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Language points Unit 4

1.It exploded loudly with fire and rock, which were in time to produce the water vapour …
1). (使某物)炸开,爆炸

2). (指感情)迸发

explode with

/in/into...

3). (指人口)突然或迅速增加 The firework exploded in his hand and he was hurt seriously. The children exploded into laughter. The teacher exploded with anger. Now it is not easy to find jobs with the exploding world population. explosive adj.爆炸性的,易爆炸的 explosion n. 爆炸(声)

2. It exploded loudly with fire and rock, which were in time to produce the water vapour,…. in time: sooner or later; eventually 迟早;最后;终于 I’ll see him in time. 总有一天我会遇见他。 in time (for sth/to do sth): not late 及时;不迟 She will be back in time to prepare dinner. 她来得及回来准备晚饭。

in/out of time: in/not in the correct time 合/不合节拍
The audience clapped in time to the music. 观众合着音乐的节拍拍手。

3.(sth) be to (do): (something) will definitely happen, or it must happen 不可避免要发生或必须 发生。 e.g.They said goodbye, little knowing that they were never to meet again. Mr. Clark said to his daughter, “You are to be home by 10 o’clock at the latest.” The sports meeting was to take place soon..

4. As the earth cooled down, water began to appear on its surface. 随着地球的冷却, 地球的表面就开始出 现了水。 cool 1) v. Please open the window to cool the room. Don’t drink the tea before it cools a little. 2) adj. 凉爽的,冷静的,沉着的,冷漠的,冷淡的 be/get/seem/keep cool His songs received a cool response from the public. cool down a.凉快起来,冷却 b.指人的心境“平静下来,使…平静下来” A heated argument can be settled better if both sides cool down first. I tried to cool her down but she was still very angry when she left. Don’t cover the TV until it cools down.

5. Nobody knew that it was going to be different from other planets going round the sun.

be very / much / quite / entirely / totally different from 与…不同 1)城市生活和农村生活很不同。
City life is quite different from country life. 2)他们的品位和我不同。 Their tastes are different from mine. There are differences between…and… …与…之间有不同之处 tell…from… 把…与…区分开来 the same as… 与…一样 be similar to 与…相似

going round the sun为现在分词短语,做定语, 表示一般的动作。例如: Men breaking the law will be punished. Men who break the law will be punished. 现在分词短语作定语,也可表示进行的动作。 例如: Can you see the girl dancing with your boyfriend? Can you see the girl who is dancing with her boyfriend? 你能看到与男友跳舞的那个姑娘吗?

6. be harmful to 对…有害 do harm to sb. = do sb. harm 伤害某人,对某人有害处 1) Pollution is especially harmful to animals. 2) Smoking will do you a lot of harm. It does no harm (for sb.) to do… There is no harm in (sb.’s) doing sth.

7. It allowed the earth do dissolve harmful gases….
allow vt. 允许、许可、容许 allow+n./pron./doing

allow sb. to do
be allowed to do

My father doesn’t allow smoking at home. In fact he doesn’t allow us to smoke anywhere at any time.

Are we allowed to use the computer?

8. That made it possible for life to begin to develop. D our hope that 1. The foreign Minister said, “_____ the two sides will work towards peace. ”(2004BJ) A. This is B. There is C. That is D. It is C in the autumn when the weather 2. I like ____ is clear and bright. (NMET2004) A. this B. that C. it D. one 3. Why don’t you bring D ___ to his attention that you are too busy to do it? A. this B. that C. what D. it

it作形式宾语,其真正的宾语可以是不定式,动名词和从句。

4. Why? I have nothing to confess. A ____ you want me to say? A. What is it that B. What it is that C. How is it that D. How it is that A was named after a 5. Was it at the school ____ hero ______ he spent his childhood? A. which ; that B. where; where C. that; where D. which; where

9. They multiplied and filled the first oceans and seas with oxygen
.

multiply (数目上)增加,增多;乘;(使)繁殖 1) Our problems have multiplied since last year. 2) 2 and 5 multiply to make 10. 3) 6 multiplied by 5 is 30. = Multiply 6 by 5 to make 30.

4) The plants here multiply rapidly.

10.This encouraged the development of early shellfish and all sorts of fish. encourage 鼓舞;促进;怂恿。后接名词、代 词,也可接不定式作宾语补足语。如: High prices for corn and wheat will encourage farming. 玉米和小麦的高价将促进农业的发展。 My success encouraged me to continue. 我的成功鼓励我继续干下去。 He encouraged me to learn dancing. 他鼓励我去学跳舞。

11. Many millions of years later the first green plants began to appear on land. late adj. 迟到的,晚的;前任的;以前的;已故的 later adv. 后来,较晚时候,过后 adj. late的比较级(更迟的,更后的) latest adj. 最新的 lately adv. =recently 近来 1) Mr. Zhu Rongji is the late Prime Minister of China. 2) He is often late for school. 3) She said she would ring you later this morning. 4) Have you heard about the latest news? 5) It’s only lately that she has been well enough to go out.

12. spread的用法 (1)vi. (消息等)传开,流传。如:

The news spread through the school very quickly.
The fire spread from the factory to the house nearby. (2)vt. “使伸展,延伸,张开”,常与out连用。 I spread a new cloth on the table. 我在餐桌上铺上一条新桌布。 He spread out his arms to welcome us. 他张开手臂欢迎我们。

13. They are putting too much carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, which prevents heat from escaping from the earth into space. 阻止某人做某事 : prevent sb. (from) doing sth.
stop sb. (from) doing sth. keep sb. from doing sth. 1) We must prevent them from making trouble. 2) You should prevent the child from injuring himself. If nothing prevents, …

如果没有什么阻碍的话 , …

14.escape 1) v. escape

sth doing sth

escape punishment=escape being punished escape from sth/some place 2) n. Escape from the prison is difficult.

15. Whether life will continue on the earth for millions of years to come will depend on whether this problem can be solved.

for millions of years to come中不定式to come作定 语,与前面的名词之间有逻辑上的主谓关系:

She is the last person to do such a thing. 她是最不像会做这种事的人。

16. depend on/upon sb/sth/v-ing 1) 信赖,依靠 depend on/upon sb/sth for… sb to do sth You mustn’t depend on others to help you. All living things depend on the sun for their growth. 2) 视...而定,取决于... The price depend on the quality. Your success depends on whether you work hard. That depends on how you did it. depend on it 没问题,请放心(句末或句首) That /It (all) depends. 那得看情况而定 1) Depend on it, you’ll succeed. 2) He may support me, but it depends .

Tell him what you want to say; he’s a man to __. A. count B. believe C. trust D. depend 解析:相信/信赖某人: count on sb. believe in sb. depend on sb. trust (in) sb.

C

17. When the plants grew into forests, reptiles appeared for the first time.

She is growing into a beautiful young woman.
她渐渐出落成一个美丽的姑娘。

生长成为,渐渐成为或变得…(不用于被动语态)

动词

过去式

过去分词

现在分词

意义

lie
lie

lay

lain
lied

lying
lying

躺,位于
撒谎

lied

lay

laid

laid

laying

搁,放, 下蛋

The naughty boy D ___ to me that the hen that

___ there just now had___ two eggs the day
before. A. laid; laid; laid B. laid; lay; lain

C. lied; laid; lain

D. lied; lay; laid

Word study:
Translate the following into English 1. 把……当作 think of …as 2. 太阳系 solar system 3. 总有一天;及时 in time 4. 一般地说来 generally speaking 5. 信赖;取决于 depend on 6. 目前 at present 7. 做出选择 make choices 8. 天文学 astronomy 9. 氧 oxygen 10. 阻止 prevent …from …


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