当前位置:首页 >> 学科竞赛 >> 导学讲义 (修改)

导学讲义 (修改)

赵过:2013 年考研英语词汇导学材料

一、导言 二、真题资料来源 序号 1 2 3 4 5 报刊名称 《纽约时报》 (The New York Times) 《科学美国人》 (Scientific American) 《美国新闻与世界报道》 (US News and World Report) 《泰晤士报》 (The Times) 《经济学家》 (The Economist) 四大板块:Money, Health, Education, Science 三、词汇 1. 英汉语构词比较表 汉语 单字 人 水 心 足 走 言 手 病 金 食 偏旁 亻 氵 忄 足 辶 讠 扌 疒 钅 饣 单词 man water heart foot go speak hand disease metal eat 粘着词素 anthrop hydro cord ped, pod ceed, gress log(ue) man(u), chiro path(o) -ium -vor 英语 examples anthropology, anthropologist hydropower, hydroelectric record, accord tripod exceed, aggression, congress, egress dialogue, monologue manufacture pathology calcium, uranium, radium, Pentium carnivore, herbivore 网址 http://www.nytimes.com http://www.scientificamerican.com http://www.usnews.com http://www.timesonline.co.uk www.economist.com

2. 四十一个个核心词汇 abstract,advertisement,asymmetry,attendant,autobiography,benedictiory, bilateral,centennium,containerization,dialogue,differentiate,discordance, ejector,exclusionism,eugenics,geomorphology,immediately,inaudible, interdependence,introspective,involve,manufacture,microphotoelectron,misdescribe, monocycle, nationalization, oversufficiency, pentagon, persist, president, proposal, receive, retrogress,spiritless,stereomacroscopic,subcommittee,successfulness,supportable, telephone,undiminishable,vendiduct 3. 通过阅读记单词 4. 常见前缀 序号 1 类别 否定 小类 纯否定 前缀 a-, an例示 asymmetry, symmetry amoral immoral

赵过:2013 年考研英语词汇导学材料

anhydrous hydrogen oxygen connectionism 联通主义 disin-, il-, irig-, im-, dishonest, dislike dishonesty incapable, be capable of be able to competent incompetence inability, ignoble, impossible, immoral, illegal, legal document legislature irregular rational unrational reasonable unreasonable none, neither, never Nonsense Sensible Sensitive Sentimental Neglect Dialect unable, unemployment laid off malfunction, maladjustment maltreat mistake, mislead pseudonym, pseudoscience anti-science defend, a fenced garden demodulation modulate FM Frequent Frequency Modulation disarm, disconnect unload, load sth with

ne-, nnon-

negun错误意义 male-, malmispseudo反动作意义 de-


赵过:2013 年考研英语词汇导学材料

uncover discover discovery cover covering coverage 相反、相互对立 anti-, antantiknock, antiforeign clockwise anticlockwise contradiction, 矛盾 contrary comparison contrast controflow counterreaction, counterbalance object, object to oppose, occupy pose interpose depose impose The authorities imposed heavy tax on tobacco industry. withdraw, withstand aboard, aside bypath, bypass byproduct circumstance, circuit under no circumstances by no means not at all on no account descend, degrade ascend encage, enbed abed encave ec-, exit, eclipse, expand, export Extraction Extract

contra-, contre-, contro-

counter-, ob-, oc-, of-, op-

with2 空间位 置,方 向关系 在 …… 之 上 , 向…… 附近,邻近,边侧 周围,环绕,回转 abycircum-, circu-

在下,向下 在内,进入


外部,外 额外

ex-, esextra-,

赵过:2013 年考研英语词汇导学材料

在前面 (用于 b,m,p 之前), ir-, 表示“向内, 在 内,背于” 在……间,相互 向内,在内,内侧 中,中间

forein-, iminter-, intel-, intro-, medi-, med-, midil-,

forehead, foreground inland, invade, inside, import

international, interaction, internet introduce, introduce Mediterranean, midposition Midvoice Active voice Passive voice The glass broke. The book sells well. outline, outside, outward foreward backward overlook, 俯瞰;忽视 overhead, overboard Postscript Post-war Post prefix, affix suffix preface, preposition progress, proceed subway, submarine, marine suffix, suppress, oppress supplement superficial, surface, superstructure infrastructure ultraviolet infrared translate, transform, transoceanic formal informal

在上面,在外部, out-, 在外

在上面,在外部, over-, 向上





在前,向前 在下面,下

prosub-, suc-, suf-, sung-, sum-, sup-, sur-, sussuper-, sur-


移上,转上,在那 一边


赵过:2013 年考研英语词汇导学材料

conform confirm

在…..下面,下的 向上,向上面,在 上 3 时间, 序列关 系 先前,早于,预先 先,故,旧 在前面,先前,前 面 中,中间 在后,后 在前,事先,预先 在前,先,前

underupante-, antiexforemid-, medipostpre-, pripro-

underline, underground, underwater upward, uphold, uphill upshot antecedent, anticipate unprecedented expresident, exhusband forward, forecast, foretell midnight, midsummer postwar preheat, prewar, prehistory prologue,prophet prophesy hearsay retell, rewrite recollect recall refresh flesh reclaim byproduct, bywork Extraordinary subordinate superordinate hypersonic, hypertension outdo, outbid overeat, overdress, oversleep subeditor, edit edition editional editorial 社论 subordinate, subtropical supernature, superpower, surplus, surpass undersize, undergrown, underproduction vicepresident, vicechairman associate-professor connect,




比较程 度差别 关系

副,次要的 超越,额外


超过,极度 超过,过分 超过,过度,太 低,次,副,亚

hyperoutoversub-, suc-, sur-

超过 低劣,低下 副,次 5 共同, 共同,一起

super-, surundervicecom-,





赵过:2013 年考研英语词汇导学材料

相等意 思 同,共,和,类 6 整个完 全意思 分离, 离开意 思 完整,完全 完全,全 全,总,万 7 分离,离开 离去,处去 分离,离开 离开,分离 离开,脱离 离开 分离,隔离 8 通过, 遍及 加强 变换词 类作用 的前缀 通过,横过 通,总,遍 横过,贯通 9 10 强化 加强

cop-, con-, cor-, cosyn-, syl-,symaloverpana- , ab-, absdedis-, difex-, eforresediaper-, peltransaadbe-, enad-, af-, an-, ar-, at单一、一 单调 二,两,双 mon-, monouni-, unambi-, bi-, bin-, di-, twitrideca, deco-, dec-, decihecto-, hect-, centikiloac-, ag-, ap-, as-, di-,


symmetry, sympathy, synthesis alone, almost, overall overall, overflow Panentheism, panorama away, apart, abstract, abstain depart, decolour divorce, disarm expel, exclude, expatriate forget, forgive release, resolve separate, seduce, select diameter, diagram perfect, perform, pervade transparent, transmit, transport arouse, ashamed adjoin, adhere befriend, enslave, enable, enrich adapt, accord, affix, aggression, arrive, assist, attend, attract, arrange, assign


数量关 系

monotone, monopoly, monarch uniform, unicellular ambiguous, amphibian, bicycle, diode, twilight

三 十,十分之一

tripod, tricycle decade, decimal


hectometer, centimeter, centipede




赵过:2013 年考研英语词汇导学材料


myria-, myri-, mega-, meg-, micropoly-, multihemi-, demi-, semi-, pene-, penarch-

myriametre, megabyte, microvolt

许多,复,多数 半,一半

polysyllable, multipmetre hemisphere, demiofficial, semitransparent, peninsula semiconductor,


特殊意 义

首位,第一的,主 要的

architect, architecture archbishop priest bishop commissionary The Analects Sin automobile, autobiography Benefit Benefaction eugenics, genetics euphemism kick the bucket pass away pass water sanitory engineer senior citizen senior to junior to sophomore freshman He is senior to me by three years. old maltreatment, malodor malfunction Macroscopic Microscope Microsoft magnificent Microscope

自己,独立,自动 善,福 优,美好


恶,不良 大,宏大

male-, malmacro-

大 微


赵过:2013 年考研英语词汇导学材料





Audience Auditorium AudiAudible Edible Biography Geography, geology, geometry, geochemistry, geophysics Phonograph Phone television, telephone, telescope, telemeter geopolitics,

生命,生物 地球,大地 声,音调 远 Rush hours A moment of high traffic Traffic jam Divide 1280 Big tremendous remarkable Mixture Hybrid Language family Latin Offspring Latin America French Spanish Portuguese Germanic German Dutch Holland the Netherlands English Anglo-Saxon 475 England Anglo-American Sino-American Sinology 汉学 Sinologist 1066 Norman Conquest French Pig Pork Ox cattle cow bull; beef Goat sheep; mutton Restaurant Buffet



赵过:2013 年考研英语词汇导学材料

Joint Communiqué 公报 Champagne Vodka Cocktail Sherry Martini Beer small beer Spirits Wine Indo-European Language Family 印欧语系 Sanskrit 梵语 Sino-Tibetan Language Family 汉藏语系 5. 常见后缀 序号 类别 1 名 词 后 缀

小类 具有某种 职业或动 作的人

后缀 -an, -ian

例示 American, historian


Principal President Head teacher Prime Minister Premier Chancellor Go ahead Principle merchant, agent, spy servant, public servant stewedess air hostess Lioness Student Studio scholar, liar, scholastic academic academy scholarship grant 许可 Take it for granted peddler coward,



-ard, -art

赵过:2013 年考研英语词汇导学材料

cowardice laggard, braggart hyperbole rhetoric personification metaphor simile 明喻 as old as Adam as white as snow as brave as a lion as stupid as an ass donkey 修辞 Stylistics 文体学 Style -arian -ary humanitarian, vegetarian secretary, Secretary of State State Council State Department Missionary Priest Baptize Bishop Archbishop candidate, candid undergraduate postgraduate graduate school educator, spectulate 投机 speculator democrat, republican bureaucrat Conservative Labour Demoractic Republican Demography Demographics





赵过:2013 年考研英语词汇导学材料


employee, payee employer examinee examiner engineer , engine volunteer banker, observer, Londoner, villager peasant farmer Japanese, Cantonese actress, hostess, manageress feminism Chairman Chairwoman Chairperson female porter Surname amateur, amateurish litterateur Christian, Physiology physician, surgeon physical PE education Physicist Musician Composer Mazart Compose Composition Electrician, magician, technician Mechanic Mechanics physicist, phoneticist, technicist mechanic, critic criticism critical criticize



-ese -ess




-icist -ic

赵过:2013 年考研英语词汇导学材料

-ie -ier -ine, ina

dearie, auntie, lassie cavalier, clothier, brazier heroine, heroin ballerina pianist, communist, dentist, artist, chemist native, captive biologist, geologist author, doctor, operator youngster, gamester, songster accuracy, diplomat diploma diplomatic diplomacy courage, storage, marriage personage refusal, arrival, survival, survive survivor denial, approval; manual, signal, editorial, journal diary journalism journalist correspondent endurance, endure enduring importance, diligence, difference, obedience obey Frequency, Frequently More often than not urgency, efficiency, efficient effective efficacy efficacious possibility, feasibility woodcraft, handicraft, statecraft Bureaucracy, democracy Democrat Democratic Republican Conservative

-ist -ive -logist -or -ster 名 词 后 缀 构成,具 有抽象名 词的含义 -acy

-age -al

-ance, -ence

-ancy, -ency

-bility -craft -cracy

赵过:2013 年考研英语词汇导学材料

Labor -cy -dom -ery, -ry -ety bankruptcy , supremacy freedom, kingdom, wisdom bravery, bribery, rivalry rival variety, vary various varied variable dubious dubiety skeptical doubtful satisfaction, manufacture factor perfect effect childhood, manhood, falsehood girlhood notice, justice, service take notice of pay attention to EMS Express Mail Service Interstate Turnpike Highway Superhighway Express Way AMERICAN EAGLE medicine, pharmacy discipline, famine building, writing, learning action, solution, correction conclusion, destruction, expression,

-faction,-f acture

-hood -ice


-ing -ion, -sion, -tion, -ation, -ition, -ise -ism -ity -ment

exercise, merchandise socialism, criticism ; colloquialism, heroism purity, reality, ability, calamity treatment, movement, judgment, punishment, argument

赵过:2013 年考研英语词汇导学材料


ceremony, testimony testify simplify single bachelor BA BS Bachelor of science Bachelor of arts master doctor PhD spinster chairman chairwoman chairperson singular plural goodness, kindness, tiredness, friendliness favor, error err Curiosity Curious hardship, membership, friendship depth, wealth, truth, length, growth latitude, longitude altitude exposure, composure repose composer compose composition Mozart Beethoven The fifth symphony pressure, failure, procedure glory, history, victory, glory revolution glorious inquiry

-ness or, -our


-ship -th -tude



赵过:2013 年考研英语词汇导学材料

名 词 后 缀

带 有 场 所,地方 的含义 带 有 学 术,科技 含义

age -ary -ery, ry -ory -grapy -ic, ics -ology -nomy -ery -y

village, cottage library, granary laundry, nursery, surgery factory, dormitory, laboratory, observatory biography, calligraphy, geography logic, mechanics, optics, electronics biology, zoology, technology astronomy, economy, bionomy chemistry, cookery, machinery photography, philosophy baggage, tonnage newspaperdom neighbourhood, womanhood cavalry, ministry legislature, judicature solvent, constant signal, pictorial collar, pillar boiler, computer , washer, cooker drapery clothing, matting instrument, equipment , attachment particle molecule parcel chicken, maiden pocket, ticket cigarette, essayette napkin baby, doggy duckling booklet movable, comfortable, applicable, visible, responsible

表示人和 事物的总 和,集合 含义 表示物品 和物质名 称的含义

-age -dom -hood -ery -ure -ant, ent -al -ar - er -ery -ing -ment

表示“细 小”的含 义

-cle -cule -el -en -et -etta, -ette, etto, -kin -y -ling -let


形容词 后缀

带 有 “ 属 -able, 性,倾向, -ible 相关”的 含义 -al -an -ant, -ent -ar -ary

natural, additional, educational urban, suburban, republican distant, important, excellent similar, popular, regular military, voluntary

赵过:2013 年考研英语词汇导学材料

-ic -ine -ing -ish -ive -ory -il, -eel -ile,

ical, politic, systematic, historic, physical masculine, feminine, marine moving, touching, daring foolish, bookish, selfish active, impressive, decisive satisfactory, compulsory fragile, genteel boyish, childish picturesque manlike, childlike manly, fatherly, scholarly, motherly troublesome, handsome milky, pasty beautiful, wonderful, helpful, truthful dangerous, generous, courageous, various violent wooden, golden, woolen gaseous scientific

表 示 “ 相 -ish 象,类似” -esque 的含义 -like -ly -some -y 表示“充 分的”含 义 表示由某 种物质形 成,制成 或生产的 含义 表示方向 的含义 表示“倍 数”的含 义 -ful -ous -ent -en -ous -fic

-ern -ward -ble ple -fold

eastern, western downward, forward double, treble triple twofold, tenfold thirteen fifty fourth, fiftieth Roman, European Chinese English, Spanish greater reddish, yellowish highest foremost, topmost countless, stainless, wireless modernize, mechanize, democratize, organize

表 示 “ 数 -teen 量 关 系 ” -ty 的含义 -th 表 示 国 -an 籍,语种, -ese 宗 教 的 含 -ish 义 表 示 “ 比 -er 较 程 度 ” -ish 的含义 -est -most 表示否定 3 动词后 缀 表示"做 成 , 变 成 , …… 化 -less -ize, ise


赵过:2013 年考研英语词汇导学材料

表示"使 成为,引 起,使有 表 示 " 使……化, 使成


quicken, weaken, soften, harden


beautify, purify, intensify, signify, simplify

表示"使, -ish 令” 表示“成 为 …… , 处理,作 用” 4 副词后 缀 -ate

finish, abolish, diminish, establish separate, operate, indicate

-ly -ward, -wards -ways -wise

possibly, swiftly, simply downward, inwards, upward always, sideways otherwise, clockwise

四、外报阅读 Computer passwords Speak, friend, and enter Computer passwords need to be memorable and secure. Most people’s are the first but not the second. Researchers are trying to make it easier for them to be both Mar 24th 2012 | from the print edition PASSWORDS are ubiquitous in computer security. All too often, they are also ineffective. A good password has to be both easy to remember and hard to guess, but in practice people seem to plump for the former over the latter. Names of wives, husbands and children are popular. Some take simplicity to extremes: one former deputy editor of The Economist used “z” for many years. And when hackers stole 32m passwords from a social-gaming website called RockYou, it emerged that 1.1% of the site’s users—365,000 people—had opted either for “123456” or for “12345”. That predictability lets security researchers (and hackers) create dictionaries which list common passwords, a boon to those seeking to break in. But although researchers know that passwords are insecure, working out just how insecure has been difficult. Many studies have only small samples to work on—a few thousand passwords at most. Hacked websites such as RockYou have provided longer lists, but there are ethical problems with using hacked information, and its availability is unpredictable. However, a paper to be presented at a security conference held under the auspices of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, a New York-based professional body, in May, sheds some

赵过:2013 年考研英语词汇导学材料

light. With the co-operation of Yahoo!, a large internet company, Joseph Bonneau of Cambridge University obtained the biggest sample to date—70m passwords that, though anonymised, came with useful demographic data about their owners. Mr Bonneau found some intriguing variations. Older users had better passwords than young ones. (So much for the tech-savviness of youth.) People whose preferred language was Korean or German chose the most secure passwords; those who spoke Indonesian the least. Passwords designed to hide sensitive information such as credit-card numbers were only slightly more secure than those protecting less important things, like access to games. “Nag screens” that told users they had chosen a weak password made virtually no difference. And users whose accounts had been hacked in the past did not make dramatically more secure choices than those who had never been hacked. But it is the broader analysis of the sample that is of most interest to security researchers. For, despite their differences, the 70m users were still predictable enough that a generic password dictionary was effective against both the entire sample and any demographically organised slice of it. Mr Bonneau is blunt: “An attacker who can manage ten guesses per account…will compromise around 1% of accounts.” And that, from the hacker’s point of view, is a worthwhile outcome. One obvious answer would be for sites to limit the number of guesses that can be made before access is blocked, as cash machines do. Yet whereas the biggest sites, such as Google and Microsoft, do take such measures (and more), many do not. A sample of 150 big websites examined in 2010 by Mr Bonneau and his colleague S? Preibusch found that 126 made no ren attempt to limit guessing. How this state of affairs arose is obscure. For some sites, laxity may be rational, since their passwords are not protecting anything particularly valuable, such as credit-card details. But password laxity imposes costs even on sites with good security, since people often use the same password for several different places. One suggestion is that lax password security is a cultural remnant of the internet’s innocent youth—an academic research network has few reasons to worry about hackers. Another possibility is that because many sites begin as cash-strapped start-ups, for which implementing extra password security would take up valuable programming time, they skimp on it at the beginning and then never bother to change. But whatever the reason, it behoves those unwilling to wait for websites to get their acts together to consider the alternatives to traditional passwords. Skysail dactyl gimcrack golem One such is multi-word passwords called passphrases. Using several words instead of one means an attacker has to guess more letters, which creates more security—but only if the phrase chosen is not one likely to turn up, through familiar usage, in a dictionary of phrases. Which, of course, it often is. Mr Bonneau and his colleague Ekaterina Shutova have analysed a real-world passphrase system

赵过:2013 年考研英语词汇导学材料

employed by Amazon, an online retailer that allowed its American users to employ passphrases between October 2009 and February 2012. They found that, although passphrases do offer better security than passwords, they are not as good as had been hoped. A phrase of four or five randomly chosen words (for instance, the headline above) is fairly secure. But remembering several such phrases is no easier than remembering several randomly chosen passwords. Once again, the need for memorability is a boon to attackers. By scraping the internet for lists of things like film titles, sporting phrases and slang, Mr Bonneau and Dr Shutova were able to construct a 20,656-word dictionary that unlocked 1.13% of the accounts in Amazon’s database. The researchers also suspected that even those who do not use famous phrases would still prefer patterns found in natural language over true randomness. So they compared their collection of passphrases with two-word phrases extracted at random from the British National Corpus (a 100m-word sample of English maintained by Oxford University Press), and from the Google NGram Corpus (harvested from the internet by that firm’s web-crawlers). Sure enough, they found considerable overlap between structures common in ordinary English and the phrases chosen by Amazon’s users. Some 13% of the adjective-noun constructions (“beautiful woman”) which the researchers tried were on the money, as were 5% of adverb-verb mixes (“probably keep”). One way round that is to combine the ideas of a password and a passphrase into a so-called mnemonic password. This is a string of apparent gibberish which is not actually too hard to remember. It can be formed, for example, by using the first letter of each word in a phrase, varying upper and lower case, and substituting some symbols for others—“8” for “B”, for instance. (“itaMc0Ttit8” is thus a mnemonic contraction of the text in these brackets.) Even mnemonic passwords, however, are not invulnerable. A study published in 2006 cracked 4% of the mnemonics in a sample using a dictionary based on song lyrics, film titles and the like. The upshot is that there is probably no right answer. All security is irritating (ask anyone who flies regularly), and there is a constant tension between people’s desire to be safe and their desire for things to be simple. While that tension persists, the hacker will always get through.




北京万学海文考研数学 秋季导学班考研辅导讲义主讲 铁军 教授 高 等 数 学 铁军教授简介:著名考研数学辅导专家,近几年在北京、南京、 天津、沈阳、武汉、广州、...


歧义句专题训练导学讲义_语文_高中教育_教育专区。歧义句专题训练导学讲义 ...可看出, 不论是那种类型的仿拟, 实际上都是仿照已有形式稍作更改, 以表达新...


《驿路梨花》名师课堂导学讲义_语文_高中教育_教育专区。名师导学 1 理清结构: 初见梨花,小茅屋 — 设悬 ? ? 娘— 释恩?雷锋精神, 世代相传 ?遇瑶族老人和...


2012 年北京万学海文考研数学导学班辅导讲义 主讲: 高等数学 主讲:铁军教授 铁军...然后用积分中值定理找到使辅 助函数值相等的点;也可将已知的定积分改为积分...


临床医师基础导学示范课讲义_其它课程_初中教育_教育专区。呼 吸 系 统 概述 ...咳嗽性质改 变;持续或反复在短期内痰中带血,而无其他原因可解释;反复发作的同...


2012 年北京万学海文考研数学导学班辅导讲义 主讲: 高等数学 主讲:铁军教授 数学...然后用积分中值定理找到使辅 助函数值相等的点;也可将已知的定积分改为积分...


2016考研政治导学讲义李雪飞_研究生入学考试_高等教育_教育专区。2016年考研李雪飞...杰出人物能修改历史发展的基本方向 B.杰出人物的历史作用受到一定历史条件的制约 ...


【16考研数学-讲义】2016考研数学导学班电..._研究生入学考试_高等教育_教育专区。2016 年考研数学导学课高等数学部分 第一章一、函数初等特性 极限与连续极限理论...


北京万学海文考研数学 秋季导学班考研辅导讲义 秋季导学班考研辅导讲义主讲 铁军 教授 高 等 数 学 铁军教授简介:著名考研数学辅导专家,近几年在北京、南京、 ...

讲义__弹力 导学案

讲义__<摩擦力>导学案 5页 免费 弹力导学案 4页 1财富值如要投诉违规内容,请到百度文库投诉中心;如要提出功能问题或意见建议,请点击此处进行反馈。 ...


文档资料共享网 nexoncn.com copyright ©right 2010-2020。