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人教新课标知识点总复习必修一 Unit 2 English around the world


Unit 2 English around the world
重点词组
in some ways 在某些方面, 某种程度上 in a/one way 在某种程度上 in no way 绝不 by the way 顺便说 such as 例如 believe it or not 信不信由你 come up with 提出 come up to a place

参观某地 ever before 从前 even if/ though 即使 at the end of 在?末期 be based on 在...基础上 close to 距离?近 change?into 把?变成 in the early days 在早期 take?with?随身携带 the same? as 与?相同的 at present 目前 be absent from 缺席 be present at 在席;出席 carry out a rule 执行规则 be a native of 是? (哪里) 人 at sb’ s request 应某人的要求 have a command of 掌握 make a request 请 求 request that ? (should)+v 原形 in one direction 朝一个方向 give commands 命令 be different from 与?不同 i n the 1600’ s = in the 1600s 在 17 世纪初 as a rule 通常; 照例 be native to 是?的土产动物/植物 as we know 正如我们所知 an international language 一门国际语言 an international organization 一个国际组织 play a role/ part (in) 在?中担任角色; 在?中起作用;扮演一个角色; 参与 play an important role/ part 在? 中起重要作用 because of 因为; 由于 come up (vi) 走进; 上来; 发生; 被讨论 make (good/ full) use of (好好/充分)利用 from one place to another 从一处到另一处 present sth to sb / present sb with sth

用法解析 1. command n. & vt. 命令;指令;掌握 The officer commanded his soldiers to fire. 那名军官命令士兵们开火。 A general is a man who commands a large number of soldiers. 将军是统率众多士兵的人。 常用结构: at/ by sb’s command 听某人支配 take command of 控制 in command of 指挥着 under one’s command 由某人的指挥 under the command of sb. 在某人的指挥下 command sb. to do sth. 命令某人做某事 command (=order) that ... 命令……(从句用虚拟语气,即 should+ do 式,should 可省略) commander n. 指挥官 用适当的介词填空 ①For the first time in years, she felt she was command of her life. ②The army is the king’s direct command. ③The police arrived and took command the situation. ①in ②under/at/by ③of 2. request vt.&n. 请求;恳求;要求 常用结构: request sb. to do sth.请求某人做某事
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request sth. from/of sb. 向某人要求某物 request that sb. (should) do sth.要求某人做某事 make a request/requests 发出请求 at the request of sb.=at sb.’s request 依照某人的请求 request/demand/require request 表示“有礼貌的请求;正式的请求”。 demand 表示“有正当权利的要求”,因此含有“坚决或强烈要求”的意思。 require 表示 “ 要求所必须的东西;法律、协定、规章以及其他客观情况的要 求”。 但它们也有不同之处: ①require 和 request 都可以接宾语+to do sth.结构,而 demand 没有此种用法。但 可以说 demand of sb. to do sth. ②require+动名词时,主动形式的动名词具有被动意义,而 demand,request 无 此种用法。 They are demanding higher wages. 他们要求提高工资。 Do you require anything else? 你还要求(需要)别的吗? Many people have requested this next song. 许多人要求听下面这首歌。 They required me to keep silent. 他们要求我保持沉默。 The letter requested us to leave the house within six weeks. 这封信要求我们六周内搬出这所房子。 以上三个词的共同点是:从语法上看,request 和 demand,require 都可以接 that 引导的宾语从句,并且在从句中要使用虚拟语气。 单项填空 ①One of the requirements for a fire is that the material to its burning temperature.(2010· 陕西师大附中月考) A. be heated B. is heated C. would be heated D. do heat ②—Why were you late for such an important concert? —The plane arrived at the airport after a of three hours. (2010· 陕西商洛一轮检测) A. delay B. rest C. tour D. request ①解析:选 A。如同 require, demand, order, suggest, advise, insist, request 等动词 要求其后面的宾语从句使用虚拟语气一样,它们所对应的名词的同位语从句和 表语从句也要求使用虚拟语气,即:should+动词原形。故选 A。 ②解析:选 A。上句询问“迟到的原因”,因此下句中的名词应是与“迟到”意义有 关的名词,所以只能选择“延误”。 3. recognize vt. 辨认出;承认;公认 常用结构: recognize sb. 认出某人 recognize one’s voice 听出某人的声音 recognize ... as ... 认定;承认……为……
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recognize sb./sth. ... to be ...认为某人/某事物是…… recognize that ...承认…… When he walked out of the station, I recognized him immediately. 当他从车站里走出来时,我立刻认出了他。 Everyone recognized him to be the lawful heir/as the lawful heir. 大家都承认他为合 法继承人。 单项填空 —Oh, it’s you! I you. —I have just had my hair cut, and I’m wearing new glasses. (2010· 山东淄博六中检测) A. hadn’t recognized B. haven’t recognized C. didn’t recognize D. don’t recognize 解析:选 C。前句的句意为:哦,是你呀!我刚才没有认出你来。 所以要用一般过去时。 4. direction n. [C] 方向;方面;[U]指导;指挥 常用结构: in the direction of 朝……的方向(=towards) in sb’s direction 朝某人的方向(=towards sb.) under one’s direction 在……指导下(=under the direction of sb.) Tom went off in one direction and Jack in another. 汤姆往一个方向走,杰克往另外一个方向走。 Reforms are needed in many directions. 许多方面都需要改革。 He is walking in the direction of the police station. 他正朝警察局的方向走去。 He glanced in her direction and their eyes met. 他朝她这个方向一看,俩人的眼睛相遇了。 The singing group is under the direction of Mr Lee. 合唱团由李先生指挥。 direction 意为“指示;指引;用法说明”等,通常要用复数形式。 注意:表示邮件上的“姓名地址”时,也用复数形式。 Follow the directions on the medicine bottle. 请按药瓶上的说明服药。 (1)单项填空 Those who learn theory must develop the direction of practice. (2010· 山东枣庄一轮验收) A. to B. on C. in D. for (2)完成句子 (原创) ①I gave Mary full (地址)to enable her to find the post office. ②He did the work (在我的指 导下). (1)解析:选 C。in the direction of 为固定搭配,意为“朝……方向”。注意不要 用介词 to。 (2)①directions ②under my direction
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5. more than one 意为“不止一个”,虽然在意义上表示复数,但作主语或修饰主语时,谓语动词 用单数,与 many a(许多)用法一样;如果 more 修饰复数可数名词再跟 than one 作主语时,其谓语动词则要用复数。 More than one member has protested against the proposal. 不止一个成员反对这个建议。 More than one person has been concerned in this. 这里面涉及的不仅是一个人。 More persons than one have been involved. 涉及的不仅仅是一个人。 “more than+ adj.”意为“很;非常”。 在“more ... than ...”中,肯定“more”后面的,而否定“than”后面的,意为“是……而 不是……”或者“与其……不如……”。 “more than ... can/could”是英语里的一个常见结构,可把 more than 理解为 not,表 示 否 定 , 该 结 构 意 为 “ 非 …… 所 能 …… ; 是 …… 所 不 能 …… ; 不 是 …… 所 能……”。 more often than not 经常;往往 In doing scientific experiments, one must be more than careful with the instruments. 做科学实验时,对待仪器必须非常小心才行。 If you tell your father what you have done, he will be more than a little angry. 如果你把所做的事情告诉你父亲,他会非常生气的。 Catherine is more diligent than intelligent. 与其说凯瑟琳聪明,不如说她勤奋。 完成句子(原创) ①当我的老朋友布莱恩怂恿我抽一支烟时,我可再也熬不住了。 When my old friend Brian urged me to accept a cigarette, it was . ②可能的解释不止一个。 There is . ①more than I could bear ②more than one possible explanation 6. because of 因为;由于是介词短语,后跟名词、代词或动名词及 what 从句。 She got hurt because of what you’d said. 她因为你的话而受到伤害。 due to 意为“由于”常作表语,也作后置定语和状语。 thanks to 意为“多亏;由于”只作状语。 owing to 意为“由于”常作状语。 as a result of 意为“由于”作状语。 because/as/since/for because 表示直接原因,语气最强。回答 why 提出的问题只能用 because。在强调
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句型中,也只能用 because。 as 用于解释做某事的原因,语气较弱,通常位于主句前。 since 表示的原因是指人们已知的事实,常意为“既然”。语气比 because 弱,但比 as 强。通常位于主句前,并常与 as 换用。 for 并列连词,连接并列分句,表示一种补充说明,是推测或判断的理由,语气 较弱,不可位于主句前。有时可表示直接原因,相当于 because。 7. come up 走近;上来;提出 The little boy came up to the stranger and showed him how to get to the police station. 小男孩向陌生人走去,并告诉他去警察局的路。 We won’t forget the day when we watched the sun come up on top of the Tai Mountain. 我们不会忘记一同在泰山顶看日出的那天。 It is certain that the question will come up at the meeting. 这个问题在会议上一定会被提出来的。 The snowdrops are just beginning to come up. 雪莲花刚刚开始长出地面。 I am afraid something urgent has come up. 恐怕发生了什么急事。 come true 变成现实,成为现实 come across 邂逅 come about 发生 come from 来自 come out 出版;开花;结果是 come up with 想出 come round 绕道而来;苏醒 come down 落下,塌下 come over (从远处)来到;横过 come into use 开始使用 how come ...? (表示理解)……怎么回事? when it comes to sth.当涉及某事时 How come her French is so bad if she spent 5 years in pairs? 她在巴黎待了 5 年,但她的法语怎么这么糟糕。 When it comes to getting things done, he is useless. 一涉及到做事,他便不中用了。 (1)单项填空 They aren’t afraid when they the difficulties in their study. (2010· 河南 镇平质量检测) A. come up B. come to C. come about D. come out (2)用 come 构成的短语填空(原创) ①The hunter walked across the forest when suddenly a bear him. ②The magazine once a month.
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③I wish you can to England on your holiday. ④The engineers have new ways of saving energy. ⑤They an old school friend in the street this morning. (1)解析:选 B。考查短语辨析。come to 此处意为“涉及,提到”;come about 意为 “ 产生 ” ,如 :How did the difference between American English and British English come about? come up 意为“到来,来到”;come out 意为“出来,长出,发 芽”。 (2)①came at ②comes out ③come over ④come up with ⑤came across 8. such as 例如……;像这样的 such as/for example/that is/and so on such as 用来列举事物。通常插在被举例的带有解释性质的事物与前面的需要进 行解释的名词之间,意为“比如;诸如……之类的”,可与 like 互换,as 后不能 有逗号。 for example 同 for instance 一样起到补充说明的作用,表明在众多的内容中仅取 一两个例子,可放在举例之前或之后,意为“例如,举个例子”。 that is 是后面列举的事物的总量等于它前面所提到的总和,相当于 namely。也 用 that is to say。 and so on 对几个事物进行列举时,在说了其中的几个以后,用 and so on 进行概 括,说明还有例子,但不一一列出。 Boys like to play balls, such as football and basketball. 男孩子喜欢打球,比如足球和篮球。 Some students, Li Jun, for example, live in the country. 有些学生,如李军,住在农村。 I have three good friends, that is, John, Jack and Tom. 我有三个好朋友,即约翰、杰克和汤姆。 There are some books, pens, erasers and so on in my bag. 我的书包里有书、笔、橡皮等。 单项填空 A lot of countries have gained excellent achievements in space technology, China, . (2010· 安徽合肥八中检测) A. such as B. for example C. namely D. and so on 解析:选 B。四个词中只有 for example 位置灵活,可放在句首、句中或句末。 9. play a part (in) 扮演一个角色;参与 She plays an active part in local politics. 她积极参与地方政治活动。 She played a major part in the success of the scheme. 她对该计划的成功起了重要作用。 take part (in sth.)参加, 参与(某事) the best part of sth.(某事物的)绝大部分(尤指一段时间) for the most part 整体上; 通常; 多半
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for my part 就我来说 重点句型
1. However, they may not be able to understand everything. (然而,他们可能不是什么都 懂。 ) 2. This is because Britain ruled India from 1765 to 1947. (这是因为英国于 1765 年到 1947 年统治过印度。 ) 3. All languages change when cultures communicate with one another. (当不同文化互相沟通时,所有的语言都会发生变化。) 4. What the British call “petrol” the Americans call “gas”. (美国人把被英国人称作“petrol”的东西称作“gas” 。 此处 what 引导宾语从句) 5. Actually, it was based more on German than present day English. (实 际上,当时的英语更多地是以德语为基础的,而现代英语不是。) 6. ?those who reported the news were expected to speak excellent English. 7. The US is a large country in which many different dialects are spoken. (in which= where, 其引导定语从句。 美国是一个大国, 国内说着许许多多的方言。) 8. ?there is more than one kind of English in the world. (more than one+单数可数名词,作主语时,谓语用单数) 9. It is not easy for a Chinese person to speak English as well as a native English speaker. (对于一个中国人来说把英语说得跟以英 语为母语的人一样好是不容易的。) 句型:It is + adj/n+ for sb to do sth 对于某人来说做某 事是? 扩充: It is + adj+ of /for sb to do sth 当句式中形容词修饰 to do sth 时用 for; 若形 容词修饰 sb,则用 of. eg: It’s kind of you to help me carry the box. 附: 1. either?or?和 neither?nor?连接两个名词作主语, 谓语动词采取就近原则。 2. be different in 强调在某方面的不同 be different from 强调在各方面的不同 3. in the end 最后,最终 后无 of 结构 三个表示最后最终的用法: ⑴finally: 按照顺序的最后, 常与 first, secondly 等连用 ⑵at last: 经过长时间等待直到最后 ⑶in the end: 经过长期 曲折斗争努力,终于? 如:战争等 4. 与人交谈,常会有听不清楚或听不懂的情形, 遇到这种情况该如何开口呢? ⑴Pardon? ⑵I beg your pardon? I don’t understand./ Sorry, I can’t follow you. 对不起,我没听懂,请再说一遍好吗? ⑶Could you say that again, please? / Could you repeat that, please? 请再说一遍好吗? ⑷Could you speak more slowly, please? 请你说得慢一点好吗?

Which country do you think has the most English learners? 你觉得学英语最多的是哪个国家? do you think/believe/expect/find/know/suppose 作为插入语,放在特殊疑问词后, 其他内容紧跟其后并用陈述语序。 What time do you expect we will come and pick you up? 你希望我们几点来接你? What do you suppose he will do after he hears about the good news? 你认为他听到那个好消息后会做什么呢? Why do you think their team could win the football match? 你认为他们队为什么能赢得那场足球赛呢? Believe it or not, there is no such thing as standard English. 信不信由你,(世界上)没有什么标准英语。 (1)believe it or not 在句中用作插入语,意为“信不信由你;我说的是真的”。 常用作插入语的还有: generally speaking 一般来说 frankly speaking 坦白地说
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judging from ...从……来判断 to tell you the truth 说真的;老实说 to be honest 说实在的 to make matters worse 更糟糕的是 (2)such 上述一类的;诸如此类的 no such...as 没有这样的…… such as 例如 such...as...像……这样的…… such...that...这样……以至于…… such ... that ... /such ... as ... 在 such ... that ...结构中,that 是从属连词,引导结果状语从句,在从句中不作成 分。 在 such ... as ...结构中,as 是关系代词,引导定语从句,在从句中常作宾语。 He is reading such a book as you borrowed from the library last week. 他在读的书和 你上周从图书馆借来的一样。( as 是关系代词,引导定语从句) He is reading such an interesting book that I want to borrow it. 他在读的书这么有 趣,我想借来读读。(that 引导结果状语从句)

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