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第一讲 高考听力应考技巧


第一讲 高考听力应考技巧
一. 高考听力测试考核的目标为: 1. 能获取具体的、事实性信息; 这类试题要求我们听清、听懂与话题中心相关的具体信息,准确理解具体细节,如时间、地 点、人物、价钱、数量、目的、原因、结果等。同时,还要求我们对所听到的信息进行简单 的处理,比如数字运算、时间顺序、比较筛选、同义转换、因果关系等。理解具体信息有助 于把握话题内容,领会说话者意图,

这是听力考查的重点内容。常见的提问方式有: Where is the woman going? How does the man pay for the tickets? What's wrong with the girl? When does the woman plan to arrive? What's the man's house number? How many hours does Tom sleep a day? Why does the man thank the woman? Which of the following is true? 2. 能理解主旨、要义; 这类试题要求我们对听到的内容有一个整体的把握和全面的领会,抓住说话者究竟在说什 么。 任何一段对话或独白都是围绕一个中心展开的, 有时主旨大意较明显, 有时则需要归纳、 概括。常见的提问方式有: What's the passage mainly about? What's the topic of the passage? What are the two speakers doing? What are the two speakers talking about? What is the dialogue/conversation about? 3. 对所听到的内容的背景,说话者之间的关系进行简单的推断; 这类试题要求我们从谈话的话题和语气来推断出对话双方(或说话人)的职业身份, 彼此之间 (或与他人)的关系,对话发生的时间、地点或场合等。常见的提问方式有: Where does this conversation take place? Where is the woman speaking? Where did the conversation most likely happen? When does the dialogue take place? Who do you think the woman probably is? What's the probable relationship between the speakers? 4. 理解说话者的意图、观点或态度。 这类试题要求我们从话语中听出其中可能有的"弦外之音",也就是揣摩说话人的意图、观点 或态度等,常见的提问方式有: What can we learn from the conversation/speakers? What can we know /learn about the woman? What does the man mean? What does the speakers want to tell us? What is the probable result of the conversation? What's the woman's opinion about the man's dress? How does the woman think about the man's way of working? Which of the following words best describes the day the speaker had? 二. 高考听力的特点及建议:

1. 语体、语音特点 在语体方面,听力试题属于口语,它的结构不像书面语那么严谨,其句子短,重复率高,诸 多I'm afraid, Excuse me, why not, you see, you know, well, ah, er, I mean 之类的词语频频 使用;在语音方面,有时会出现弱读、同化等现象;另外还会出现音素的省略,失去爆破等 现象。 2. 材料特点 (1)语料真实;(2)话题广泛;(3)用词浅显,结构简单。 三.如何提高听力水平 1.了解文化背景,熟悉日常交际 有这样一则对话: W:Some friends and I are going swimming this afternoon. How would you like to come along﹖ M:If only I didn't have to work today. 2.坚持听说训练,培养语音技能,提高自身的语音、语调 3.训练阅读写作,促进语感形成 4.倾听较长语篇,强化记忆能力 5.精听泛听并举,提高听力能力 6. 全方位积累? (1)单词关 (2)句法关 (3)熟悉听力命题特点? I. 主旨大意题? 此类题要求根据所给信息归纳原文的主题或者最合适的标题。一般为主观性问题,多为 Wh-question形式。常见有下列问题:? What does the passage talk about?? What is the passage/talk mainly about?? What is the main idea of the passage/talk?? What is the best title of the passage?? 对这种类型题,抓住短文的前两句话往往特别重要,因为前两句话往往是主题句,即使 不是主题句,也对理解全文有重要的意义。 II. 事实细节题? 在听力考试中对事实细节题的考查最多,常见的问题是五个W 一个H。? ① Where -question? 提问方式: Where does the conversation take place? Where is the man/woman now? 答题策略:掌握并联想与某些地点有关的关键词语。 对这类问题,考生应注意对话或短文的关键词语,通过关键词语判断地点。一般情 况下,试题常出现的地点有:学校、商店、餐馆、车站、机场、医院、邮局等。下 面列出其相关词:? School: lecture, paper, exam, grades, playground, teacher, classroom, textbook, mark, pass the exam, failure, break, exam-paper, absent from school, attend school, excellent. Restaurant: menu, soup, drink, order, dinner, snack, vegetables, Chinese food, Western-style food, dessert, taste, delicious, bill, check. Airport/Station:train,time table,takeoff,passenger,flight.?

Post office:parcel,package,stamp,postage.? Hospital:cold,fever,pain,cough,trouble,temperature.? Bank: check, cash, currency, deposit, passbook, interest rate, change money, cash a check, credit card. ②When-question 根据表示时间的关联词来判断事件发生的时间, 如: before,after,then, until,later, immediately等。? 听清楚有关数字和数字之间的关系,然后进行简单的计算,如: The long distance bus from Jinan to Qingdao usually takes 4 hours,but yesterday it took me two hours more because of the heavy traffic.? Q:How long did it take him to get to Qingdao yesterday?? 掌握年、 月、 星期的表达方法。 注意一些表示时间的词, 如: quarter, a couple of days, eve,dawn,day break... ③Which /Who -question? Who常用来提问说话人的身份,动作的执行者或接受者;Which主要对某种具体的事 物进行提问。常见形式如下:? Who is the speaker?? Which subject will Jack take?? Which language is Jack speaking?? 这类问题难度不大,有时文中直接给出答案,有时可以根据相关词判断。如:? Teacher/Student:class,exam,homework,part-time job Salesman :price,on sale,try on Reporter:news,report ④How-question? 主要提问:年龄、距离、速度、价格、数量等;说话人对事物的反应,动作的方式等。 问题的主要形式如下:? How old is the man?? How long does it take them to get there if they take plane?? How did the man go to Japan?? How much did the man pay for the dress?? How did they feel about the train?? 关于年龄、距离、速度等一般要进行简单的运算。考生除了要听清楚数字外,还要注 意百分数、倍数等的数量词。 如:double,half,dozen,couple,thirty percent,three times,century,etc.? ⑤Why-question 这类问题主要对原因进行提问,常与文中表示原因的句子形成因果关系。因此要注意 because,for,since,as,so that,to等引导的句子或短语。如: You will hear:The new universities were founded after the Second World War .A lot of students chose the new universities instead of Oxford. They became popular because of their advanced teaching methods.? Q:Why did the new universities become popular?? III. 推理判断题? 这类题是听力中的难点。判断要通过两种途径实现:一是充分利用各题仅有的5秒钟快 速阅读选项;二是对所给的信息进行判断分析。常见的问题形式如下:? What can we learn from the passage? What does the speaker mean?? Which of the following is true??

? 四. 高考听力题型分析与应试 1. 听前预估 预估听力材料的可能内容与体裁,根据题干中的有关信息做到有所侧重,有的放矢地听。 Why are many roads closed in the north? A. Because of heavy rain. B. Because of strong winds. C. Because of fallen stones from mountains. 根据题中所问why 与供选的三个原因,可预估听力材料会涉及到造成许多道路关闭的原因, 而heavy rain, strong winds 和fallen stones from mountains 三个原因中肯定有一个是应选 的。通过听前预估,听时就可有的放矢地去捕捉相关的信息。一般来说,题干中的特殊疑问 词who\whose\which\what\ when\where\why\how(many, much, often, soon, long, far) 等往 往能提示预估的方向和目标。 练习一下: What does the man mean? A. Dancing provides good exercise, too. B. He would rather swim than dance. C. He doesn't think dancing good. 从选项中我们可以预测出对话将围绕锻炼身体的方式展开。因为在这里不仅提到了跳舞,还 提到了游泳,并且有锻炼身体的词汇出现。 录音原文: W: Swimming is a good exercise. M: Of course. And so is dancing. 2. 听中辨认 在听的过程中,往往会出现应选信息与干扰信息交叉并存在听力材料中这种情况。 M: I'd like to need tickets left for the Chinese Music Concert on the twenty-eighth , please. W:Just a moment please. No, I think you've made a mistake. It's on the thirtieth. M:Really? I read about it on the paper today. I am sure it is the Chinese Music on the twenty-eighth. W: Oh, Sorry. I found you said the Japanese Music Concert. The Chinese Music Concert is on the twenty-eighth… 对话中有关日期28号与30号,日本音乐会与中国音乐会等信息交叉同步呈现,而试题是: On which day will the Japanese Music Concert be held? A. The 28th. B. The 30th. C. The 15th. 对日本音乐会的举办日期的确定, 需要在听的过程中对不同的音乐会内容与不同的日期进行 仔细的分辨后,才能对号入座,选出正确的B项。 3. 听后推断 根据说话人的语音语调,用词造句时所使用的代表不同情感的词语,可推断说话人的主观意 图; 从说话人的语调变化或对话、 独白的上下文关系, 可推断出正确的结论。 如从happy, glad, nice , wonderful ,sad ,surprised ,disappointed ,angry 等词的使用可推断出说话人高兴、赞 扬、伤心、惊讶、失望、愤怒等情绪,从sure, believe, agree, disagree, like, dislike, hate, wonder, doubt, oppose等词的使用可推断出说话人的肯定、相信、同意、不同意、喜欢、不 喜欢、讨厌、纳闷、怀疑、反对等个人意向。推断既可借助有代表性的词语来作出,也可根 据上下文关系来决定。 W:I usually go shopping and have my hair done during the weekends and you usually watch football games on TV. M:Yes, you often have tea with your friends and I sometimes play cards with my friends. We seldom do anything together. It's quite unlike when we were first married. Q:Why is the man unhappy about their weekends?

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A. They seldom invite friends over. B. They seldom go out for a picnic. C. They seldom spend the weekends together. 针对问题中 why 和 unhappy 等词,要从三个选项中判断原因。根据对话中 We seldom do anything together.所表述的信息,对照三个选项可推断出do anything together与spend the weekends together有着内在联系,所以应选项是C。 捕捉主题 通过关注听力材料的起始、 发展与结局等主要环节, 可捕捉听力材料的主要内容与中心思想, 获取整体信息。 M : Well, I'd better be getting home now. W: Oh, it's nice to see you too. Q: What are the two speakers doing ? A. Enjoying meeting each other. B. Saying good-bye to each other. C. Planning to see each other again. 上述对话中的be getting home 和nice to see you too 等对话内容表明该段的主题是告别而 不是见面与安排重逢,所以该选B项。 弄清细节 根据题干的设计,弄清材料中的有关细节则是必不可少的。例如:时间、地点、年代、国家、 人名以及有关数据,都可能是答题时必不可少的细节。听深听透材料中的必要细节,以作出 正确判断,是听力测试取得成功的重要环节之一。 W : Excuse me , how can I get to the station,please ? M : The station ? The station , let me see . Q: Where is the woman going ? A. Bridge Street. B. The cinema. C. The station. 根据女士问路时提到的the station 这一细节,可判断答案为C。 辨识标志 听力材料中往往有一些明显的特殊标志,如for example , however , one thing , the other thing 等,这些标志往往提示上下文的逻辑关系,如:转折、条件、让步、因果、比较、并 列等。 M: In the north many roads are closed because of the strong winds .Two main roads near the grass road are blocked by trees . In the south ,too,heavy rains and storms are reported . Near Dover fifty houses have been flooded. Q:In which part of the country have fifty houses been flooded? A. In the south. B. In the north. C. In the east. 报道中说到In the south, too , heavy rains and storms are reported. Near Dover fifty houses have been flooded . 其中too这一标志词表明南部也有狂风暴雨,接着举例说到多佛附近50 幢房屋被淹。由此可推断,50幢房屋被淹发生在南部,由此可选出A项。 理解说话人的意图和观点 一般来说,讲话的人总会有说话的意图。有时候是直截了当,有时候是会隐含在字里行间。 考生要能听出言外之音。如: A:What do you think of the movie we saw last night? B:I was sleeping most of the time. 说话人没有正面回答对电影的评价,但他看电影的时候大部分时间在睡觉。由此我们可以推 断他对电影评价不高。 理解对话的主旨大意 W:So,how long have you been here? M:Just a couple of days,actually,I am on a big journey. You know,I'm visiting all the places of interest here.

What's the man doing? A. He's working in a hotel. B. He's visiting a young people. C. He's travelling around 本题是一位男子谈论到此地的各个名胜观光的情况, 其中的a big journey、 visiting和places of interest here是这位男子谈话的关键,因此,考生若对此进行归纳判断就会马上明白此谈话 的主旨大意,选出答案C。 9. 注重首句首段,抓住主旨大意 在听的时候就更应当注意主旨大意。作者一般会在首句或首段倒出文段的中心大意、或对所 阐述内容进行概括,有些作者也会在结尾时再一次点题。文段中间部分主要是细节,或是作 者为了证实自己的观点,进一步举出例证,这一部分基本上是事实或是细节。如果为了解答 主旨问题就要着眼于首句,如果为了回答细节问题就要注意中间部分。 What's the speaker mainly talking about in his speech? A. terrible waste in his family. B. How to save energy. C. Her family's daily life. What does the speaker mean by saying "they could carpool" in the speech? A. Her father could share his car with his neighbors. B. Her father turns to his neighbors for help. C. Her father should park his car near a pool. Why did the speaker say "so terrible"? A. Her homework got an F. B. The future is hopeless. C. Oil is getting less and less. 请看录音全文: Last night after dinner I told my family the bad news. I had this homework to make a report on our use of energy at home for a week. Our family got an F. Tuesday night my brother, Tim, watched the same two our movie on his TV set that we were watching in the living room. Thursday Mom ran the whole dishwashing cycle for 3 cups, 2plates, a knife and 3 little forks. That's a lot of electricity and hot water down the drain. Dad drives 28 miles back and forth to work alone. Two men he works with live right nearby, and they could carpool and save about a thousand gallon of gas a year. And me too, I went out and left the radio on in my room all Saturday morning. So last night at the dinner table we all agreed to do everything we could to stop wasting energy. Faster showers. Fuller cars. It's a fact that this country's using up energy faster than we produce it. I read that we may run out of oil-forever-in thirty years. So terrible! If every person in every house on every block doesn't do his part, the future will hardly be bright. I'm getting more and more worried about the future, because that's where I'm going to be.


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