（一）定语从句一般由关系代词和关系副词引导 1、关系代词：who, whom, whose, which, that, as 2、关系副词：when, where, why 关系代词和关系副词必须位于从句之首，主句先行词之后，起着连接先行词和从句的作用， 同时在从句中又充当 句子成分。 e.g. She is the girl wh
o sings best of all.（关系代词 who 在从句中作主语） The comrade with whom I came knows French.（whom 在从句中作介词 with 的宾语） 3、关系代词和关系副词的用法：1）当先行词为人时用 who 作主语，whom 作宾语；2）当先行词为物或整个句子时用 which ，可作主语或宾语；3）先行词为人、物时用 that ，可作主语或宾语；4）whose 用作定语，可指人或物；5）关 系副词 when（指时间，在定语从句中作时间状语，where（指地点，在定语从句中作地点状语） ，why（指原因，在定 语从句中作原因状语） 。 （二）限制性定语从句与非限制性定语从句 1、 限制性定语从句：从句与主句关系密切，去掉从句，主句意义不完整，甚至不合逻辑。 e.g. I was the only person in our office who was invited.（去掉定语从句，意思就不完整） 2、非限制性定语从句：从句对先行词关系不密切，去掉定从句，意思仍然完整。形式上用逗号隔开，不能 that 用 引导。e.g. Tom’s father, who is over sixty, still works hard day and night.（who 引导非限制性定语从句，整个句子可分成 两句来翻译） （三）使用定语从句时特别注意的几个问题 1、that 与 which 的区别。 1）用 that 而不用 which 的情况：①先行词为不定代词 all, anything, nothing, ?；②先行词有最高 级修饰，有序数词修 饰；③先行词有 only, very, any 等词修饰；④先行词既有人又有物时。 e.g. There is nothing that can prevent him from doing it. 没有什么能阻止他不干那件事。 The first place that they visited in Guilin was Elephant Trunk Hill. 在桂林他们所参观的第一个地方是象鼻山。 This i s the best film that I have ever seen. 这部电影是我看过的最好的一部。 Mr Smith is the only foreigner that he knows. 史密斯先生是他认识的唯一的外国人。 2）用 which 而不用 that 的情况：①引导非限制性定语从句；②代表整个主句的意思；③介词 + 关系代词。 e.g. He had failed in the maths exam , which made his father very angry. 他数学考试没有及格，这使他的父亲很生气。 This is the room in which my father lived last year. 这是父亲去年居住过的房子。 3）as 引导定语从句时的用法 ①as 引导限制性定语从句通常用于 the same ? as, such ? as 结构中。 e.g. I want the same shirt as my friend’s. 我要一件跟我朋友一样的衬衫。 Such machines as are used in our workshop are made in China. 我们车间使用的这种机器是中国制造的。 ②as 引导非限制性定语从句既可放在主句之前，也可放在主句之后，用来修饰整个句子。通常用下列句型：as is known to all, as is said, as is reported, as is announced, as we all know, as I expect 等。 e.g. As I expected, he got the first place again in this mid-term examination. 正如我所预料的那样，他在这次期中考试中又 获得了第一名。 3）as 引导非限制性定语从句时与 which 的区别 ①当主句和从句语义一致时，用 as； 反之，用 which 来引导非限制性定语从句。 e.g. He made a long speech, as we expected. He made a long speech, which was unexpected. ②当非限制定语从句为否定时，常用 which 引导。 e.g. Tom drinks a lot every day, which his wife doesn’t like at all. 2. 关系代词在从句中作主语时，从句的谓语动词单数还是用复数应由先行词决定。 e.g. The man who lives downstairs speaks English fluently. 住在楼下的那个人英语说得很流利。 The students who are in Grade Three are going to climb the hill tomorrow. 3. 定语从句有时不直接紧靠先行词，中间由一个定语、状语或谓语隔开。
e.g. There is an expression in his eyes that I can’t understand. 4. 引导定语从句的关系副词有时可以用“介词 + which”来代替。 e.g. October 1, 1949 was the day on which ( = when ) the People’s Republic of China was founded. 5. 当定语从句中谓语动词是带介词或副词的固定短语动词时，短语动词的各个固定部分不要拆开。 e.g. The sick man whom she is looking after is her father. 6. 介词在关系代词前，只能用 which 和 whom，且不能省略；介词在句尾，关系代词可有 which, that, whom, 口语中也 可用 who，且可省略。 e.g. The man (whom/ who/ that) you were talking about has come to school. 练习、定语从句 1. The man ____ visited our school yesterday is from London.A. who B. which C. whom D. when 2. The woman ____ is talking to my mother is a friend of hers.A. whose B. whoC. whomD. which 3. Because of my poor memory, all ____ you told me has been forgotten.A. that B. which C. what D. as 4. Do you remember those days ____ we spent along the seashore very happily ?A. when B. where C. which D. who 5. Tom did not t ake away the camera because it was just the same camera ____ he lost last week. A. which B. that C. whom D. as 6. Those ____ want to go please sign their names here.A. whom B. which C. whoD. when 7. Where is the man ____ I met this morning?A. when B. where C. which D. who 8. Who i s the woman ____ is sweeping the floor over there?A. who B. / C. that D. when 9. The man ____ you talked just now is a worker.A. who B. whom C. to whom D. to who 10. The man ____ you are going to make friends is my father’s neighbour.A. with whom B. when C. to whomD. which 11. The doctor ____ is leaving for Africa next month.A. the nurse is talking to him B. whom the nurse is talking C. the nurse is talking to D. who the nurse is talking 12. The man ____ around our school is from America. A. which you showed B. you showed him C. you showed D. where you showed 13. He talked about a hero ____ no one had ever heard. A. of whom B. from whom C. about that D. who 14. In fact the Swede did not understand the three questions ____ were asked in French. A. where B. who C. in which D. which 15. Have you read the book ____ I lent to you ? A. that B. whom C. when D. whose 16. Finally, the thief handed over everything ____ he had stolen to the police.A. thatB. whichC. whateverD. all 17. The foreign guests, ____ were government officials, were warmly welcomed at the airport. A. most of them B. most of that C. most of whom D. most of those 18. This is the very letter ____came last night.A. whoB. whichC. that D. as 19. I know only a little about this matter; you may ask ____ knows better than I.A. whoeverB. whomeverC. anyoneD. the one 20. This is the school ____ we visited three days a go.A. where B. / C. whenD. what 21. This is the factory ____ we worked a year ago.A. where B. thatC. whichD. on which 22. Nearby were two canoes ____ they had come to the island.A. which B. in whichC. thatD. / 23. Jack is pleased with ____ you have given him and all ____ you have told him. A. that, what B. what, that C. which, what D. that, which 24. Do you work near the building __ __ colour is yellow?A. thatB. whichC. itsD. whose 25. In the dark street, there wasn’t a single person ____ she could turn for help.A. whom B. whoC. to whom D. form whom 26. Is this school ____ we visited three years ago?A. the oneB. which C. that D. where 27. Is this the school ____ we visited three years ago?A. the oneB. where C. in whichD. / 28, How many students are there in your class ____ homes are in the country?A. whose B. who C. whom D. which 29. Alice received an invitation from her boss, ____ came as a surprise.A. it B. which C. thatD. he 30. The train was crowded and I had to get into a carriage ____ already seven other people. A. when there were B. which there were C. that there were D. where there were 31. I live in the house ____ windows face south. A. whic h B. whose C. where D. in that
32. ---- What game is popular with them? ---- The ____ most is tennis. A. game they like it B. game they like C. best game they like D. best game they like it 33. They stayed with me three weeks, ____ they drank all the wine I had. A. which B. which time C. during which time D. during which 34. The room ____ Mr White lives is not very large. A. that B. which C. where D. when 35. Don’t forget the day ____ you were received into the Youth League.A. when B. that C. at whichD. where 36 . I’ve finished writing the novel, ____ is to be published next month.A. that B. what C. which D. when 37. He returned home safe and sound after a fierce battle, ____ was unexpected. A. which B. as C. that D. it 38. ____ we is known to all, English is not very difficult to learn. A. What B. As C. That D. Which 39. The old man had thr ee sons, all of ____ died during W orld War Ⅱ. A. whose B. that C. whom D. who 40. I have bought two pens, ____ write well. A. none of which B. ne ither of which C. both of which D. all of which 41. Do you know the reason ____ she has changed her mind? A. why B. which C. for that D. of which 42. He failed in the exam, ____ proves that he wasn’t working hard enough. A. which B. what C. it D. that 43. During the week ____ he tried to collect materials fo r his article. A. following B. followed C. to follow D. that followe d 44. ____ was expected, he succeeded in the exam. A. It B. Which C. As D. That 45. He studied hard and later became a well-known writer, ____ his father expected. A. that was what B. what was that C. and which was D. which was what 46. We should read such books ____ will make us better and wiser. A. when B. as C. whose D. what 47. You must show my wife the same respect ____ you show me. A. when B. as C. whose D. what 48. He is absent ____ is often the case.A. what B. which C. who D. as 49. It is the first time ____ I have come to your city. A. that B. which C. what D. when 50. Who ____ has the same idea as it will do it in this way. A. who B. that C. whom D. which 51. I shall never forget those years ____ I lived in the country with the farmers, ____ has a great effect on my life. A. that, which B. when, which C. which, that D. when, who 52. This is the only book ____ I can find.A. that B. which C. it D. with which 53. I don’t like ____ you speak to her. A. the way B. the way in that C. the way which D. the way of which 54. That is one of those books that ____ worth reading.A. is B. are C. has D. have 55. This is the only one of the students whose handwriting ____ the best.A. is B. areC. has D. have 56. There was ____ to prevent the accident. A. something could do B. anything we could do C. nothing we couldn’t do D. nothing we could do 参考答案 三、1~5 ABACD 6~10 CDCCA 11~15 CCADA 16~20 ACCAB 21~25 ABBDC 26~30 ADABD 31~35 BBDCA 36~40 CABCC 41~45 AADCD 46~50 BBDAB
名词性从句相当于名词，可分别作主句的主语、表语、宾语和同位语。因此，名词性从句厅分为主语从句、表语 从句、宾语从句和同位从句。 （一）引导名词性从句的连接词 1、连接代词：who, whose, whom, what, which。有词义，在从句中担任成分，如主语、表语、宾语、或定语等。 2、连接副词：when, where, why, how。有词义，在从句中担任成分，作状语。 3、连接词：that, whether, if, as if。that 无词义，在从句中不担任成分，有时可省略；if (whether), as if 虽有词 义，但在从句中不担任成分。 注意：连接代词与连接副词在句中不再是疑问句，因而从句中谓语不用疑问式。连接代词与连接副词在从句充当 句子成分，连接词 whether 和 if（是否） ，as if（好象）在从句中不充当句子成分，只起连接作用。根据句义，如果连 接代词与连接副词，whether、if 和 as i f 都用不上时，才用 that 作连接词（that 本身无任何含义） 。 （二）主语从句 1、主语从句在复合句作主语。 e.g. Who will go is not important. 2、用 it 作形式主语，主语从句放在句末。 e.g. It doesn’t matter so much whether you will come or not. 3、that 引导主语从句时，不能省略。 e.g. That he suddenly fell ill last week made us surprised. （三）表语从句 1、表语从句在复合句中作表语，位于系动词之后。 e.g. The question was who could go there. 2、引导表语从句的连接词 that 有时可省去。 e.g. My idea is (that) we can get more comrades to help in the work. （四）宾语从句 1、宾语从句在复合句中作宾语。引导宾语从句的连词 that 一般可省略。 e.g. I hope (that) everything is all right. 2、介词之后的宾语从句，不可用 which 或 if 连接，要分别用 what 或 whether。 e.g. I’m interested in whether you’ve finished the work.. I’m interested in what you’ve said. 3、whether 与 if 都可以引导宾语从句，常可互换。但下面情况不能互换。 ①宾语从句是否定句时，只用 if，不用 whether。 e.g. I wonder if it doesn’t rain. ②用 if 会引起误解，就要用 whether。 e.g. Please let me know whether you want to go.（此 句如果把 whether 改成 if，容易当成条件句理解） ③宾语从句 中的 whether 与 or not 直接连用，就不能换成 if；不直接连用，可换。 e.g. I don’t know whether or not the report is true. I don’t know whether/ if the report is true or not. ④介词后的宾语从句要用 whether 引导。whether 可与不定式连用。whether 也可引导主语从句、表语从句、同位语从 句，还可引导让步状语从句，以上均不能换成 if。但引导条件从句时，只能用 if，而不能用 whether。 e.g. It depends on whether we have enough time. They don’t know whether to go there. Please come to see me if you have time. （五）同位语从句 同位语从句在句中作某一名词的同位语，一般位于该名词（如：news, fact, idea, suggestion, promise 等）之后，说明该 名词的具体内容。 e.g. I have no idea when he will be back. The fact that he had not said anything surprised everybody.
练习：名词性从句 一、判断下列各句哪句含有名词性从句，并指出是什么从句： 1. China is no longer what it used to be. 2. The truth that the earth turn around the sun is known to all. 3. It was snowing when he arrived at the station. 4. How he persuaded the man ager to change the plan is interesting to us all. 5. The news that they had won the game soon spread over the whole school. 6. The news that you told me yesterday was really disappointing. 7. That is where Lu Xun used to live. 8. He spoke as if he understood what he was talking about. 9. Do you remember the teacher who taug ht us English at middle school? 10. I wonder why she refused my invitation. 二、用适当的连词填空： 1. I can’t decide ____________ dictionary I should buy. 2. That’s ____________ he refused my invitation. 3. I am very interested in ____________ he has improved his pronunciation in such a short time. 4. ____________ we need is more time. 5. The fact ____________ she had not said anything at the meeting surprised everybody. 6. ____________ and ____________ they will meet has not been decided yet. 7. Please tell me ____________ you are waiting for. 8. Is that ____________ you are looking for? 9. Would you please tell me ____________ the nearest post office is? 10. I don’t know ____________ he will agree to the plan or not. 三、选择填空： 1. Do you see _____ I mean?A. that B./ C. how D. what 2. Tell me_____ is on your mind.A. that B. what C. which D. why 3. We must stick to _____ we have agreed on.A. what B. that C. / D. how 4. Let me see _____. A. that can I repair the radio B. whether -I can repair the radio C. I can repair the radio D. whether can I repair the radio 5. K eep in m ind _____. A. that the teacher said B. what did the teacher say C. that did the teacher say D. what the teac her sai d 6. Could you advise me _____? A. which book should I read first B. what book should I read first C. that book 1 should read first D. which book I should read first 7. He was criticized for ___ __. A. he had done it B. what he had done C. what had he done D. that he had done it 8. Would you kindly tell me _____? A. how can I get to the Beijing Railway Station B. how I can get to the Beijing Railway Station C. where can I get to the Beijing Railway StationD. whether can I get to the Beijing Railway Station 9. Mrs. Smith was very much impressed by _____. A. what had she seen in China B. that she had seen in China C. what she had seen in China D. which had she seen in China 10. We took it for granted ___ A. that they were not coming B. that were they not coming C. they were coming not D. were they not coining 11. I really don't know _____
A. I should do next B. what should I do next C. what I should do next D. how I should do next 12. I'm afraid _____. A. the little girl will have to be operated onB. that will the little girl have to operate on C. the little girl will have to operate onD. that will the little girl have to be operated on 13. She walked up to _____ . A. where did I stand B. where I stood C. I stood there D. where I stood there 14. Can you tell me _____? A. who is that gentleman B. that gentleman is who C. who that gentlem an is D. whom .is that gentleman 15. We'll give you _____. A. that do you need B. what do you needC. whatever you need D. whether do you need 16. They want us to know _____ to help us. A. what can they B. what they can C. how they can D. how can they 17. We must put _____ into practice. A. what we have learned B. that we have learnedC. that have we learned D. what have we learned 18. Did she say anything about _____? A. that the work was to be doneB. how was the work to be doneC. that was the work to be doneD. how the work was to be done 19. He was never satisfi ed with _____. A. what she had achieved B. had what she achieve dC. she had achieved D. that she achieved 20. These photographs will show you _____. A. what does our village look like B. what our village looks like C. how does our village look like D. how our village looks like 21. Peter insisted _____ he pay the bill.A. on that B. what C. that D. on which 22. They urged _____ the library open during the vacation. A. whe n B. where C. why D. that 23. We wish we could have learned _____ when we were at high school. A. what you did B. that you had doneC. that what you did D. what did you do 24.1 will describe to you _____ I saw when there.A. what B. that C. which D./ 25. From _____ I should say he is a good worker. A. what 1 know of him B. that I do know of himC. what do I know of himD. that do I know of him 26. I will give this dictionary to __ wants to have it.A. whomever B. anyoneC. whoever D. someone 27._____ they will come here hasn' t been decided yet.A. What B. That C. When D. Where 28. _____ was said here must be kept secret. A. Who B. The thing C. Whatever D. Where 29. It is still a question _____ we shall have our sports meet. A . if B. that C. what D. when 30. I'm going anyway. _____ she will go is up to her to decide. A. If or not B. Whether or not C. If D. That 31. It is strange _____ she have left without saying a word.A. that B. what C. why D. how 32. It is very clear _____ our policy is a correct one.A. what B. that C. why D. where 33. _____ Mr Zhang said is quite right.A. That B. When C. What D. Whether 34. It has been decided _____ he will be sent there.A. if B. whether C. why D. that 35. It doesn' t matter _____he' s come back or not.A. if B. whetherC. that D. when 36. It's a great pity _____ we won’t be able to finish the task on time. A. when B. that C. why D. where 37. It happened _____ I wasn't there that day.A. when B. why C. where D. that 38._____ you have done might do harm to other people.A. What B. That C. Which D. The things 39. _____ leaves the room last ought to turn oft the lights.A. Anyone B. The person C. Whoever D.Who 40._____ the 2000 Olympic Games won't be held in Beijing is known to all. A. Whether B. If C. Whenever D. That
41. _____ fails to see this will make a big mistake.A. That B. Whoever C. Whether D. Whether or not 42. __ we need more equipment is quite obvious.A. What B. Whether C. ThatD. Whatever 43. Has it been announced _____? A. when are the planes to take off B. that are the planes to take off C. where are the planes to take off D. when the planes are to take off 44. That is _____ we all support his idea.A. what B. why C. where D. when 45. That’s _____ we should do.A. that B. what C. how D. why 46. _____ is troubling me is _____ I don’t understand _____ he said A. What; that; what B. What; what; whatC. That; that; what D. Why; that; which 47. Things were not _____ they seemed to be.A. when B. why C. thatD. what 48. That’s _____ I want to say.A. all whatB. what C. all whichD. what that 49. That’s _____ . A. where our differences lie B. our differences lie there C. where do our differences lie D. that where our differences lie 50. That is _____ . A. where lived he there B. where did he liveC. where he li ved D. that where he lived 51. The quest ions is _____. A. whether is it worth doing B. that if it is worth doing C. whether it is worth doing D. if it is worth doing 52. Water will continue to be _____ it is today next in importance to oxygen.A. howB. whichC. what D. as 53. That's_____. A. how did I become a teacher B. how I became a teacher C. how a teacher I became D. that I became a teacher 54. They are just _____. A. that what shall I have B. what shall I haveC. that I shall have what D. what I shall have 55. It looked ____. A. as if it was going to rain B. that as if it was going to rain C. as if was it going to rain D. as if that it was going to rain 56. That's_____ . A. how she did it B. that how did she do it.C. how did she do itD. what she did it 57. That is _____ we decided to put the discussion off.A. where B. which C. that D. why 58. That’s _____ I lived when I was ten years old.A. where B. at which C. there where D. when 59. My suggestion is _____ we should send a few comrades to help them. A. if B. that C. when that D. that where 60. The idea _____ all people are selfish is wrong.A. what B. that C. why D. if 61. We heard the news _____ our team had won.A. that B. what C. whetherD. why 62. The fact _____ he hadn’t said anything surprised us all. A. why B. if C. that D. whether 63.I have no idea _____ she will be back.A. that B. where C. that when D. when 64. We must keep in mind the fact _____ China is still a developing country.A. whetherB. that C. whyD. when 65. They have no idea at all _____. A. where he has gone B. where did he goC. where h as he gone D. which place he has gone 名词性从句 一、1、表语从句；2、同位语从句；3、不是；4、主语从句；5、同位语从句；6、不是；7、表语从句；8、宾语从句； 9、不是；10、宾语从句 二、1. which; 2. why; 3. how; 4. What; 5. that; 6. when, where; 7. who(m); 8. what; 9. where; 10. whether 三、1~5 DBABD 6~10 DBBCA 11~15 CABCC 16~20 BADAB 21~25 CDAAA 26~30 CCCDB 31~35 ABCDB 36~40 BDACD 41~45 BCDBB 46~50 ADBAC 51~5 5 CCBDA 56~60 ADABB 61~65 ACDBA
非谓语动词（一）——动词不定式 动词不定式、分词(现在分词，过去分词)和动名词统称为非谓语动词。现代英语将现在分词和动名词合为一大类 叫作 v + ing 形式。这些动词的形式不能在句中单独作谓语用，因而没有语法主语。但可以有逻辑主语。由于没有语 法主语，也就不受人称和数的限定，因为不是谓语，也就没有时态和语态，但这些词仍能表示动作和状态，所以仍有 表示与其他动词相对时间关系的形式。由于与其它词有逻辑上的主谓关系，因此也有表示主、被动的形式，同时也有 自己的宾语和状语，一起构成非谓语动词的短语(动词不定式短语，分词短语，动名词短语)。非谓语动词在英语语法 中占有特殊且重要的位置。非谓语动词形式多样，应用广泛，且在句中起着很活跃的作用，也是语法项目中的重点和 难点，学好非谓语动词，才能正确 进行口语和书面的交流。 动词不定式、过去分词及 v-ing 形式在句中均不能作谓语用，所以叫做非谓语动词。 （一）动词不定式： 动词不定式由“to+ 动词原形”构成，如：to study, to play，动词不定式虽然不能作谓语动词用，但仍留着动 词的特征，它可以带有所需要的宾语或状语而构成动词不定式短语，如：to study hard, to play table tennis。1、动词 不定式的形式变化：动词不定式有下列时态和语态的形式变化。 语态式 主 被 动 动 一般式 to build to be build 完成式 to have built to have been build 进行式 to be building 完成进行式 to have been building
2、动词不定式的基本用法：动词不定式能起名词、形容词和副词的作用，可在句中作主语、表语、宾语 补足语、定语和状语用，如： （1）作主语：To help each other is good.（动词不定式作主语时，一般可用 it 作形式主语，而将作主语的动词不定式 置于句末，如：It is good to help each other. （2）作表语：My job is to drive them to the power station every day. 动词不定式在系动词 be 之后作表语，与表示将 来时的 be + 动词不定式结构有所区别，如：Our plan is to set up another middle school for the peasants’ children.我们 的计划是给农民子弟再成立一所中学。 （句中的谓语动词为 is，动词不定式 to set up… 为表语，主语为 plan，但 plan 并不是动词不定式的逻辑主语， 即动词不定式 to set up 所表示的动作不是主语 plan 产生的。 We are to set up another ） middle school for the peasants’ children.我们将为农民的子弟再成立一所中学。 （句中的 are to set up 整个结构为句中谓 语，主语为 we，同时也是动词不定式 to set up 所表示的动作的逻辑主语，即动词不定式 to set up 所表示的动作是由 we 产生的） 。 （3）作宾语：①作及物动词的宾语，如：She wishes to be a musician.；②作某些形容词的宾语：可以有动词不定式为 宾语的形容词一般有 glad, sorry, afraid, pleased, determined, willing, eager, anxious, ready, sure 等， I am determined 如： to give up smoking.；③动词不定式一般不作介词的宾语，但动词不定式之前如有疑问词时，就可作介词的宾语，如： Can you give us some advice on what to do next? （4）作宾语补足语，如：Tell the children not to play on the street. 如果句中的谓语动词为 see, hear, watch, notice, have, make, let 等，作宾语补足语的动词不定式须将 to 省去，如：I saw a little girl run across the street. （5） 动词不定式在句中作宾语， 如带有宾语补足语时， 须先用 it 作形式宾语， 而将该动词不定式后置， I don’t think 如： it right to do it that way. （6）作定语：动词不定式作定语时，须位于被其修饰的名词或代词之后，如：Is this the best way to help him? 和定 语用的动词不定式如果是不及物动词，不定式后面就要用必要的介词，如：He is the man to depend on. 如果被不定式 修饰的名词为 place, time, way， 不定式后面的介词， 习惯上可以省去， The old man is looking for a quiet place to live. 如： （7）作状语：动词不定式可以作下列的状语：①目的状语： Every morning he gets up very early to read English. 为 了强调不定式表示目的的作用，可在不定式前加 in order to 或 so as to（以便或为了） ，但应注意 in order to 位于句首 或句中均可，而 so as to 不能位于句首，如：She reads China Daily every day in order to (so as to) improve her English. 将表示目的的不定式置于句首，也可强调目的的作用，如：To master a foreign language, one must work hard at it. ②
结果状语：They lived to see the liberation of their home town.他们活到亲眼见到了他们家乡的解放。③too + 形容词或 副词 + 动词不定式，表示“足能?”的结果，如：You are old enough to take care of yourself now. 3、复合结构不定式：由 for + 名词（或代词宾格）+ 动词不定式即构成复合结构的动词不定式。其中 for 本身无意义。 for 后面的名词或代词是不定式的逻辑主语，这种不定式在句中可作主语、表语、宾语、定语或状语，如：It is very important for us to get everything ready for the harvest. 当作表语用的形容词表示不定式的逻辑主语的性质或特征时， 就用介词 of 而不用 for 引出不定式的逻辑主语，这些形容词一般有 good, nice, kind, wise, silly, stupid, foolish, right, wrong, careless, impolite 等，如：It is very kind of you to help him every day. 4、疑问词 + 动词不定式：疑问代词和疑问副词后可加动词不定式构成不定式短语，在句中可作主语、表语或宾语， 如：How to prevent them from swimming in this river is a problem. 5、动词不定式的否定式：动词不定式的否定式是由 not + 动词不定式构成，如：It’s wrong of you not to attend the meeting. 6、动词不定式的时态形式所表示的时间关系： （1）一般式：动词不定式一般式所表示的动作是和谓语动词所表示的动 作同时发生，但在多数情况下，是在谓语动词所表示的动作之后发生，如：We decided to plant more trees this spring. （其后） ，They often watch us play table tennis.（同时）（2）完成式：动词不定式完成式所表示的动作发生在谓语动 ； 词所表示的动作之前，如：I am sorryto have kept you waiting.（3）进行式：动词不定式进行式所表示的动作正在进 行中，而且与谓语动词所表示的动作同时发生，如：She happened to be writing a letter in the room when I came in. 7、动词不定式的被动语态用法：如果动词不定式的逻辑主语为这个不定式所表示的动作的承受者时，不定式一般就用 被动语态形式，如：What is to be done next hasn’t been decided yet. （二）-ing 形式：动词的-ing 形式也是一种非谓语动词。-ing 形式仍保留有动词的特征，可以带有其所需要的宾 语或状语而构成-ing 短语。 1、-ing 的形式：-ing 有一般式和完成式。及物动词的-ing 还有主动语态和被动语态，而不及物动词的-ing 则没有 被动语态。现在以及物动词 make 和不及物动词 go 为例，将其-ing 各种形式列表如下： 动词 语态 主动语态 making having made 及物动词 make 被动语态 being made having been made 不及物动词 go 主动语态 going having gone 形式 一般式 完成式 2、-ing 形式的基本用法。 （1）作主语：Seeing is believing.百闻不如一见。Talking is easier than doing. –ing 作主语时，如果其结构较长， 可用 it 作形式主语，而将作主语的-ing 后置。如：It isn’t much good writing to them again. It’s no use waiting here. （2）作表语：Her job is washing and cooking. My hobby is collecting stamps. （3）作宾语： ①作及物动词的宾语。She likes drawing very much.； ②作某些短语动词的宾语。 Mary is thinking of going back to New York.； ③ do+限定词（my, some, any, the 等）+ -ing，表示“做?事”之意，如：We often do our cleaning on Saturday afternoon. Will you do any shopping on Saturday this afternoon? ④作介词的宾语：Her sister is good at learning physics.； ⑤作形容词 worth, busy 等的宾语：This book is well worth reading. –ing 作宾语带有宾语补足语时，要用 it 作为形 式宾语，而将作宾语的-ing 后置，如：We found it no good talking like that. Do you think it necessary trying again? （4）作定语：The sleeping child is only five years old. Do you know the man standing at the gate? 注：-ing 形式作 定语用时，如果-ing 只是一个单词，就位于其修饰的名词之前，如果是-ing 短语，就位于其修饰的名词之后，-ing 作 定语时，被-ing 所修饰的名词就是该-ing 的逻辑主语。另外，-ing 作定语用时，其动作和句子谓语动词所表示的动作 是同时进行的，如果不是同时进行的，就不能用-ing 作定语，要使用定语从句，如：The girl who wrote a letter there yesterday can speak English very well. （5）作宾语补足语：We can see steam rising from the wet clothes. 注：当-ing 在复合宾语中作宾语补足语用时， 句中宾语就是这个-ing 的逻辑主语， 可以带有这种复合宾语的动词有 see, watch, hear, observe, feel, find, have, keep 等。 （6）作状语： ①时间状语：Seeing Tom, I couldn’t help thinking of his brother. 分词在句中作时间状语时，其前一般可加 when
或 while，如：When crossing street, you must be careful. ②原因状语：Being ill, he didn’t go to school yesterday. ③方式或伴随状语：Mary stood at the school gate waiting for Betty. 3、主动语态-ing 完成式的基本用法。主动语态-ing 完成式所表示的动作发生在句中谓语动词所表示的动作之前， 一般在句中作时间或原因状语用。 句中的主语是它的逻辑主语， 并且是它所表示的动作的执行者， Having answered 如： the letter, she went on to read an English novel. 4、被动语态-ing 一般式的基本用法。被动语态-ing 一般式所表示的动作是一个正在进行中的被动动作，而且这个 被动动作也是和句中谓语所表示的动作同时发生的。 它一般在句中作定语或状语用。 The truck being repaired there 如： is ours. 5、被动语态-ing 完成式的基本用法。被动语态-ing 完成式所表示的动作发生在谓语动词所表示的动作之前，在句 中一般作状语用。如：Having been shown the lab, we were taken to see the library. 6、-ing 形式的复合结构。在-ing 前加物主代词或名词所有格即构成-ing 的复合结构。其中的物主代词或名词所有 格为-ing 的逻辑主语。这种结构在句中可作主语、宾语或表语，如：Your smoking and drinking too much will do harm to your health. 但在口语中，这种结构如作宾语用，其中的物主代词常用人称代词的宾格，名词的所有格常用名词的 普通格代替，如：She insisted on Peter’s (or Peter)going there first. 7、-ing 形式与动词不定式在句中作主语、表语、宾语时的区别。一般说来，表示一个比较抽象或泛指的动作时多 用-ing 形式。 表示一个具体某一次的动作时， 多用动词不定式， 如：Our job is making steel. She likes playing the piano, but she doesn't want to play it today. 8、-ing 形式与动词不定式在句中作定语的区别。-ing 形式作定语用时，其动作一般与句中谓语动词所表示的动词 同时发生，而动词不定式作定语时，其动作一般发生在句中谓语动词所表示的动作之后。如：The girl writing a letter there can speak English very well./I have three letters to write. 9、-ing 形式与动词不定式在作宾语补足语时的区别。 （1）不定式作宾补时，其动作一般发生在谓语动词所表示的 动作之后，如：I have told them to come again tomorrow.（2）在 see, watch, hear, feel 等之后，如果用-ing 形式作宾补， 表示其动作正在进行中， 而用不带 to 的不定式作宾补时， 不定式所表示的动作是一个动作的过程， I hear her singing 如： in the room.我听见她正在屋里唱歌。 I hear her sing in the room.我听见她在屋里唱过歌。 10、-ing 形式与动词不定式在句中作状语的区别。-ing 形式在句作状语表示时间、原因、方式或伴随情况，而动 词不定式一般式在句中作状语时， 一般是作目的或结果状语， Not receiving his letter, I wrote to him again./ I looked 如： into the window to see what was going on inside. （三）过去分词： 1、过去分词的基本用法：过去分词只有一种形式，也没有主动语态，它所表示的动作是一个被动的或是已完成的 动作。过去分词在句中也可用作定语、表语、宾语或状语等成分。过去分词在句中作某种成分时，其逻辑主语一般为 该分词所表示的动作的承受者，如： （1）作定语：过去分词作定语时，如果这个分词是一个单词，就位于其修饰的名词之前，如果是分词短语，就位 于其修饰的名词之后。被过去分词所修饰的名词，就是该分词的逻辑主语，如：The stolen car was found by the police last week. （2） 作表语： 过去分词作表语时， 表示其逻辑主语所处的状态， 其逻辑主语就是句中的主语， The glass is broken. 如： 这个玻璃杯是破的。 注： 过去分词作表语时， 和动词的被动语态结构相似， 但两者表达的意义不同，如： The glass was broken by my little brother.这个玻璃杯是被我小弟弟打破的。作表语用的过去分词在许多词典中已列为形容词，如： crowded, devoted, discouraged, done, dressed, drunk, experienced, frightened, gone, hurt, interested, killed, known, learned, lost, pleased, satisfied, shut, surprised, tired, undressed, worried, astonished, broken, completed, covered 等。 （3）作宾语补足语：过去分词作宾语补足语时，句中的宾语就是其逻辑主语，如：When I opened the door, I found the ground covered by fallen leaves. 注：动词 have 后的复合宾语中，宾语补足语如为过去分词，常表示该分词所表示的 动作是由别人来执行的而不是句中主语自己来执行的，如：I had my bike repaired yesterday. 昨天我（找别人）把我 的自行车给修了。 （4）作状语：过去分词作状语时，相当于一个状语从句，该结构的逻辑主语一般都是主句的主语，是过去分词所 表示意义的逻辑宾语。为了使作状语的过去分词意义更加明确，常在分词前加 when, if, while, though, as 等连词，如：
Seen from the hill/ When seen from the hill, our town looks beautiful.; Given more time/ If given more time, we could have done it better.（we 是该结构的逻辑主语，是 give 的逻辑宾语。 ）
独立主格：上述-ing 和过去分词的用法中，-ing 和过去分词在句中均有逻辑主语，但有时它们也能有自己的独立
的主语，这种独立的主语，一般为名词或代词，位于其前之前，和-ing 或过去分词构成独立主格。独立主格在句中一 般只作状语用，而-ing 和过去分词作用的形式，则要根据它们所表示的动作和句中谓语动词所表示的时间关系而定。 至于独立主格中是使用-ing 或是过去分词，则要根据它们的主语和其所表示的动作的主动被动关系而定，如：The bell ringing, we all stopped talking. 注：The work having been finished, she sat down to have a rest. ①独立结构中的 being 或 having been 常可省去， 如： The meeting (being) over, all left the room. ②作伴随状语的独立结构常可用 with 短语来 代替，如：She read the letter, tears rolling down her cheeks./ She read the letter with tears rolling down her cheeks. 2、-ing 形式与过去分词的区别： （1）语态不同：-ing 形式表示主动概念，及物动词的过去分词表示被动概念。an inspiring speech 鼓舞人心的演 说；the inspired audience 受鼓舞的听众。 （2）时间关系不同：现在分词所表示的动作一般是正在进行中的动作，而过去分词所表示的动作，往往是已经完 成的动作，如：The changing world 正在发生的世界；the changed world 已经起了变化的世界。 【四】with 复合结构 with 结构是许多英语复合结构中最常用的一种。学好它对学好复合宾语结构、不定式复合结构、动名词复合 结构和独立主格结构均能起很重 要的作用。本文就此的构成、特点及用法等作一较全面阐述,以帮助同学们掌握这一重要的语法知识。 一、 with 结构的构成 它是由介词 with 或 without+复合结构构成,复合结构作介词 with 或 without 的复合宾语,复合宾语中第一部分宾语由名 词或代词充当,第二 部分补足语由形容词、副词、介词短语、动词不定式或分词充当,分词可以是现在分词,也可以是过去分词。With 结构 构成方式如下： 1. with 或 without-名词/代词+形容词； 2. with 或 without-名词/代词+副词； 3. with 或 without-名词/代词+介词短语； 4. with 或 without-名词/代词 +动词不定式； 5. with 或 without-名词/代词 +分词。 下面分别举例： 1、 She came into the room,with her nose red because of cold.(with+名词+形容词,作伴随状语) 2、 With the meal over , we all went home.(with+名词+副词,作时间状语) 3、 The master was walking up and down with the ruler under his arm。 (with+名词+介词短语,作伴随状语。 The teacher ) entered the classroom with a book in his hand. 4、He lay in the dark empty house,with not a man ,woman or child to say he was kind to me.(with+名词+不定式,作伴随 状语) He could not finish it without me to help him.(without+代词 +不定式,作条件状语) 5、She fell asleep with the light burning.(with+名词+现在分词 ,作伴随状语) Without anything left in the cupboard, shewent out to get something to eat.(without+代词+过去分词,作为原因状语) 非谓语动词专练（一）——动词不定式 1. ---- Can you ride a horse?---- No, I never had the chance ____. A. for learning it B. for learning how C. how to learn it D. to learn how 2. Paul said, "Give me a chair _____." A. to sit B. sit C. sit on D. to sit on 3. I ran too fast ______ where I was going. A. to notice B. for me to notice C. to notice for me D. and notice 4. ---- Have you enjoyed your visit here? ---- Yes, I'll be very sorry______ . A. for leaving B.of leaving C. to leave D. with leaving 5. ---- I'll help you whenever you need me. ---- Good. I'd like _____me tomorrow. A. you helping B. that you will help C. you to help D. that you help
6. ---- I didn't hear you come in last night. ---- That's good. We tried_____ noisy. A. not be B. not to be C. to be not D. to not be 7. Because of air pollution being greatly reduced, this city is still ______. A. a good place which to be lived in B. lived as a good place C. a good place to live in D. living in as a good place 8. ---- Why was the official meeting called?---- _____ new officers. A. Select B. Selecting C. To select D. For selecting 9. ---- Where did he go?---- He went to another store ______. A. to buy pencils B. for buying pencils C. buy pencils D. buying pencils 10. ---- My baby has a heart trouble. ---- Did the doctor find it difficult ______ ? A. in treating B. treating C. for treating D. to treat 11. ---- Did the judge ask you many questions? ---- Yes, and ______. A. they were difficult to be answered B. to answer them was to be difficult C. they were difficult to answer D. they had difficulty in answering 12. That beggar seems _____ anything yesterday. A. not to have eaten B. not to eat C. didn't eat D. to not have eaten 13. The lost child desired nothing but _____ home. A. go B. to go C. going D. went 14.That box is____. A. too heavy for me to carry B. too heavy for me to carry it C. so heavy for me to carry D. very heavy for me to carry 15. Would you be ______ to do me a favour, please? A. so kind as B. too kind C. as kind as D. enough kind 16. To learn to speak English well,_____. A. much practice is needed B. one needs much practice C. much practice is needed by one D. one is needed much practice 17. Tom kept quiet about the accident ______ lose his job. A. so not as to B. so as not to C. so as to not D. not so as to 18. Last summer I took a course on ______ . A. how to make dresses B. how dresses be made C. how to be made dresses D. how dresses to be made 19. The house is not large enough ____ . A. to live in B. to be lived in C. to live D. for living 20. Nobody likes ______. A. to speak ill of B. to be spoken ill of C. speaking ill of D. spoken ill of 21. I know him ______ a good football player while in college.A. to have been B. to be C. was D. had been 22. I was surprised______. A. watching him to eat so quickly B. watch him eat so quickly C. watching him eat so quickly D. to watch him eat so quickly 23. Mr. White was seen ______ the Palace Museum. A. enter B. to enter C. entered D. to entering 24. I saw Mary ____ the house. A. open the door and go into B. to open the door and to go into C. open the door and to go into D. open the door and went into 25. Paul does nothing but _____ all day long. A. play B. to play C. playing D. played 26. Now we could not do anything but ______ for him here.A. waited B. waiting C. to wait D. wait 27. I don't know her and I don't ______ . A. want B. want to C. want it D. to want 28. ---- Go to the theatre with me, will you? ---- I should like ______, but I don't have time. A. to B. too C. to do D. to go to 29. To play fair is as important as ______.A. to play well B. play well C. we play well D. playing well 30. It is the greatest happiness on earth ______.
A. loving and to be loved B. to love and being loved C. to love and to be loved D. love and be loved 31. _____ is better to love than _____ . A. That, to be loved B. That, be loved C. It, be loved D. It, to be loved 32. It's very foolish _____ it? A. for you to say B. of you to say C. with you saying D. in your saying 33. It ______ me two hours to find your new house. A. cost B. took C. spent D. used 34. We did not expect our offer _____ so quickly. A. rejected B. to reject C. to be rejected D. rejecting 35. He told her ______ there at once. A. get B. gets C. should get D. to get 36. We all think it most foolish ______ this mistake. A. for you making B. of you to make C. you to make D. for you to make 37. I really don't know ____ .A. to swim B. how to swimC. to swim how D. how swim 38. ---- What do you think about English? ---- It's a difficult language _____. A. speaking B. to be spoken C. to speak D. spoken 非谓语动词专练（二）——动词-ing 形式 1. Alien said that his trip was _______. A. interested A. him to postpone to make C. him to postpone making 3. I couldn't understand ______ at the poor child. A. you to laugh A. arguing, argue A. to leave A. take B. you laugh C. why laugh D. you laughing D. to argue, argue D. leave D. have D. of, / C. to be fish D. being fishing D. will put back D. not being 4. It's no use______ with him. You might as well ______ with a stone wall. B. to argue, arguing B. leaving B. taking A. of, to C. arguing, arguing C. that you leave C. being taken B. for, to C. to, to 5. It is no good ______ today's work for tomorrow. 6. The old man's ______ pity on the snake led to his own death. 7. It's very kind ______ you ______ say so. B. interest C. interesting D. of interest B. his postponing to make D. his postponing making 2. We can't understand ______ a decision until it is too late.
8. Some people's greatest pleasure is ______ . A. fishing B. to fish 9. Remember ______ the book, when you have finished it. A. putting back A. to not be B. having put back B. not to be C. to put back C. being not
10. You didn't hear us come back last night. That's good. We tried ______ noisy. 11. Though he failed, he tried _______ it again and again. A. to do B. doing C. do D. done. 12. You'll regret ______ those words. You may hurt her feelings. A. say A. have finished reading C. will finish reading A. be given, to try B. give, to try B. to say C. having said B. finish to read D. have finished to read .C. giving, trying D. having, to try C. collecting D. collected D. to have said 13. You can keep the book until you ______ .
14. We are looking forward to ______ another chance ______ it again. 15. Most of the students enjoy_____ stamps.A. collect B. to collect 16. Excuse me for _____ in without ______. A. coming, asking B. coming, being asked C. to come, asking D. to come, being asked : 17. People couldn't help ______ the foolish girl. A. laugh at 18. "What do you think of the book?" A. to read B. to be read B. to laugh at C. laughing at D. laughing D. being read
"Oh. excellent, it's worth _______ a second time." C. reading
19. "I usually go there by train." A. to try going
"Why not ______ by boat for a change?" C. to try and go D. try going
B. trying to go
20. I was too excited ______ . A. speak B. to speak C. not to speak D. speaking 21. Charles Babbage is generally considered ______ the first computer. A. to invent A. ask him A. being tied A. never to drive A. open B. inventing B. to ask him B. having tied B. to never drive B. opening C. to have invented C. that you ask him C. to be tied C. never driving C. having opened D. having invented D. asking him D. tied D. never drive. D. opened. D. lying D. had been invited 22. It is no use _____to come now. He is busy. 23. The murder was brought in, with his hands _______ behind his back. 24. Mrs Smith warned her daughter ____ after drinking. 25. The computer centre, ______ last year is very popular among the students in this school. 26. Do you know the boy _______ under the big tree? A. lay B. lain C. laying 27. Most of the artists ______ to the party 'were from South Africa. A. invited B. to invite to the notice. C. angrily, pointed C. to be followed D. and angrily pointing D. being followed C. being invited 28. English is a language ______ in many countries.A. spoken B. speaking C. be spoken D. to speak 29. "Can you read?" Mary said A. angrily, pointing A. followed B. and point angrily B. following
30. There was a terrible noise _______ the sudden burst of Tight. 31. ____ more attention, the trees could have grown better.A. Given B. To give C. Giving D. Having given 32. _____their students, the famous teacher came into the hall. A. Followed A. to clean, to do A. know to take B. Followed by C. Being followed it for you? C. cleaning, to do D. to be cleaned, doing D. know how taking D. Having been followed 33. Your flat needs _____ . Would you like me B. cleaning, doing 34. Does your new secretary ____ short hand? B. know how to take C. know how take 35. Tommy had his big brother _____ his shoes for him.A. to tie B. tie C. tied D. tying 36. Would you please ______ write on the textbooks? A. don't B. not to C. not D. to not 37. I'd ______ the operation unless it is absolutely necessary. A. rather not have B. rather not to have C. not rather had D. rather not having 38. Your mother and I are looking forward________ you. A. of seeing B. for seeing C. to see D. to seeing 39. The girl couldn't_____ how red his face was. A. help to notice B. be helping to notice C. be helping noticing A. taking D. help noticing B. to take C. take D. taken D. Tom is 40. Excuse me, but it is time to have your temperature ______. 非谓语动词专练（三）——过去分词 1. There is no question of _____ able to finish it himself.A. Tom was B. Tom's being C. Tom's be 2. The new shopping center _____ now will be put into use by the end of this year. A. built 3. "Have you had supper?" A. are being cooked B. be built B. is being cooked C. being built C. is cooked D. to be built D. are cooked "Not yet. The meal____." "It's my great pleasure to have you ______ us." C. having met, among D. to meet, of C. to be understood
4. "I'm glad ______ you here in the hotel." A. meeting, to B. to have met, with 5. I'm afraid I can't make myself _____ in English. A. understanding B. understand
6. Although in a hurry, Wilson ______. A. couldn't stop walking C. stopped to help the stranger 7. Janet is easy _____. A. for getting along with B. by getting along with C. to get along with D. got along with 8. Don't forget ______ the light when you leave. A. turn off B. to turn off C. turning off D. turned off 9. The mother is very glad; her baby is beginning ______. A. understanding what she means C. to understand what she means 10. I think this story is _____ . A. worth being read B. worth reading C. worth to read D. worth of reading 11. This scientist is a man ______ praise. A. worth to B. worthy to be C. worthy of D. worth 12. I don't want ______ any more trouble, you see? A. there being B. it to be C. it being D. there to be 13. When she returned home, she found the window open and something ______. A. stealing B. missed C. stolen D. to steal C. speak D. spoken 14. Strictly _____, it isn't worth the price you are asking. A. to speak B. speaking 15. Time ______, they'll come here to watch us ______ football. A. permitted, playing B. permitted, to play C. permitting, play D. permitting, to play D. had stolen 16. The man was seen _____ into the courtyard. A, stealing B. stolen C. be stealing B. to understand that she meant D. noticing what she means , B. couldn't help the stranger D. didn't answer the stranger
17. Bob should love _____ to the party tomorrow evening. A. taking B. to be taken C. to take D. being taken 18. Tom had no choice but _____ the classroom with his classmates. A. to clean B. cleanC. cleaningD. cleans 19. Mr. Brown said that his car needed A. to be repairedB. being repairedC. be repairingD. to repair 20. The old man didn't know whether to sell the car or____ . A. being kept for later use A. being opened and closed A. to see B. kept for later use C. to keep it for later use D. to be kept it for later use 21. The noise of the desks _____ could be heard in the next classroom. B. opened and closed C. having been opened and closed D. to be opened and closed C. to see, to take D. having seen, take 22. I remember _____ someone ____ the umbrella away. , take B. having seen, to take 23. She was noticed ______ the shop. A. to enter B. enter C. having entered D. entered 24. I couldn't help _____ when I heard the joke. A. being laughed B. laughing C. to be laughing D. to laugh 25._____, she burst into tears. A. Deeply movedB. Deeply moving C. As she deeply movedD. As she was deeply moving 26. The problem requires ______. A. studying with great care B. to study carefullyC. to be studied without carelessness D. taking great care of studying it 27. _____ carelessly, the boy made mistakes here and there.. A. being written B. Wrote C. Write D. Writing 28. He would rather ______ his parents with their housework than _____ out to play games. A. to help, to go A. broken, playing B. help, go B. break, play C. help, to go C. broken, played D. to help, go D. broke, was playing 29. The boy had his leg _____ while ____ football. 30. Having finished the work,_____. A. it was almost six o'clock 31. He is ill. He has kept_____. A. coughing all along B. to cough at nigC. cough since yesterday D. being coughed day and night 32. It is no use ____ without _____. A. to talk, doing B. taking, being done C. talking, doing
B. a postman came and delivered the evening paper and some letters D. we had a rest and then had supper
C. supper had been already prepared
D. being talked, being to do
33. "I usually go there by boat."
"Why not _____ by train for a change?"
A. try going
B. to try going
C. trying to go
D. to try and go
34._____, she felt quite shy at the party. A. As she a stranger B. Being a stranger C. According to a stranger D. She like a stranger 35. Every morning he gets up early and practises ______ and then _____ to school. A. to read English, go B. reading English, goingC. reading English, goes D. of reading English, goes 36. While _____ football on tin playground, I found 'my keys ______. A. playing, lost , B. play, losing B. He has made C. played, being lost C. He had making D. having played, lost D. Him making C. on practising D. in practising 37. ____ the same mistakes again made his parents very angry. A. His having made 38. Dick made it ______ to all his friends. A. to know B. known C. know D. knowing 39. Anna spends one hour a day _____ spoken English.A. practise B. to practise 40. No one was surprised at _____ the examination.A. he passing B. his pass C. him pass D. his passing 41. Although swimming is his favourite sport, yet he doesn't like _____ today. A. to swim B. swimming C. swim D. to have swim 42. She sat at the desk and set about _____ a letter to her friend.A. to write B. writing C. write D. written 43. This soup is cold; it needs _____. A. to heat B. to be heated C. being hot D. heated 44. I went ______a balloon but I didn't see anyone _____ balloons. A. to buy, to sell B. to buy, selling C. buying, selling D. buying, to sell 45. Anna is often heard ______songs in her room. A. to speak, speaking A. sung B. singing C. sing D. to sing
46. The more you practise ______ English, the better your _____ English will be. B. speaking, spoken C. spoken, spoken D. spoken, speaking With 结构专练 1. John received an invitation to dinner, and with his work _______, he gladly accepted it. A. finished B. finishing C. having finished D. was finished 2.----Come on, please give me some ideas about the project. ----Sorry. With so much work _______ my mind, I almost break down. A. filled B. filling C. to fill D. being filled 3.I couldn’t do my homework with all that noise _______. A. going on B. goes on C. went on D. to go on 4.________ two exams to worry about, I have to work really hard this weekend. A. With B. Besides C. As for D/ Because of 5.It was a pity that the great writer died _______ his works unfinished. A. for B. with C. from D. of 6. The young woman _______ a baby sleeping in her arms was wandering in the street. A. with B.because C. on D. like 7. Everyone should go to sleep with the light turned off.A. as B. with C. for D. on 8. _______ so many homework to do, Mary won’t have time to play with her friends this morning. A. Without B. With C. By D. Because 9. _______ the door open, the noise of the machines is almost deafening. A. Because B. As C. With D. Because of 10. _______ his mother out, he had to stay at home alone. A. As B.For C. Because D. With 11. _______ all things considered, her proposal is of greater than his A. Like B.With C. On D. Without 12. _______ time permitting, we will visit the Summer Palace. A. By B. On C. With D. As
参考答案： 非谓语动词（一）——动词不定式 1~5 DDACC 6~10 BCCAD 11~15 CABAA 16~20 BBAAB 21~25 ADBAA 26~30 DBAAC 31~35 DBBCD 36~38 BBC 非谓语动词（二）——动词-ing 形式 1~5 CDDAB 6~10 BAACB 11~15 BCADC 16~20 BCCDB 21~25 CDDAD 26~30 DAAAB 31~35 ABCBB 36~40 CADDD 非谓语动词（三）——过去分词 1~5 BCBBD 6~10 CCBCB 11~15 CDCBC 16~20 ABAAC 21~25 ADABA 26~30 ADBAD 31~35 ACABC 36~40 AABDD 41~46 ABBBDB With 结构专练 1-5ABAAB 6-12ABBCDBC
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