空中飞。 There was thunder in the air. 天上打着雷。 The plan is quite (up) in the air. 计划还相当渺茫。 Look, hold it uP in the air like this. 看着,像这样把它举在空中。 2. on the air 在广播中。如: The show is on the air. 演出正在转播。 I heard the news on the air. 我在广播中听到了这条消息。 What?s on the air this evening? 今晚有什么广播节目? The show is on the air at seven o?clock. 这次演出七点钟播出。 until 与 till 的用法区别 用作介词或连词,意为“直到(……为止”,两者常可换用,只是 until 比 till 稍正式,所以在正式文体中,一般 用 until,而在口语或非正式文体中则两者都可用。从其后所接成分来看,till 多与名词或较短的从句连用,而较 长较复杂的成分多用 until,位于句首时也多用 until. 两者在用法上应注意以下几点: 1. 相关主句谓语必须是持续性动词,若是终止性动词,则应为否定式(因为终止性动词一旦被否定就成为状 态,便可持续)。如: We waited until [till] he came. 我们一直等到他来。 We didn?t leave until [till] he came. 直到他来我们才走。 2. 引导时间状语从句时,其谓语要用现在时表示将来意义。如: I won?t leave until he comes back tomorrow. 我要等他明天回来再走。 3. 有时其后可跟副词、介词短语或从句等。如: He has been ill until recently. 他最近一直生病。 She didn?t return until after twelve o?clock. 直到 12 点过后她才回来。 They didn?t reach the station until after the train had left. 直到火车开走之后,他们才到达车站。 Until when are you going to stay here? 你在这儿要待到什么时候? before long 与 long before 1. before long 的意断是“不久,很快”。如: I?ll be back before long. 不久我就回来。 Before long he got married. 不久他就结婚了。 2. long before 有两个用法: (1) 老早,早就(单独使用,表示比过去某时早得多的时间)。如: She had left long before. 她老早就离开了。
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That had happened long before. 那事老早就发生了。 注:long ago 表示“很久以前”,? 指的是从现在算起的很久以前,通常与一般过去时连用: I met him long ago. 我很久以前就认识他了。 (2) 在……的很久以前,在还没有……的很久以前。如: She had left long before his return [he returned]. 在他回来的很久以前她就走了。 He had worked in the factory long before he got married. 在他还没有结婚的很久以前他就在这家工厂工作了。 注:此时的主句谓语通常用过去完成时,但有时也可用一般过去时(因为 before 已体现了动作的先后关系)。 如: This happened long before you were born. 这事在你还没出生以前很久就发生了。 另外注意以下句式: It is [was, will be] long before……在……前需要很久。如: It was long before he came back. 过了好久他才回来。 It won?t be long before we see each other. 不久我们又会见面的。 比较: It wasn?t long before he realized his mistake. / Before long he realized his mistake. 不久他意识到了自己的错误。 同义词辨析 agree with, agree to 和 agree on 辨析 agree with, agree to 和 agree on (1)agree with 的意思是“同意”,“赞成”。后面常接表示人或意见(看法)的名词或代词作宾语。如: Does she agree with us?她同意我们的意见吗? None of us agree with what you said.我们没有一个人同意你讲的话。 (2)agree with 还有“与……一致”,“(气候、食物等)适合”的意思。如: His words do not agree with his actions.他言行不一致。 Too much meat doesn?t agree with her.吃太多食物对她身体不合适。 注意:agree with 不能用于被动语态。 (3)agree to 意为“同意”,“赞成”,后面跟表示“提议”,“办法”,“计划”,“安排”等的名词或代词。如: Please agree to this arrangement.请同意这个安排。 This plan has now been agreed to.这个计划已经被认可了。 (4)agree on 表示“对……取得一致意见”,指两方或多方就某个问题取得了一致的意见或是达成了某种协议。 如: After discussion the two sides agreed on a cease-fire.经过讨论,双方就停火问题达成了协议。 They all agree on the matter.他们在这个问题上意见一致。 besides,but,except 的用法辨析 1. 基本区别 三者都可表示“除外”,但 besides 表示一种累加关系,意指“除了什么之外,还有……”;而 except 或 but 则 表示一种排除关系,意指“除了什么之外,不再有……”。如: Besides his wife,his daughter also went to see him. 除他妻子外, 他女儿也去看过他 (即妻子女儿都去看过他) 。 Nobody went to see him except [but] his wife. 除他妻子外,没有一个人看过他(即只有他妻子去看过他)。 注:在否定句中,besides 也表示“除……之外不再有…… ”,与 but, except 同义。如: No one passed the exam besides [except] Jim. 除吉姆外,没一个人通过考试。 2. 关于 but 与 except (1) 两者都可表示“除……外不再有……”,但含义上略有差别:but 侧重指意义的几乎完整性,而 except 则 侧重指后面除去的部分。比较: All are here but one. 除一个人都到了。 All are here except one. 还有一个人没到。 (2) 在现代英语中,but 的介词用法十分有限,一般说来,它只能用在下列词语之后: ① no, no one, nobody, nothing, nowhere 等 ② any, anyone, anybody, anything, anywhere 等
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③ every, everyone, everybody, everything, everywhere 等 ④ all, none 等 ⑤ who, what, where 等 Everyone knows it but you. 除你之外大家都知道。 I haven't told anybody but you. 除你之外,我没告诉任何人。 No one but he [him] showed much interest in it. 除他之外没有一个人对此有很大兴趣。 一般说来,若没有出现上述词汇,就不宜使用介词 but, 否则可能造成错句。但是 except 却没有以上限制。 比较: 正:The window is never opened except in summer. 除夏天外,这扇窗户从不打开。 误:The window is never opened but in summer. (3) but 一定不能用于句首,except 通常不用于句首: 除我之外每个人都累了。 正:Everyone is tired but (except) me. 正:Everyone but (except) me is tired. 误:But (Except) me, everyone is tired. 注:except for 可用于句首,表示 except 的意思: 正:Except for me, everyone is tired. 3. 关于 except 与 except for: except 主要用来谈论同类的东西,而 except for 则主要用来谈论不同类的东西,有时含有惋惜之意。如: All compositions are well written except yours. 除了你的作文外,其他的作文都写得很好。 His composition is good except for a few spelling mistakes. 他的作文写得不错,只是有几处拼写错误。 注:若用于句首,则 except for 与 except 同义(但 except 通常不用于句首)。 4. 关于 except for 与 but for: except for 主要表示排除,but for 主要表示一种虚拟条件(与虚拟语气连用)。如: Except for me, everyone passed the exam. 除了我之外,大家都通过了考试。 But for my help, she would not have passed the exam. 若不是我的帮助,她就不会通过考试。 But for the atmosphere plants would die. 如果没有大气,植物就会死亡。 5. besides 的其他用法 besides 除用作介词外,还用作副词,其意为“此外”、“而且”,可用于分句句首(通常用逗号隔开)或句尾。 如: I don't want to go; besides, I'm too tired. 我不想去,而且我也太累了。 This car belongs to Smith, and he has two others besides. 这部车是史密斯的,此外他还有两部。 副词辨析 fairly,quite,rather,very,pretty 这几个词都可表示程度,用法区别如下: 含义上的区别 (1) fairly 语气最轻,尽管经常与褒义词连用,但由于语气较弱,往往不带明显的恭维或赞赏,通常译为“还 算”、“相当”。比如要说某部电影 fairly good,指的可能是还勉强过得去,只是没有否定。 (2) quite 语气稍重,意为“颇”或“相当”。要是说某一部电影 quite good,那是说这部电影相当不错,虽不是 最好,但至少值得看。 (3) rather 或 pretty 在语气上又稍重一点,意为“十分”或“相当” (pretty 不如 rather 正式)。要是说某一 部电影 rather / pretty good,指的是这电影相当不错,语气比较重,意指要高出一般水平或出乎意料地好。 两者均可与褒义或贬义形容词连用。与褒义词连用,表示一种愉快的心情;与贬义(包括中性)词连用,表 示一种不赞成或不满意的心情。如:a rather [pretty] good play 相当好的戏 rather [pretty] poor work 相当差的工作 (4) very 语气最强,意为“很”或“非常”。要是说某一部电影 very good,这是说这部电影很不错,算得上是 精品之作。 这些词语气的轻重可大致描述为:(not) → fairly → quite → rather / pretty → very 用法上的差别
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(1) 以上各词中,只有 rather 可以与比较级以及副词 too (太) 连用。如:It?s rather warmer today. 今天 暖和多了。 This one is rather too large. 这个稍大了一点。 注:quite 有时也与比较级连用, 但通常只限于 quite better (身体好)这一表达中。 (2) rather 和 quite 有时可直接修饰动词, 而其他几个副词一般不这样用。如:I quite agree with you. 我 完全同意你 (的意见)。 We rather like the book. 我们很喜欢这本书。 (3) rather, quite 与“冠词+形容词+名词”连用时, 通常置于冠词之前,有时也可放在冠词之后。但遇此 类似情况, very 或 fairly 则只能放在冠词之后 (形容词之前) 如: quite /rather a good idea. / It?s a quite/rather 。 It?s good idea. 那可真是个好主意。 注:若此结构中没有形容词,则 quite 和 rather 则只能放在冠词之前。如:It was quite [rather] a success. 那 事相当成功。 (4) 修饰不可分级的形容词 (如: right, wrong, ready, full, empty, perfect, impossible, alone, unique 等,通常只用 quite,此时 quite 并不表示“相当”或“很”,而表示“完全”。如:You?re quite right (wrong)。 你 完全正确(错了)。 That?s quite impossible. 那完全不可能 either...or 和 neither...nor 的用法区别 一、either……or…… either……or……意为"或者……或者……;不是……就是……"之意。表示两者之一,连接句子中两个并列的 成分。例如: When the girl is happy, she either sings or dances.那个女孩高兴时,不是唱就是跳。(此句中 either……or…… 连接两个动词,因为主语是单数第三人称,谓语动词要用其相应的形式。) either……or……连接两个主语时,其谓语动词应与最近的一个主语在人称和数上保持一致,这就是我们通常 说的"就近原则".例如: Either you or I am going there tomorrow. 明天要么你去那里,要么我去那里。 注意:如果把上句变成一般疑问句,助动词形式与主语 you 保持一致,所以要用 are 提问,而不是 am.例如: Are either you or I going there tomorrow? 明天是你还是我去那里? Either you or he has lunch at school. 其一般疑问句应为: either you or he have lunch at school? 是你还是他在 Do 学校吃午饭? 若要对 either……or……句型进行否定时,只需把 either……or……换成 neither……nor……即可。例如: Either you or she is good at drawing. 变为否定句应为: Neither you nor she is good at drawing. 你和她都不擅长绘 画。 我们还可以单独使用 either,其意为"两者中的任何一个".例如: There are many shops on either side of the street. 街道两边有许多商店。 或:There are many shops on both sides of the street. 在街道两边有许多商店。 either 用在否定句的句末,表示"也"的意思。例如: If you don\'t go there. I won\'t, either. 如果你不去那里,我也不去。 二、neither……nor…… neither……nor……表示"既不……也不……".其含义是否定的,可连接任意两个并列的成份。例如: She likes neither butter nor cheese.她既不喜欢黄油也不喜欢乳酪。此句中 neither……nor……连接两个宾语。当 neither……nor……连接两个主语时,也应遵循"就近原则".例如: Neither dad nor mum is at home today. 今天父母都不在家。 若将 neither……nor……句型变为肯定句,只需把 neither……nor……改为 both……and……即可,同时谓语动 词必须用复数形式。例如: Both dad and mum are at home today. 今天父母都在家。 还可以单独使用 neither 作主语,表示"两者中没有一个".例如: Neither of them likes football. 他们俩都不喜欢足球。
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neither 或 nor 还有另外一种用法,就是当表达一个人没有做某事,另一个人也没做同一类事时,可用 neither 或 nor 进行简略回答,其结构为:Neither / Nor+助动词 / 情态动词 / be 动词+主语。例如: He doesn\'t go to school by bike. Neither / Nor do I. 他不是骑自行车上学,我也不是。 They didn\'t go to the park yesterday. Neither / Nor did we. 昨天他们没去公园,我们也没去。 [更多例句] either you come in person ,or you entrust someone with the matter 你要么自己来,要么就托人办理这件事 in a position like this one can neither stand up nor lie down 处在这样的位置,一个人既不能站直,也不能躺倒 You can come either on Monday or Sunday. You can speak either English or hinese Either you are mad, or I am (要么你疯了,要么我疯了 I can neither speak nor write French =Neither can I speak French nor can I write it You can come either on Monday or on Tuesday.?you or I am going swimming tomorrow. I can neither read nor write=I can't read or write. It is neither hot nor cold in winter here. 这里冬天既不热也不冷。 There is neither river nor stream nearby. 附近既无河流也没小溪。 He does not do it, nor does he try. 他没有做, 也没尝试一下。 She can't get there at four, nor can I. 她不能在四点钟到那里, 我也不能。 He doesn't like sports, nor do I . such…that…和 so…that…的用法区别 such…that…和 so…that… such…that…与 so…that…都可以用来引导结果状语从句,意为“如此……以致……” (1)such 是形容词,它所修饰的名词可以是可数名词,也可以是不可数名词;名词前面可以带形容词,也可 以不带。如果其后是单数可数名词,前面需加不定冠词 a 或 an.因此,such…that…的句型结构可分为以下三种: ①such+a(n)(+adj.)+单数可数名词+that 从句。如: She is such a good teacher that all of us love and respect her.她是一位很好的老师,我们都敬爱她。 Table tennis is such an interesting game that people all over the world play it.乒乓球是一项很有趣的运动,以致全 世界的人都参加这项运动。 ②such(+adj.)+复数可数名词+that 从句。如: They are such interesting books that I want to read them once more.这些书非常有趣,我想再读一遍。 ③such(adj.)+不可数名词+that 从句。如: It was such bad weather that I had to stay at home.天气太坏,以致我不得不呆在家里。 (2)so 是副词,与形容词或副词连用,其结构是:so+adj.(adv.)+that 从句。如: He ran so fast that I couldn?t catch up with him.他跑得那么快,我赶不上他。 I am so sleepy that I can hardly keep my eyes open.我太瞌睡了,眼睛几乎睁不开了。 注意: ①当名词前面有 many,much,few,little 等表示数量多少的限定词时,应该用 so,而不能用 such.如: There were so many people in the street watching the fire that firefighters could not get close to the building.街上围 观大火的人太多了,消防队员无法靠近大楼…… ②当单数名词前有形容词时,既可用 so,也可用 such,但不定冠词的位置却有所不同。如: This is such an important meeting that you should attend it.(=This is so important a meeting that you should attend it.)这是一次很重要的会议,你一定要参加。 cost,spend,take 的用法区别 一、根据主语辨析 虽然三者均可表示“花费”,但所用主语不同:cost 的主语通常是事或物(包括形式主语 it),不能是人;spend 的主语只能是人,不能是事或物;take 的主语可以是事或物(包括形式主语 it),也可以是人。如: The computer cost (me) $2000. 这台电脑花了(我) 2000 美元。 It costs $1000 a year to run a car. 使用一辆车每年要花 1000 美元。 I have spent all day looking for you. 我花了一整天找你。
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It took me an hour to write the letter. 我写这封信花了一个小时。 The letter took me an hour (to write)。 (译文同上) I took an hour to write the letter. (译文同上) 注:若 cost 不是表示“花费”,而是表示客观上地或被动地“耗费”,则也可用人作主语。如: Smokers cost the government a lot of money every year. 抽烟的人每年要耗费政府不少钱。 二、根据宾语辨析 cost 的宾语通常是钱,take 的宾语通常是时间,而 spend 的宾语则可以是时间或钱。如: How much did it cost to build the bridge? 建这座桥花了多少钱? It took her two hours to walk to the station. 走路去车站花了她两小时。 He spends much time (money) on books. 他花了很多时间读(钱买)书。 注:cost 有时也用于时间,但通常只用于笼统时间(一般不用于具体明确的时间)。如: Making experiments like this costs much time and labour. 做这样的实验要花很多时间和劳力。 按传统语法,take 的宾语通常是时间,但在现代英语中,用钱作其宾语的现象已很普遍。如: It takes a lot of money to buy a house. 买一座房子要花一大笔钱。 三、根据句型辨析 从句型结构来看。三者的通常句型为: sth costs (sb) money 某物花某人多少钱 it costs (sb) money to do sth 做某事花某人多少钱 sb spends time (money) on sth 某人在某一方面花多少钱 sb spends time (money) in [on] doing sth 某人在做某事方面花多少钱 it takes sb time (money) to do sth = it takes time (money) for sb to do sth 做某事花某人多少时间或钱 sth takes sb time (money) to do 某事花某人多少时间或钱去做 sb takes time (money) to do 某人花多少时间或钱去做某事 四、根据语态辨析 三者在表示“花费”时,cost 不能用于被动语态,take 通常不用于被动语态,而 spend 则可以用于被动语态。 如: 误:Thirty dollars was cost by the coat. 误:Two hours was taken to do the work. 正:Two hours was spent on the work. 做这工作花了两个小时。 五、根据引申义辨析 三者均可用于比喻用法中,但含义不同: 1. cost 指付出代价(劳力、麻烦、精力、生命等)。如: Careless driving will cost you your life. 粗心开车会要你的命。 Just ring him up. It?ll cost you nothing. 给他打个电话,这不费什么事。 2. spend 表示“消耗”“用完”。如: I?ll spend no more breath on him. 我不会再和他费唇舌。 He spent great efforts to help me. 他费了很大的劲儿来帮我。 3. take 表示需要人力(精力、劳力等)。如: It takes patience. 做这工作需要耐心。 It takes two to make a quarrel. 一个巴掌拍不响。 It took three men to lift the box. 抬这个箱子要 3 个人。 名词辨析 cloth, clothes, clothing ◆cloth n. 1. 表示“布”、“衣料”,是不可数名词。如:She bought some cloth to make herself a dress. 她买了些布要给自己 做一件连衣裙。 再如:a piece of cloth(一块布),three yards of cloth(3 码布),a roll of cloth(一卷布)等 2. 表示用作某种特殊用途的布(如:桌布,台布,揩布等),是可数名词。如:Clean the windows with a soft cloth. 用块软布擦窗子。
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再如:a tablecloth(桌布),a dishcloth(洗碟布),a face cloth(洗脸毛巾)等。 ◆clothes n. 1. 表示“衣服”, 是一个没有单数形式的复数名词, 其前不可加不定冠词, 也不可加数词, 但可用 some, these, those, many, few 等词修饰。如:正:those clothes / few clothes / many clothes 误:a clothes / two clothes / three clothes 2. 可受定语修饰,表示不同用途的衣服。如:school clothes (校服),sports clothes(运动服),work(ing) clothes(工作服)等。 3. 表示一套衣服,通常借助 suit.如:a suit of clothes(一套衣服),two suits of clothes(二套衣服)等。 ◆clothing n. 1. 表示“衣服”的总称,是一个不可数的集合名词。如:They wear very little clothing. 他们衣服穿得很少。 We need warm clothing for the winter. 我们需要暖和的衣服过冬。 2. 表示一件衣服,通常用 article.如:A coat is an article of clothing. 上衣是一件衣服。 「注」有时也用 piece of, item of 等。如:three pieces [items] of clothing 三件衣服 含有 what 的常用习语总结 1. So what? 那又怎么样? If I say I won't go with you, so what? 如果我说不跟你一起去,那又怎么样? 2. What about? 有关什么呢? —Could I have a word with him? —What about? He is busy now. ——我可以同他谈谈吗? ——谈什么呢?他正忙着呢。 3. What about……? 你认为……怎么样? What about going out for a walk? 出去散散步怎么样? 4. What for? 为什么? —Do you happen to have twenty dollars with you? —What for? —I want to buy a reference book. ——你身上有二十美元吗? ——干什么? ——我想买一本参考书。 5. What then? 下一步怎么办? We've finished this task at last and what then? 我们终于完成了这项任务,下一步怎么办? 6. What else? 还有别的什么? —He said he liked you very much. —What else? ——他说他很喜欢你。 ——他还说了别的什么? 7. What if……? 如果……怎么办? What if he comes here to ask for you tomorrow? 如果他明天来这儿要求见你怎么办? 8. and what not 等等;诸如此类 You had better take with you your shirts, shoes, caps and what not. 你最好随身带上衬衫、鞋、帽子等诸如此 类的物品。 9. what's more 加之;而且 He studies very hard, and what's more, he is ready to help others. 他学习勤奋、刻苦,而且还乐于助人。 10. what's worse 更糟糕的是 We were very tired at that time, and what's worse, it was raining heavily. 那时我们已经精疲力竭了, 更糟的是, 天还下着大雨。 11. what's what 事情的真相;事情的来龙去脉 I beg you to tell me what's what. 我恳求你告诉我事情的真相。 12. what is called 所谓的 Mary is what is called a modern girl. 玛丽就是所谓的现代女孩。 13. What's up? 怎么啦?出了什么事了? There are so many people standing there. What's up? 那么多人站在那里,出了什么事了? 14. I'll tell you what. 我告诉你一个好主意。 Don't be so worried. I'll tell you what. 不要如此着急。我告诉你一个好主意。 especially,specially,particularly 用法辨异 一、强调程度时当用于形容词或副词前,强调程度(通常译为“特别”)时,三者都可用。如: It is particularly [especially,specially] cold today. 今天特别冷。
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I was feeling particularly [especially, specially] tired this evening. 今天晚上我特别累。 有时还可修饰动词。如: I especially [particularly, specially] want to see that film. 我特别想看那部电影。 二、强调目的时当用于强调目的(意为“特意”,“专门”)时,通常用 specially 或 especially,一般与表目的的 不定式或介词 for 短语连用。如: I was asked specially to meet her. 特意要我去接她。 We bought it specially [especially] for you. 这是我们特意为你买的。 The book is written especially [specially] for children. 这本书是专门为孩子们写的。 三、表示列举时当用于陈述某一事实之后,列举一个具有代表性的例子作进一步强调时,一般用 especially, 有时也用 particularly,其后可接名词、介词短语、从句等。如: We want to invite some friends, especially Jim and John. 我们想邀请几个朋友,尤其是吉姆和约翰。 Noise is unpleasant,especially when you?re trying to sleep. 噪音是令人不愉快的,尤其是当你想入睡的时候。 The children enjoyed watching the animals,especially [particularly] the monkeys. 孩子们喜欢观看动物,尤其是 猴子。 alive,living 与 live 的区别 三者均可表示“活着的”,区别如下: 1. alive 主要用作表语(有时可用作后置定语,但不用作前置定语),可用于人或动物。如: He must be still alive. 他一定还活着。 He?s the happiest man alive. 他世上最幸福的人。 注:若 alive 本身有修饰语,则也可用作前置定语。如: He is a really alive student. 他的确是一个十分活跃的学生。 2. living 可用作表语或定语,可用于人或物。如: Are your grandparents still living? 你的祖父母还健在吗? Both plants and animals are living things. 动物和植物都是生物。 alive 和 living 表示“活着的”,两者含义很接近,只要句法适合,有时可互换。如:谁是当代最伟大的诗人? 正:Who is the greatest living poet? 正:Who is the greatest poet alive? 若需严格区分,两者仍有差别:living 通常是客观描述某人“尚在人间”或“健在”,而 alive 则主要指生与死的 “界限”。如: He was still alive when I reached the hospital. 当我赶到医院时他还活着。 3. live 通常只用作定语(前置),可用于动物或植物,但一般不用于人。如: He bought some live fish. 他买了几条活鱼。 Only a few live trees were left after the fire. 火灾之后只剩下几棵树还活着。 whatever,whoever,whichever 引导名词性从句 一、基本用法概说 英语中的-ever 词主要包括 whatever, whoever, whichever, whenever, wherever, however 等,其中可 引导名词性从句的主要有 whatever, whoever,whichever.这里所说的名词性从句主要指主语从句和宾语从句, 它们通常不用于引导同位语从句,同时也很少用于引导表语从句。如: Whatever he said was right. 无论他说什么都是对的。(引导主语从句) I don?t believe whatever he said. 无论他说什么我都不信。(引导宾语从句) 在某些特定的语境中,也可用于引导表语从句。如: What he wants to get is whatever you have. 他想得到的是你所拥有的一切。 二、whatever 引导的名词性从句 whatever 的意思是“所……的一切事或东西”,可视为 what 的强调说法,其含义大致相当于 anything that, whatever 在从句中可用作主语、宾语、定语。如: Do whatever she tells you and you?ll have peace. 她叫你干什么你就干什么,那你就太平了。 I don?t believe in letting children do whatever they like. 我不赞成让孩子为所欲为。
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Goats eat whatever food they can find. 山羊找到什么食物就吃什么食物。 三、whoever 引导的名词性从句 whoever 的意思“任何……的人”, 在意义上大致相当于 anybody who.whoever 在从句中可用作主语或宾语。 如: I?ll take whoever wants to go. 谁想去我就带谁去。 Whoever says that is a liar. 说那话的人是个骗子。 She can marry whoever she chooses. 她愿意嫁谁就嫁谁。 I?ll give the ticket to whoever wants it. 谁想要这票,我就把它给谁。 Tell whoever you like — it makes no difference to me. 你爱告诉谁就告诉谁吧,对我是无所谓的。 注:whoever 既用作主语也可用作宾语(作宾语时不宜用 whomever,因为在现代英语中 whomever 已几乎不 用)。另外,注意以下受汉语意思影响而弄错的句子:谁赢了都可以获奖。 误:Who wins can get a prize.误:Anyone wins can get a prize.正:Whoever wins can get a prize.正:Anyone who wins can get a prize. 四、whichever 引导的名词性从句 whichever 的意思“……的那个人或事物”,在意义上大致相当于 the person or the thing that.whichever 在从句中 可用作主语、宾语或定语。如:You can pick whichever one you like. 你喜欢哪个就挑哪个。 Whichever of you comes first will receive a prize. 你们谁第一谁就能得奖。 We?ll eat at whichever restaurant has a free table. 哪个饭馆有空桌我们就在哪儿吃吧。 Whichever of us gets home first starts cooking. 我们当中无论哪个先到家,哪个就先开始做饭。 五、引导状语从句的用法 whatever, whoever, whichever 除用于引导的名词性从句外,还可用于引导状语从句,分别相当于 no matter what, no matter who, no matter which.如:I?ll stand by you whatever [=no matter what] happens. 无论如何我都支 持你。 Whoever [=No matter who] wants to speak to me on the phone, tell them I?m busy. 不管谁要我接电话, 就说我现 在正忙。 Whichever [=No matter which] you buy, there is a six-month guarantee. 不管买哪个都有六个月的保修期。 no one,nobody 与 none 的用法区别 1、no one=nobody,两者均只能指人不指物,其后通常不接 of 短语,作主语时谓语用单数;而 none 既可指人 也可指物,其后通常接 of 短语,用作主语时,若指不可数名词,谓语只能用单数,若指可数名词,则谓语可用 单数(较正式)也可用复数(用于非正式文体): No one [Nobody] likes it. 没人喜欢它。 None of the food was left. 一点食物都没留下。 None of the books is [are] interesting. 没有一本书有趣。 2、none 往往暗示有一定的范围(这种范围通常就表现在其后的 of 短语上),而 no one 或 nobody 则不暗 示这种范围(同时也不接表范围的 of 短语)。比较: “Did any of your friends come to see you?” “None.” “你的朋友当中有谁来看过你吗?” “一个也没来。”(None 为 None of my friends 之略) “Did anyone come to see you?”“No one.” “有人来看过你吗?”“谁也没来。” 3、none 有时暗示一种数量,即指数量上“一个也没有”,而 no one 或 nobody 则往往表示一种全面否定,即 指“谁都没有”,所以在回答 how many 或 how much 的提问时,通常用 none,而在回答 who 的提问时,通常 用 no one 或 nobody. -ed 形容词和-ing 形容词的用法区别 原则上说,由-ed 分词转化来的形容词表被动含义,由-ing 分词转化来的形容词表主动含义: a broken heart 破碎的心(=a heart that has been broken) an interesting book 有趣的书(=a book which interests readers) falling leaves 下落的树叶(=leaves that are falling) Everyone was moved by the moving story. 大家都被这个感人的故事感动了。 You may be worried if you have worrying problem. 假若你有一个令人担忧的问题,你可能感到担忧。
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关于-ed 形容词和-ing 形容词的用法,有的人认为-ed 形容词只用于人,-ing 形容词只用于物,此说法尽管对读 者来说记忆方便,而且在许多情况下也是可行的,但由于说得太绝对,在许多情况下却是不可靠的。 如-ing 形容词用于人的情况就比比皆是: 假若你的老师说话幽默、 讲课生动, 那么不仅他的课非常 interesting, 而且你会说他是一个 interesting man(有趣的人)。比较: I?m interested in interesting people. 我对有趣的人感兴趣。 He was worried about his worrying son. 他为他令人担忧的儿子感到担忧。 He was annoyed with the annoying person. 他对这个讨厌的人很生气。 另一方面,-ed 形容词用于指物的情况也不少见。比较并体会: a frightened look 害怕的表情(指带有这种“表情”的人感到害怕) a frightening look 吓人的表情(指这种“表情”令人害怕) an excited talk 心情激动的谈话(指“谈话”的人心情激动) an exciting talk 令人激动的谈话(指听“谈话”的人心情激动) 「注」并不是所有-ed 形容词都表被动,有的-ed 可能表示完成或其他意义: fallen leaves 落叶,an escaped prisoner 逃犯,a learned professor 博学的教授,an aged man 老人。 neither…nor…的用法 neither…nor…,其意为“既不…也不…”、“…和…都不”: I have neither time nor money. 我既无时间又无钱。 I neither smoke nor drink. 我既不抽烟也不喝酒。 He neither knows nor cares what happened. 他对所发生的事不闻不问。 This is neither my fault nor yours. 这既不怪我,也不怪你。 「注」通常应连接两个相同性质的句子成分,但有时后一成分可能省略与前一成分相同的词。若连接两个成 分作主语,其谓语通常与靠近的主语保持一致:Mary neither likes maths nor (likes) history. 玛丽既不喜欢数学 也不喜欢历史。 Neither Jim and Jack was at home. 吉姆和杰克都不在家。 但在非正式文体中也可一律用复数:Neither Jim and Jack were at home. 吉姆和杰克都不在家。 have been to 和 have gone to 的区别 两者均可后接地点,前者表示去过某地,通常可与表示次数的状语连用;后者表示到某地去了,强调说话的当时 去某地的人不在场。如: 1. have been to 用例: He has been to Paris three times. 他去过巴黎三次。 They have been to the zoo. 他们到动物园去了。 The children have gone to play in the park. 孩子们到公园玩耍去。 2. have gone to 用例: He has gone to Paris. 他去巴黎了。 Everyone has gone home. 大家都回家去了。 He has gone to see her uncle. 他去看他叔了。She has gone to the cinema with her boyfriend. 她与男朋友看电影去了。 It seems that / as if ...用法举例辨析 此句型实质上是“主+系+表”结构。其中 it 是人称代词,并无实意,指的是某种情况,seems 为系动词,that / as if 引导表语从句。 一、It seems that …表示“看起来……”。 强调根据一定的事实所得出的一种接近于实际情况的判断,可以说表示事实。 (可以转换成“名词或代词 + seem +动词不定式”句型,其意不变,如果动词不定式为 to be + 形容词时,to be 往往省略。) It seems that it is more difficult for women to get to the top of the company. 妇女似乎更难提升到公司的最高职 位。 It seems that no one knows what has happened in the park. (No one seems to know what has happened in the park.) 似乎没有人知道在公园里发生了什么事。 It seems to me that he has known everything. (He seems to have known everything) 在我看来他似乎什么事都知 道了。 It seems to me that Mr. White will not come again. 依我看,怀特先生不会再来了。
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It seems that she is happy. 她似乎很高兴。 It seems that he likes his new job. 他看起来很喜欢他的新工作。 It seems that they don't like the idea. 他们似乎不喜欢这个主意。 It seems that he is lying.看来他在撒谎。 二、It seems as if ...也表示“看起来……,似乎……”。 使用该句型表示可能:若从句表示的是很可能实现的事情,从句谓语用陈述语气;若从句表示的是与事实相 反的假设或实现的可能性很小的事情时,则从句谓语要用虚拟语气。 1、从句的谓语动词常用虚拟语气来表示所设想的事情不真实或不可能发生/存在。 It seems as if she had read this novel.看来她好像看过这本小说。 It seems as if it were autumn. 现在仿佛是秋天似的。 It seems as if it were spring already. 似乎春天已经来了。 It seems as if he knew everything. 好像他什么都知道似的。 It seems as if she had been to England. 好像她到过英国似的。 It seems as if they had never seen each other before. 仿佛他们以前从未见过面。 It seems as if he were in a dream.看来他像是在做梦。 It seemed as if the good man were trying to teach us all he knew at this last lesson.这个好心人仿佛要在最后这一 堂课上把他的全部知识教给我们。 2、如果可能性很大则用陈述语气,或者句中的情况可能发生或可能被设想为真实,则仍然用陈述语气。 It seems as if our team is going to win.看来我们队要胜了。 It seems as if he has learned by heart a speech written by someone else.看来他像是背了一篇由别人写的演讲稿。 It seems as if he has been at the scene of the crime 似乎他好像在犯罪现场。 It seems as if it is going to rain. (It seems to rain) 看来天要下雨了。 It seems that she is ill. 她似乎病了。 It seems that it is going to rain. 仿佛天要下雨。 It seems as if Ken will win the race. 看上去肯好像能赢。 It seems as if our team is going to win. 看来我们队要胜了。 3、as if 还可用于其它动词之后或省略句中。 (as if 引导的从句是“主语+系动词”结构,可省略主语和系动词,只剩下名词、不定式、形容词(短语)、 介词短语或分词。) She looks as if she were ten years younger. 她看起来好像年轻了十岁。 You look as if you didn?t care. 你看上去好像并不在乎。 He talks as if he knew where she was. 他说话的样子,好像他知道她在哪里似的。 He talks about Rome as if he had been there before. 他说起罗马来好像他以前去过罗马似的。 The girl listened as if she had been turned to stone. 那女孩倾听着,一动也不动,像已经变成了石头似的。 He opened his mouth as if he would say something. 他张开嘴好像要说什么。 It looks as if it might snow. 看来好像要下雪了。 Tom raised his hands as if (he was going) to say something. 汤姆举起手好像要说什么。 She left the room hurriedly as if (she was) angry. 她匆忙离开房间好像生气的样子。 He acts as if (he were) a fool. 他做事像个傻子。 no more than 及其相似结构用法归纳 一、no more than 与 not more than 1. no more than 的意思是“仅仅”“只有”“最多不超过”,强调少。如: This test takes no more than thirty minutes. 这个测验只要 30 分钟。 The pub was no more than half full. 该酒吧的上座率最多不超过五成。 For thirty years, he had done no more than he (had) needed to. 30 年来,他只干了他需要干的工作。 2. not more than 为 more than (多于)的否定式,其意为“不多于”“不超过”。如: Not more than 10 guests came to her birthday party. 来参加她的生日宴会的客人不超过十人。
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比较:She has no more than three hats. 她只有 3 顶帽子。(太少了) She has not more than three hats. 她至多有 3 顶帽子。(也许不到 3 顶帽子) I have no more than five yuan in my pocket. 我口袋里的钱最多不过 5 元。(言其少) I have not more than five yuan in my pocket. 我口袋里的钱不多于 5 元。(也许不到 5 元) 二、no more……than 与 not more……than 1. no more……than 表示对两者都否定,意为“同……一样不”(=neither……nor……)。如: He is no more a writer than a painter. 他既不是画家,也不是作家。(=He is neither a painter nor a writer.) He?s no more able to read Spanish than I am. 他和我都读不懂西班牙语。(=Neither he nor I am able to read Spanish.) I know no more Spanish than I know Greek. 我对西班牙语和希腊语同样都不懂。(=I know neither Spanish nor Greek.) 2. not more……than 指两者都具有某种特征,但是程度不同,意为“不如”“不及”(= not so…… as)。如: She is not more clever than he is. 她不如他聪明。(=She is not so clever as he is.) This book is not more difficult than that one. 这本书不及那本书难。(This book is not so difficult as that one.) 三、no less than 与 not less than 1. no less than 的意思是“多达”“有……之多”,强调多,与 no more than 意思相反。如: He made no less than £500. 他赚了多达 500 英镑的钱。 He paid no less than $10,000 for it. 他为此付了一万多美元。 No less than 50 people offered to buy it. 至少有 50 个人提出要买它。 No less than 50 passengers got killed in the train accident yesterday. 死于昨天火车车祸的旅客有 50 人之多。 My father, no less than I, is a baseball fan. 我的父亲不亚于我,也是个棒球迷。 2. not less than 为 less than(少于)的否定式,其意为“不少于”“不下于”“至少”。如: He has not less than 10,000 dollars. 他至少有一万元。 Not less than 500 people attended the meeting. 参加会议的至少 500 人。 比较:He has no less than seven daughters. 他有 7 个女儿之多。 He has not less than seven daughters. 他至少有 7 个女儿。 四、no more……than 与 no less……than 1. no more……than 意为“与……一样不”,用于否定两者。如: She?s no more a great singer than I am. 她不是优秀歌手,我也不是。 A whale is no more a fish than a horse is. 马不是鱼,鲸也不是鱼。 He is no more an artist than you are a mathematician. 就像你不是数学家一样,他也不是艺术家。 2. no less……than 意为“和……一样”,用于肯定两者。如: Your brother is no less wise than you. 你的兄弟跟你一样聪明。 A dolphin is no less a clever animal than a dog is. 海豚与狗同样都是聪明的动物。 Italian is no less a mother tongue for him than English. 如同英语一样,意大利语也是他的母语。 五、more than 的用法 1. (指数量)多于 I?ve known him for more than twenty years. 我已认识他 20 多年了。 2. 不只是,不仅仅是(通常后接名词、动词、从句等) He is more than a father to her. 他待她胜过父亲。 He more than smiled, but laughed. 他不只是微笑,而是放声大笑。 The result was much more than I imagined. 结果远远超出我的想象。 3. 极其,非常(通常后接形容词、副词或分词等) I was more than pleased with the pay rise. 薪水涨了,我高兴极了。 He was more than upset by the accident. 他对这次事故感到非常难过。 4. 难以,完全不能(其后通常连用情态动词 can) That is more than I can tell. 那事我实在不明白。 The heat there was more than he could stand. 那儿的炎热程度是他所不能忍受的。
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六、less than 的用法 1. (指数量)不到,不足 It?s less than half an hour's drive from here. 开车到那里不到半个钟头。 In less than an hour he finished the work. 没要上一个小时,他就完成了工作。 2. 比……(小)少 She eats less than she should. 她吃得比她应该吃的少。 Half the group felt they spent less than average. 半数人觉得他们的花费低于平均水平。 3. 不太,一点也不 The boys were less than happy about having a party. 开晚会男孩子们并不很高兴。 We were less than delighted to have company that day. 那天有客人我们并不太高兴。 He was less than helpful when we arrived. 我们到达时他一点也不帮忙。 七、more……than 的用法 1. 比……多,比……更 He has more books than me. 他的书比我多。 He is more careful than the others. 他比其他人更仔细。 2. 与其……不如 He is more lucky than clever. 与其说他聪明,不如说他幸运。 He is more (a) scholar than (a) teacher. 与其说他是位教师,不如说他是位学者。 注:该句型主要用于同一个人或物在两个不同性质或特征等方面的比较,其中的比较级必须用加 more 的形 式,不能用加词尾-er 的形式。 八、less……than 的用法 1. 不像(如) He is less honest than his brother. 他不如他哥哥诚实。 2. 比……少,不如……多 We drink less coffee than tea. 我们喝咖啡不如喝茶多。 I got less money than the others did. 我比别人得到的钱少。 3. 与其……不如…… I regard him less as my teacher than as my friend. 与其说我把他当作老师,不如说我是把他当作朋友。 注:表示此义时可与 more……than 结构替换(但要注意词序的变化)。如: He is less a teacher than an expert./He is more an expert than a teacher. 与其说他是老师,不如说他是专家。 九、陷阱题分析 1. How beautifully she sings!I have never heard_____voice. A. a better B. a best C. the better D. the best 「陷阱」容易误选 D,认为最高级前要用定冠词。 「分析」其实此题最佳答案为 A.该句可视为 I have never heard a better voice than her voice 之省略,全句句意 为“她唱得多好啊!我从未听过她这么好的声音”。 请再看以下类似的实例:He is fine,never better. 他很好,比以往任何时候都好。 This bird is really lovely. I?ve never seen a finer one. 这只鸟真可爱,我从未见过这样好看的鸟。 比较以下试题,情形也大致相同: (1)“I've never found a better job.” -----“______” A. I don?t think so B. Too bad C. Congratulations D. Don?t worry 答案选 C.I've never found a better job 可视为 I?ve never found a better job than this job 之省略,句意为“我从来 没有找到比这份工作更好的工作”,即“这是我所找到的最好的工作”。 (2)“What do you think of the service here?” ----“Oh,______ . We couldn?t have found a better place.” A. too bad B. sorryC. wonderful D. impossible 答案选 C.We couldn?t have found a better place 可视为 We couldn?t have found a better place than this place, 其意 为“我们不可能找到一个比这儿更好的地方”,即“这是我们所能找到的最好的地方”。 (3) Boris has brains. In fact, I doubt whether anyone in the class has______IQ. A. a highB. a higher C. the higher D. the highest 答案选 B.句意为“……我怀疑班上有没有哪个人比他智商更高”,即“我认为他可能是班上智商最高的”。 (4) How cold it is! ----We?ve never had______this winter. A. the colder day B. a cold day C. the coldest dayD. a colder day 答案选 D.句意为“今年冬天我们还从未遇上过这样冷的日子”。
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2. Professor White has written some short stories,but he is______known for his plays. A. the best B. moreC. better D. the most 「陷阱」容易误选 D. 「分析」此题首先不宜选 B 或 D,因为 well known 的比较级和最高级通常是 better known 和 best known, 有时也可以是 more well known 和 most well known,但通常不能是 more known 和 most known.至于是选 A 还 是 C,这就要看语境。由于句中涉及的只有 stories 和 plays 两个对象,故应选比较级 C 答案。 3. You are______careful than your brother. You two can't do the work that needs care and skill. A. not more B. no more C. not lessD. no less 「陷阱」容易误选 A. 「分析」要做对此题,首先要正确理解以下结构的含义:not more……than=不如…… no more……than=和……一样不(否定两者) not less……than=不如……不(即指不如 less 后形容词的反面) no less……than=和……一样(肯定两者) 比较以下各句的意思:You are more careful than he is. 你比他仔细。 You are not more careful than he is. 你不如他仔细。 You are no more careful than he is. 你和他一样不仔细。 You are less careful than he is. 你不如他仔细(你比他粗心)。 You are not less careful than he is. 你比他仔细(你不如他粗心)。 You are no less careful than he is. 你和他一样仔细。 通过以上分析,再结合句子语境,可知此题最佳答案为 B. 4.“Oh, how fat he is!”“But I think he ist______han fat.” A. shortB. shorter C. more shortD. shortest 「陷阱」容易误选 B.认为 short 为单音节形容词,故用-er 构成比较级。 「分析」其实正确答案应是 C.要弄清此问题,得先从比较句型的两种不同类型说起。 (1)异类同质比较。即指两个不同的人或事物(异类)在同一方面(同质)进行比较。如:My room is smaller than yours. 我的房间比你的小。 Our country is more powerful than theirs. 我们的国家比他们的国家更强大。 (2) 同类异质比较。 即指同一个人或事物 (同类) 在两个不同的方面 (异质) 进行比较, 这类句子常译为“ (更 多的)是……,而不是” “与其……不如……”等。如:He was more lucky than clever. 他是靠运气而不是靠聪明。 She was more surprised than angry. 她感到更多的是惊讶而不是生气。 This is more a war movie than a western. 这更应当说是一部战争片,而不是西部片。 按英语习惯,在进行同类异质比较时,只能用 more 构成比较级,不能用-er 形式,即使是单音节词也是如此。 十、模拟训练 1. I don?t like it at all. It can?t be ______. A. better B. worse C. best D. worst 2. I?m ______ at sums than Jean, but better at history. A. more B. less C. worse D. cleverer 3. We couldn?t have picked ______ day for the picnic-it rained nonstop. A. a worse B. a worst C. the worse D. the worst 4. I know this is not quite the right word, but I can?t be bothered to think of ______. A. a better B. a best C. the better D. the good 5. With the development of the Internet,______ communication is done by regular mail. A. less B. more C. little D. few 6. —If you don?t like the red coat,take the blue one.—OK, but do you have ______ size in blue?This one?s a bit tight for me. A. a big B. a bigger C. the big D. the bigger 7. If there were no examinations,we should have ______ at school.
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A. the happiest time B. a more happier time C. much happiest time D. a much happier time 8. —Are you satisfied with what he did? —No, it couldn?t have been ______. A. worse B. better C. so bad D. the worse 9. I think whoever makes ______ contributions to the company than others should get ______ income. A. greater;the higher B. more greater;a higher C. greater;the highest D. more greater;the higher 10. The Chinese Education Department suggests teachers should receive ______ education to catch up with thedevelopment. A. farther;late B. farther;later C. further;lately D. further;latest 11. He knows little of mathematics,______ of chemistry. A. as well as B. no less than C. still less D. no more than 12.the temperature,______ water turns into steam. A. The high,the fast B. Higher,faster C. The more higher,the faster D. The higher,the faster 13. The computers in the other shop will be ______, but ______ as those in this shop. A. cheaper;not as better B. more cheaper;not as better C. cheaper;not as good D. more cheap;not as good 14. —I didn?t do well in this English examination. How about you? —I did ______ you. A. not better than B. no worse than C. as well as D. no better than 15. Mary kept weighing herself to see how much ______ she was getting. A. heavier B. heavy C. the heavier D. the heaviest 16. —The weather is not good enough for an outing,is it? —Not in the least. We have not have ______ at this time of the year. A. a worse day B. a nicer day C. such a bad day D. so fine a day 17. —Does Jim do his new job well? —______ his old job. How stupid!I fear there?s no hope for him. A. No better than B. Not better than C. No so well as D. No as well as 18. This bird is really lovely,and I?ve never seen ______ one. A. a finer B. a finest C. the finer D. the finest 19. —If you go to the post office,would you please get me a stamp? —I am ______ willing to. A. no more than B. not more than C. more than D. no less than 20. —Minister,are you satisfied with the performance of the Chinese athletes in Athens Olympics? —Yes, it couldn?t have been ______. A. worse B. better C. so bad D. the worse 「答案与解析」 1. B.it can?t be worse 在此相当于 It?s the worst thing I ever knew. 2. C.句意为“我的算术比琼差,但我的历史比她强”。注意句中的转折连词 but 及其后的 better. 3. A.We couldn?t have picked a worst day 与 It is the worst day we?ve picked 同义。 4. A.a better 为 a better one 之省略。注意,a better one (一个更好的)是与前文“我知道这不是一个很适 合的词”相呼应的。 5. A.若选 B 或 C 均不合事实;若选 D,不合语法,因为 few 后要接可数名词的复数形式。 6. B.从句意看,空格处应填比较级 bigger,因此排除 A 和 C.选项 B 与 D 的区别是,一个用了不定冠词, 一个用了定冠词,两者的区别是,不定冠词表泛指,定冠词表特指。 7. D.由于是将有考试与没有考试作比较,所以应用比较级,不用最高级,由此排除 A 和 C.选项 B 的错误 在于用了 more happier 这样的双重比较级(即 more 后不能再加比较级)。 8. A.由关键词 No 可知,此处的意思是“不可能比这更差的(worse)了”。 9. C.more 不可修饰比较级,排除 B 和 D.greater……than others 表示的是最高级意义,故后面用最高级。 10. D.只有表示实际距离的远, 才可用 farther (此时也可用 further) 否则就用 further.further education 进 , 修; late 迟的;later 后来;lately=recently 近来;latest 最新的。
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11. C.still/even/much less 更不用说,更何况。 12. D.“the+比较级,the+比较级”意为“越……就越……”。 13. C.两者比较用比较级,表示“比……”;同级比较用 as……as 或 not as/so……as.句意为“那家商店的电 脑将比这家商店的便宜,但不如这家商店的好。” 14. D.no better than =as badly as,意为“一样不好”。 15. A.此题考查比较级的用法。Mary 是想知道她比以往称起来重了多少,故用比较级。“how much+比较级” 意为“比以前(重、高、远……)多少”。 16. A.本题关键是对 not in the least 的理解,它的意思是“一点也不好”,故可知道天气很糟糕。not 与比较级 连用,事实上相当于一个最高级的用法。后句的意思是:一年之中再也碰不到比这更糟糕的天气了。 17. A.根据 How stupid!I fear there?s no hope for him 可知说话人对 Jim 新工作表现的评价是负面的,故选 A.no better than 表示“与……一样的不好,与……一样的差”之意。句意是:他做新工作与以前工作一样差。他 太笨了,我担心他没什么希望了。 18. A.I?ve never seen a finer one 的实际意思是 This is the finest one I?ve ever seen. 19. C.因为 more than 与形容词连用,意为“非常”。 20. B.从 Yes 可知,说话者对中国运动员的表现是持肯定态度的。couldn?t……better 指好得不能再好,就是 最好的意思。注意:这种 can 的否定式与比较级连用在听力里面也时常出现。 when,while,as 考点辨析 when,while,as 都能引导多种状语从句: 一、when 常见考点 1、“当……时候”,引导时间状语从句。 When he was a young man,he was fond of hunting. It was already 10:00PM,when I finished the work. 2、“正在那时,这时”等于 and at that time,引导时间状语从句。 We were having a meeting when someone broke in. We were about to leave when it began to rain. 3、“既然”等于 since 或 considering that, 引导原因状语从句。 It was foolish of you to take a taxi,when you should easily walk there in five minutes. How can they learn anything when they spend all their spare time watching TV? 4、“虽然,然而,可是”引导让步状语从句。 He usually walks when he might ride. They had only three chairs when they need five. 二、while 常见考点 1、“当……时候”, 引导时间状语从句(从句动作必须是延续性的)。 Please don't talk so loud while others are working. While I was cleaning the window,my finger was seriously cut. 2、“虽然,尽管”相当于 although,引导让步状语从句(常把 while 放在句首)。 While she is a top student, she has some shortcomings. While the Internet is bridging the distance between people, it may also be breaking some home or will cause other family problems. 3、“只要,如果”等于 as long as,引导条件状语从句。 There is hope while there is life. While you study hard, your effort will pay off. 4、“而,然而”,表对比或相反的情况。 He likes pop music, while I am fond of folk music. Kids talk frequently about what they can do, while many adults do the opposite, tending to talk about what they can't . 三、as 常见考点 1、“一边……一边”或“随着……”,引导时间状语从句(as 引导的从句内部的动作与主句内动作同步)。 John sings as he works. (一边……一边) Jame?s blindness was getting worse as he was getting older.(随着……) 2、“因为”, 引导原因状语从句。 As you weren?t there, I left a message. Perhapshe will need some help as he was ill. 3、“尽管,即使,虽然” 引导让步状语从句(用于形容词,副词或名词后构成部分倒装)。
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Young as I am, I already know what career I want to follow. Much as I like you, I couldn't live with you. Child as Tom is , he has been a success. worth, worthy, worthwhile 用法区别 区别 1 worth 表示“值,值得”,可用表语或后置定语,其后一定要有名词或动名词作宾语,但不能接不定式。如: The book is worth $ 100.这本书值 100 元。 The book is worth reading.这本书值得看。 This is a book worth reading.这是一本值得读的书。 区别 2 worthy 表示“应得,配得上,值得”,常作表语或后置定语,后接不定式,或 of 加名词或动名词。如: His behaviour is worthy of great praise. 他的行为应受到高度赞扬。 I think he is not worthy of her. 我认为他配不上她。 The book is worthy of being read. = The book is worthy to be read.这体书值得读。 This is a book worthy of being read. = This is a book worthy to be read.这是一本值得读的书。 区别 3 worthwhile 表示“值得的,值得干的,值得花时间/金钱/精力的”,可作定语、表语或宾补。如: Nursing is a very worthwhile career. 护理是很值得干的职业。(定语) The visit to Paris is worthwhile. 去巴黎访问是值得的。(表语) I think it worthwhile to read the book. 我认为看那本书是值得的。(宾补) 还可用于 It is worthwhile doing /to do sth. 句型。如: It is worthwhile reading /to read the book.= Reading /To read is worthwhile.这本书值得看。 有时可在 worth 与 while 之间插入 one?s.如: The work is worth your while. 这工作值得你去做。 It is worth our while to discuss the question. 这个问题值得我们讨论。 Make it worth sb.?s while 酬谢某人。如: They promised to make it worth her while if she would take part. 他们许诺说她要是参加,就给她报酬。 everyone, someone, anyone, no one, none 用法区别 一、everyone n. 每个人 pron. 每人,人人 例句与用法: 1. In a small village, everyone knows everyone else.在一个小村庄里,人人皆相识。 2. Not everyone likes this book.并不是每个人都喜欢这本书。 3. Everyone should do his part.每人都应尽他的本分。 4. After these dry days, everyone hopes for rain.干燥的天气之后,人人都希望下雨。 5. His coarse manners shocked everyone.他的粗鲁的举止使每个人震惊。 6. Everyone has the right to live in his own way.每人都有权按自己的方式生活。 7. We adhere to the principle that everyone should be treated fairly.我们必须坚持人人都应该被平等对待这一原 则。 8. Everyone should obey the government ordinance.每个人都必须遵守这条政府法令 二、someone pron. 某人,有人 例句与用法: 1. Someone has to lock up the house.总要有人把房子锁起来。 2. I remember feeling that God, or someone, had brought us together.我记得感到上帝或某人把我们凑合在一起。 3. I felt someone twitch at my coat.我感到有人猛地拉我的上衣。 4. A proposal to drink to someone or something or a speech given before the taking of such a drink.祝酒为某人或某 物而干杯的建议或喝这种酒以前的一个讲话
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5. Someone believes that a baby's urine is a kind of medicine.有人相信婴儿的尿是一种药。 6. Someone in the audience began to laugh.观众中有人开始笑起来。 7. Since you can't answer the question, perhaps we'd better ask someone else.既然你无法回答这个问题,我们最 好再问问别人。 8. Someone tried to poison our dog.有人想毒杀我们的狗。 三、anyone pron. 任何人 例句与用法: 1. You shouldn't trust anyone strange.你不应相信任何陌生人。 2. It can happen to anyone.这事可能发生在任何人身上。 3. Anyone swimming in this lake does so at his own risk.任何人在此湖中冒险游泳,其后果自负。 4. Anyone with an annual income of under 5000 may be eligible to apply.凡年收入在 5000 英镑以下者均可申请。 5. Anyone touching that wire could get badly shocked.任何人碰到那根电线都会遭到严重的电击。 6. I forbid you to tell anyone.我不许你告诉任何人。 7. John is more diligent than anyone else in his class.约翰比班上其他的同学用功。 8. He was too shy to talk to anyone at the party.在晚会上他很腼腆,没有和任何人讲话。 四、no one: pron. 没有人(谁也不) 例句与用法: 1. No one knows outside two or three persons.除两三个人外谁也不知道。 2. He walked along in the shadows hoping no one would recognize him.他走在暗处,希望没有人认出他来。 3. No one can remain youthful forever.没有人能永保青春。 4. No one doubts her competence as a teacher.谁也不怀疑她能胜任教师工作。 5. There was a traffic accident in this street, but no one was harmed.这街上发生了交通事故,但没有人受伤。 6. No one knows what will happen next.谁也不知道下一步有什麽事。 7. No one could understand the little baby's babble.没人能听懂这个小婴孩的话。 8. Nowadays no one will challenge the fact that the earth is round.现在没有人会对地球是圆的这一事实提出异 五、none ad. 一点也不 prep. 没人,毫无 pron. 没有人,没有任何东西 例句与用法: 1. None of the money is mine.这些钱中没有一文是我的。 2. My car is none the worse for the accident.我的汽车遇到事故,但毫无损坏。 3. The salary they pay me is none too high.他们付给我的薪水不太高。 4. None but the best is good enough for my child.只有最好的才配得上我的孩子。 5. After hearing her talk on computers I'm afraid I'm none the wiser.我听了她关於计算机的讲话之后似乎毫无收获。 6. The choir sang sweetly, and none more so than the Welsh boy.唱诗班唱得很悦耳,尤其是没人比得上那个威 尔士男孩儿。 7. He is aware, none better than he, that…… 谁也没有他更清楚地知道…… 8. I wanted some string but there was none in the house.我需要一些绳子,但家里一根也没有。 become,grow,go,get,run,turn 等系动词辨析及搭配用法 常见的“变成”类系动词有 become, get, come, go, grow, fall, turn, run 等,都表示从一种状态到另一 种状态。尽管意思都差不多,但搭配有差别,若不注意,运用时会出错。我们要注意以下几个方面。 1. 形容词作表语。 go 和 come 是一对相反的词。''go+adj.''表示令人不快的事情,而''come+adj.''表示好的事情。如: In hot weather, meat goes bad. Things will come righ in the end. go 与 come 前面的主语一般是物。如: 误:She goes famous. 正:She becomes(gets) famous. 表语为 mad,crazy(古怪的),blind, lame 或表示颜色的词,go 前面的主语可以是人。如:
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He went mad. Hearing this, she went red. run 后面接 short,dry, low, deep 等词,主语多为能流动,能消耗掉的东西。如: Their money was running short. Still waters run deep. 但 wild 作表语,主语可以是人,如: Don't let the children run wild. grow 与 run 相对,接表示人或物特征的静态形容词,也接表示天气的形容词,侧重于“逐渐变成”。如:The girl grew thinner and thinner. Soon the sky grew light. turn 多接表示颜色的形容词,也接表示天气的形容词,它侧重变得与以前完全不同。如: The man turned blue with fear. The weather suddenly turned much colder. fall 接 asleep, silent 等静态形容词和表示疾病的形容词,但不能接形容词比较级。如: She fell ill froom cold. (误)She fell from cold. (正)She got worse. fall short(没中),fall apart(散开),fall flat(没效果),可作成语记住。 ''get+adj.''是口语,用得广泛,get 能替代 become, become 较正式,get 与 become 前面的主语既可以是人又可 以是物。如: He became(got) angry. His coat has become(got) badly torn. get 较多地与形容词比较级连用。如: The days are getting longer and longer. 注意: become 一般不用于“将来成为”的意思。 (误) hope you will become well. 正) hope you will get well. 如 I ( I 2. become, turn, get, go, fall 能用名词作表语,其它的则不能。如: His dream has become(got) a reality. He has turned scientist. He has gone socialist. He fell(a) victim to cancer. 注意:go, turn 后面的名词通常不带冠词。 3. become, get, grow 能接过去分词,并且 come 和 go 多接有否定前缀的过去分词。“get+过去分词”表示 一次行为:“become+过去分词”表示事情发生的最后结果。如: The string comes untied. His report went unnoticed. The fence gets white——washed every year. She became engaged as a typist. 4. get, go, come 能接现在分词,不过它们已失去“成为”的意思。如: They went in and got chatting together.(开始) We often go swimming.(去) He came running in(来) 5. come, grow, get 能接不定式,这种结构表示变化过程,come 表示“最终变得”get 表示“由不……变得”, grow 表示“渐渐变得”如: I've really come to love this place. Mary's growing to be more and more like her mother. You'll soon get to like it. 这种结构不能用于带有一段时间的完成时态。如: (误)They have got to know each other for years. (正)They have known each other for years. 6. 它们都可以接介词短语,固定搭配需要一个一个地记。如: They ran out of money. The problem will come under discussion. They fell behind the others. What has become of the girl. It's getting near tea-time. 我们今后在阅读时,要留心这些系动词的搭配,见得多,善于运用,自然也就记得牢了。 become,get,go,grow,run,turn 都可以表示状态的变化,但要注意下面的几点:1.指人的情绪或身体状态 的变化,多用 become 与 get,两者可以互换。 1)Hearing what he said,the teacher got/became angry. 听到他所说的话,老师生气了。 2)I hope you will get well soon. 我希望你不久能痊愈。 2.become,get 也用于天气、社会的发展变化,两者可以互换。 1)Our country is getting/becoming stronger and stronger. 我们的国家日益强大。 2)It's becoming/getting colder and colder. 天变得越来越冷。 3.指人的身体、精神或事物向不好的方面变化时,多用 go,所以它后面的形容词常常是表示消极意义的。 1)Something has gone wrong with the machine. 机器出了毛病。 2)The meat has gone bad in such hot weather. 在如此热的天气,肉坏了。 on hearing the news of the accident in the local mine, she ____pale. A. got B. changed C. went D. appeared go mad go bad go crazy chang clolour chang from red to green change into 4.指颜色的变化时,多用 turn.
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1)The leaves turn yellow in autumn. 秋天树叶变黄了。 2)When she saw this,she turned red. 看到这个,她的脸红了。 5.become 与 turn 都可以接名词,become 后的名词前有冠词,turn 后的名词无冠词且常用单数。 1)She became a lawyer. 她成了一名律师。 2)He used to be a teacher till he turned writer. 成为作家之前他是一名教师。 注意:He became chairman of the party.他成了这一党派的主席。在此句话中,chairman 前无冠词,因为它是一 个表示职位的名词。 如果一个职位在一定时期内由一个人担任时, 这个表示职位的名词做表语、 宾补和同位语时, 常不用冠词。例如: 1)He was president of the Republic at that time. 2)We elected him monitor of our class. 3)Mr.Hunter,captain of the team,loves playing football. 这几个词用作连系动词时,都可以表示“变成”的意思,但具体用法有所不同。 become 通常不用来表示未来的 事,而表示变化过程已经完成,用法比较正式。如:I became ill.我病倒了。 get 也表示变化的过程已经完成,比 become 口语化,通常与形容词连用。 如:He has got rich.他变富了。 go 与 get 用法差不多,特别用于某些成语中。如: go bad 变坏,go blind 变瞎,go hungry 挨饿。 be 表示“成为”的意思时,多用于将来时、祈使语气或不定式。如: He will be a scientist.他将成为一名科学家。 I would like to be a bus-driver.我想成为一名公共汽车司机。 grow 表示“逐渐变成新的状态”的含义。如: My younger brother is growing tall.我的弟弟渐渐长高了。 turn 有“成为与以前完全不同的东西”的含义。如: the milk turned sour.牛奶变酸了 sometime,sometimes,some time,some times 用法区别 sometime (1)副词:某个时候。可指过去或将来的某个时候。如: ①Would you come to the cinema with me, sometime? 赏脸找个时间和我看场电影吗?(将来) ②We?ll take our holiday sometime in August. 我们会在八月找个时间度假。(将来) ③I bought this sometime last summer. 这是我在上个夏天买的。(过去) ④This mansion was built sometime around 1980. 这栋大厦是 1980 年左右建的。(过去) (2)形容词:前,过去的。意思类似 former. ①This is our sometime general manager.这是我们的前任总经理。 ②Our sometime classmate, Rose, is now a pop star. 我们以前的同学罗斯,现在是明星了。 sometimes 副词:有时候。顺便提一下,at times 也是“有时”的意思。 ①Every man is a fool sometimes, and none at all times. 每个人有时都会犯傻,但没有谁会一直都傻。 ②I sometimes have letters from him. 有时我会收到他的来信。 some time 某段时间。常与 for 连用。 ①We plan to stay in Hainan for some time. 我们打算在海南呆上一段时间。 ②I will keep the computer for some time, so you can use it.这部电脑我会留着一段时间,你可以用。 some times 几次。 several times 也可以表示“几次”, 但比 some times 较确定。 time 作可数名词时可作“次数”解; 表示“时间”时是不可数名词。 ①I am sure that we have met some times before.我肯定我们之前见过几次了。 ②The newly bought microwave oven failed to work some times.新买的微波炉坏了几次了。

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