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2014版英语复习方略课件(人教版通用):必修3 Unit 4 Astronomy:the science of the stars


Unit 4 Astronomy: the science of the stars

【诵读·积累】 你班就“是否应该花费巨大的人力、物力和财力进行太空 探索”进行了讨论。 1. 有些人认为太空探索完全是浪费时间和金钱。理由是收

效甚微、花费巨大。
2. 但大多数同学认为进行太空探索利大于弊, 许多新产品, 如气象、通讯卫星

都直接得益于太空研究, 使全球受益匪浅。 3. 你的观点??

Do We Need Space Exploration Man has been fascinated by outer space for thousands of years. It has been over forty years since man’s first landing on the moon. Now, some people believe that space exploration is a waste of time and money. They point out the fact that it cost billions of dollars to carry on the space research, but a little

information was brought back.

However, every coin has two sides. There are still a
majority of other people who believe that space exploration has more advantages. And I agree with those people. Many new products, such as weather and communication satellites, are also products of space programs, and they have benefited

people all over the world. And what’s more, scientific
knowledge about outer space has been acquired by mankind. We believed that it will bring more benefits in the future, which we cannot even imagine now. Space exploration is a challenge to human beings. That’s why several nations try hard to carry out space exploration continuously.

【尝试运用】 词汇翻译 fascinate ________ space exploration _______________

使着迷
太空探索 时间和金钱的浪费 指出 实施太空研究 大多数的 同意

a waste of time and money _______________________ point out ________
carry on the space research ________________________ a majority of ____________

agree with _________
carry out ________

执行, 实行

句式仿写 ①她就是想引人注意才穿得那么稀奇古怪的。(表语从句) that’s why she dresses so She just wants to be noticed; __________________________ strangely _________. ②尽管她个子矮, 却是个出色的篮球运动员。(同位语从句) the fact that she is short she is an excellent basketball Despite _____________________,

player.

Ⅰ. 单词盘点 核心速记 system n. ) 1. ______( theory n. ) 2. ______( 系统;体系;制度 学说;理论 大气层;气氛 因此;于是

atmosphere n. ) 3. ___________( thus adv. ) 4. ____(
pull n. &vt. ) 5. ____( float vi. &vt. ) 6. ____( (n . )

拉(力);拖;牵引力
(使)浮动;(使)漂浮 漂浮物

联想串记 violent (adj. )猛烈的→_______ violence (n. ) 暴力→________( violently adv. ) 7. ______ 猛烈地 unlike (prep. )不同;不像→____( like 反义词)(prep. )像 8. ______ dislike (v. &n. )不喜欢 →______

harmful (adj. )有害的→_____ harm (n. ) 害处(vt. )对??有害 9. ________
exist (vi. )存在; 生存→________ existence (n. ) 存在 10. ____ puzzle(vt. &vi. )(使)迷惑; (使)为难 (n. ) 谜;难题 11. ______ puzzled (adj. )迷惑不解的 →_______

Ⅱ. 短语互译
1. 及时;终于 in time ______ in one’s turn ___________ prevent. . . from ______________ cheer up ________ break out _________

2. 轮到某人;接着
3. 阻止;制止 4. 感到高兴;感到振奋 5. 突发;爆发

6. 密切注意;当心;提防
7. lay eggs

watch out for ____________ 下蛋 _____ 产生;分娩 ___________ 既然 _____ 挡住(光线) __________

8. give birth to
9. now that 10. block out

Ⅲ. 句型透视
1. “so. . . that”句型 became so violent that 变得如此猛烈以至于)it was The earth ___________________( not clear whether the shape would last or not. 2. “make it possible to do sth. ”结构 it possible for life This produced a chain reaction, which made ____________________ to develop 使生命的生长发育成为一种可能). _________(

3. “倍数+as+adj. /adv. +as”句型

twice But when I tried to step forward, I found I was carried _____
as far as on the earth 是地球上的两倍远)and fell over. __________________( 4. now that引导的原因状语从句 now that gravity has Walking does need a bit of practice __________________ changed 既然地球引力已发生了变化). ________(

Ⅳ. 语篇完形

After the “Big Bang”, the earth was just a cloud of dust. It
exploded loudly with fire and rock, which were 2. ______ in time to 1. ________

produce the water vapour, carbon and other gases. Many
appear millions of years later, the first small plants began to 3. _______ on the surface of the water. They multiplied and filled the oceans oxygen Next, green plants began to grow on and seas with 4. _______. land. When the plants grew into forests, reptiles appeared for the laying eggs. first time. They produced young generally by 5. ______ When dinosaurs disappeared, mammals became more

important. Now small clever animals with hands and feet spread all over the earth. As time went by appeared and 6. ______ they covered the earth and they are putting too much carbon

atmosphere which 8. prevents dioxide into the 7. ___________, ________ heat
from escaping from the earth into space. Whether life will 9. _____ continue on the earth for millions of years to come will

depend on whether this problem can be solved. 10. _________

1. 选用框中词汇的适当形式完成句子 watch out, system, pull, atmosphere, puzzle atmosphere (1)A number of gases form the ___________. puzzles me most is why they don’t show up. (2)What _______ pulling weeds in the garden. (3)He spent the whole afternoon _______ watch out for the (4)When you are crossing the street, please _________

cars.
(5)What are the differences between the American and British systems of the government? _______

2. 选用句型透视中的句式仿写句子 (1)男孩子们是如此优秀, 以至于所有的老师都爱他们。 Boys are so good that all teachers love them. (2)他们的到来使我们按时完成工作成为可能。 Their coming makes it possible for us to finish the work on time.

(3)到的学生是我们预计的五倍。
There are five times as many students as we expected. (4)既然你已经完成了家庭作业, 你就可以打篮球了。 Now that you have finished your homework, you can play basketball.

in time 核 心 考 点

3年 1考

prevent. . . from
make+it+adj. /n. +to do sth. “倍数+as+adj. /adv. +as”句型

3年 1考
3年 3考 3年 2考

1. unlike prep. 不同;不像
adj. 不同的;不相似的 something like It’s like/unlike sb. to do sth. dislike 几分像?? 做某事实在像/不像某人 vt. 不喜欢, 讨厌

①This is unlike volcanic activity above the sea. 这同高出海洋面的火山活动是不同的。

②There were something like 500 people in the audience.
观众大约有500人。 Unlike _____ other ____________, gifts/presents it came without wrap. ③______ 和别的礼物不同的是, 它没有包装。 It’s ______ unlike ____ him __ to ___ be ____; late he’s usually on time. ④___ 他不是会迟到的那种人; 他通常很准时。

【想一想】高考中经常把 unlike与 dislike放在一起考查 , 在学 习中经常会把两者混淆。动脑想一想, 两者有何区别?

【参考答案】
unlike可以用作介词, 意为“与??不同, 不像”;而dislike则 为动词, 意为“不喜欢”, 通常用作及物动词。例如:I dislike living in a large city. 我讨厌住在大城市。

2. exist vi. 存在;生存 (1)exist on (=live on) sth. exist in exist as 靠某物生存 存在于??之中 作为??而存在, 以??形态存在 There exist(s). . . 有/存在??

(2)in existence
come into existence

现存的;现有的
产生;存在

①Man cannot exist without air. 没有空气人就不能生存。 exist __ in a variety of modes. ②Energy can ____ 能量能以各种形式存在。 There ____ exist many sources of energy both potential and ③ ______ kinetic.

存在着许多势能和动能的能源。
come ____ into ________? existence ④When did the world _____ 世界是什么时候产生的?

3. puzzle n. 谜;难题 vt. &vi. (使)迷惑;(使)为难

be in a puzzle
be in a puzzle about. . . puzzle over/about

不知如何是好
对??迷惑不解 苦思冥想;绞尽脑汁

①Their reason for doing it is still a puzzle to me.
他们为什么干那件事仍然让我费解。 ②(2012· 江西高考)But his curiosity was difficult to control and this new computer really puzzled him. 但是他的好奇心难以控制, 这台新电脑也确实使他费解。 in __ a ______ puzzle as to what to do next. ③I’m __ 对于下一步该做什么我不知道。 puzzle ____ over a math problem. ④I saw him ______ 我看见他正在苦苦思考一道数学题。

4. pull n. & vt. 拉(力);拖;牵引力
①I felt a pull at my sleeve and turned round. 我觉得有人扯我的袖子, 便转过身来。 ②He will pull through his illness soon. 他很快就会恢复健康的。 ③They have managed to pull down the old building. 他们已拆毁了那幢旧建筑。

④The train pulled in and all the passengers got off.
火车进站了, 所有的乘客都下了车。

【归纳】完成下列短语 down pull _____ in pull __ through pull _______ 拆毁;拆掉(房屋等) (列车等)驶进、到站;(船)靠岸

恢复(健康); (使)渡过难关

【助记】推拉的方向对比

5. in time 及时;终于
①He might get here in time, but I can’t be sure.

他可能及时来到这里, 不过我不能确定。
②If you keep on, you will succeed in time. 如果坚持下去, 你们总有一天会成功的。

【拓展】完成下列短语 on time ___ at a time __ from time to time _____ 准时 每次, 逐一 有时, 偶尔 立刻;马上

in no time __
again time and time _____

一次又一次;一再

【高考链接】
(2012· 江苏高考)—Thank God, you’re safe!

— I stepped back, just _____ to avoid the racing car.
A. in time C. in need B. in case D. in vain

【解析】选A。考查介词短语。句意:——谢天谢地, 你安然 无恙!——我退回去了, 恰好及时避开了飞驰的汽车。A项表 示“及时” , 符合题意。 B 项表示“以防万一”; C 项表示 “需要”;D项表示“徒劳地”。

6. prevent. . . from 阻止;制止

prevent/stop/keep. . . from doing sth.
阻止??做某事 protect. . . from keep. . . doing sth. 保护??不受??侵袭;挡住;防御 使??一直做某事

①Guards stood at the doors to prevent anyone from leaving.

守卫站在门口阻止任何人离开。
②His advice kept me from making a serious mistake. 他的忠告使我免于犯一个严重的错误。 ③Once he has made up his mind, no one can prevent _______ him ____

from ________ carrying ___ out the plan. _____
一旦他下定决心, 谁也阻止不了他执行这个计划。

【想一想】 prevent/stop/keep. . . from doing sth. 结构中, from

可以省略吗?
【参考答案】 (1) 在主动语态中 , stop 和 prevent 的搭配中可省去 from ;而 keep . . . from doing sth. 中的from不可省略。 (2)在被动语态里, 这三个搭配中的from均不可省略。

7. cheer up感到高兴;感到振奋

cheer sb. up
cheer sb. on Cheers!

使某人振作起来
(比赛中)以喝彩声鼓励某人;为某人加油 [口语](用于祝酒)干杯!

①(2011· 湖北高考)Feeling blue about the world? Cheer up.

对世界感到沮丧吗?振作起来。
②The audience stood up to cheer on their team, the Vancouver Canucks. 观众们站起来为他们的球队温哥华加人队欢呼加油。

cheered ____ him ___. up ③The news _______
这消息使他高兴起来。

8. now that既然 ①Now that you have finished your work, you’d better have a rest. 既然你的工作已经完成了, 你最好休息一下吧。

②Now (that) the weather is fine, let’s go for a ride.
既然天气那么好, 我们开车去兜风吧。 Now(that) ____ you _____ have ______ grown ___, up you can make up your ③_________ mind by yourself. 既然你已经长大了, 你可以自己做决定了。

【点津】 now that相当于since, 是连词词组, 用来引导原因状 语从句, 口语中经常省略that, 只用now, 这时now已经失去了 “现在”的含义。

【想一想】表示原因的连词(词组)还有哪些?试列举, 并说出 它们的区别。 【参考答案】

表示原因的连词(词组)小结
(1)可引导原因状语从句的从属连词(词组):because, as, since,

when, now that, in that;并列连词:for。
(2)①because语气最强, 一般指事情发生的直接原因, 回答提问 时, 一般放在主句之后。 ② as语气比 because 弱 , 所引导的从句表示的是显而易见的原 因和理由, 从句一般放在主句前。

③since语气较弱, 指双方都明确的原因或众所周知的原因, 侧

重主句, 从句表示显然的或已知的理由。
④when意为“既然, 考虑到”, now that意为“既然”(相当于 since), in that意为“因为, 由于”。 ⑤for是并列连词, 表示推断的原因, 或对前一分句补充说明理 由。for表示这一用法时需放在两句之间。

He was absent from the meeting because he was ill yesterday.

昨天他没参加会议是因为他病了。
As there was no answer, we wrote to him again. 鉴于他没有回复, 我们又给他写了封信。 Since you can’t answer the question, I’ll ask someone else. 既然你回答不出这个问题, 我就问别人了。 It must have rained last night, for the ground is wet. 昨晚肯定下雨了, 因为地面是湿的。

9. break out突发;爆发

①Should another world war break out, what would become of
human beings? 万一另一次世界大战爆发, 人类将会发生什么事? ②The thought made him break out in a cold sweat. 这么一想, 他轰的一下冒了(一身)冷汗。

【拓展】补全下列break短语 away _____ from break _____ down break _____ up break ___ off break ___

脱离(党派);摆脱(控制)
毁掉;坏掉;(计划/谈判)失败 打碎;拆散;(会议)结束;分裂(解体) (使)停止;中断;折断 强行进入(某处)

into break ____

10. This produced a chain reaction, which made it possible for

life to develop.
这就产生了一系列的反应, 使得生命得以发展了。 名词或形容词 make+宾语+宾语补足语 不带to 的不定式 过去分词 介词短语

make __ it impossible live in the ①Insects would _____ __________ for ___ us __ to __ ____ world. 昆虫会使我们无法在这个世界上生存。

make __ it _______ possible to travel to the moon. ②Spaceships _____
宇宙飞船使去月球旅行成为可能。

【想一想】还有哪些动词和make一样, 可以用于该结构(+宾语

+宾语补足语)?
【参考答案】 常用于此结构的动词还有think, feel, find, consider等。例如: ①I think/find/feel/consider it my duty to help you. 我觉得我有责任帮助你。 ②He found it impossible to leave Germany for the USA. 他发 现不可能离开德国去美国了。

【高考链接】 (2012· 四川高考)New technologies have made _____ possible to turn out new products faster and at a lower cost. A. that C. one B. this D. it

【解析】选D。考查代词。句意:新的技术已经让以更低的成
本更快地生产出新的产品成为可能。根据句意可知, it在句中

作形式宾语, 真正的宾语是后面的不定式。

11. But when I tried to step forward, I found I was carried

twice as far as on the earth and fell over.
而当我试着向前迈步的时候, 我发觉我被送出去很远, 步子的 跨度竟是在地球上的两倍, 因而我摔倒了。

(1)“. . . 倍数+as+形容词/副词+as. . . ”表示“??是??的

几倍”, 该句型也可用half, one-fourth等词, 表示“是??的一
半/四分之一”等。

(2)有关倍数的表达方式还有:
. . . 倍数+as many/much+名词+as. . . . . . 倍数+形容词/副词的比较级+than. . . . . . 倍数+the+名词+of. . . The +(计量)名词+of+A+be+倍数+that+of+B

①This river is three times as wide as that one. (句型转换) the _____ width __ of that one. =This river is three times ___ longer ____ than the Pearl ②The Yangtze River is almost twice ______ River. 长江差不多比珠江长两倍。

what __ it ____ was last year. ③The price of the meat is twice _____
肉价是去年的两倍。

watch out for密切注意;当心;提防

①Watch out for cars when you cross the roads.
过马路时你要当心车辆。 ②Watch out! There is a dog coming. 小心! 狗来了。

【拓展】补全下列短语 for sb. /sth. watch out ___ over watch ____ stand out _____ work out _____

警惕或注意某人/某物
保护;照看 突出, 显眼 计算出(答案、数量等);设法弄懂

Ⅰ. 用所给单词的适当形式填空 prevented 1. They were _________(prevent) from carrying weapons.

cheered (cheer)by the news. 2. He was greatly _______
puzzled 3. Everyone was a bit _______(puzzle) by her sudden departure. existence (exist) of aliens. 4. I doubt the ________ harmful (harm) effects of 5. Many people are aware of the ________ smoking.

laid 6. The bird ____(lay) its eggs in other birds’ nests last year. violent (violence) film that I have ever seen. 7. It is the most ______ 8. There were many fish floating _______(float) in the river because of the serious pollution.

systems (system) 9. He contrasted the two different economic _______
in his speech. theories (theory) about the way in 10. There were several _______ which the fire started.

Ⅱ. 完成句子
he was puzzling 1. The puzzled look on his face suggested that ______________ over the puzzling problem _______________________. 他脸上迷惑的表情表明他在苦苦思索这个让人困惑的问题。

prevent him from playing in 2. His back injury may ______________________
tomorrow’s game. 他背部的伤可能使他参加不了明天的比赛。 three times as long as that one 3. This ruler is __________________________/twice longer than that one/three times the length of that one.

这把尺子是那把尺子的三倍长。

Now that you have grown up you should not depend on 4. _________________________, your parents. 既然你已经长大了, 就不应该依靠你的父母了。 to cheer him up 5. I’m taking Tom out ______________. 我要带汤姆到外面转转, 让他振作起来。 was the earthquake that people couldn’t escape 6. So violent _______________________ before they realized it.

地震如此猛烈, 人们在意识到(地震)发生前没能逃走。
gave birth to a new drug 7. The scientist’s experiments _____________________.

那位科学家的实验产生了一种新药。

makes it impossible for him to achieve success. 8. His laziness ________________________ 他的懒惰使他不可能成功。 is likely to break out between the two 9. Armed conflict __________________ countries. 这两个国家之间有可能发生武装冲突。 There’s a tradition in our office that when it’s somebody’s 10. _______________________________ birthday, he or she brings in a cake for us all to share.

在我们办公室有一个传统:当有人过生日的时候,就会带来
一个蛋糕与大家分享。

Ⅲ. 话题写作 先将下面几个句子翻译成英语, 然后连成一段小短文。

1. 火星上有生命吗?不知道。 我们能登陆火星吗?这完
全取决于科学技术的发展。

2. 火星上没有氧气, 中午的温度可能在50度左右, 而晚上
则在零下100度左右了。这样我们就不能在那里生活。 3. 既然火星与地球完全不同, 如果我们计划有朝一日去火 星的话, 我们就要带上氧气、食物、衣服和住的地方。 _____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________

【参考范文】
Is there life on Mars?We don’t know. Can we land on Mars ? It all depends on the development of science and technology. Man has known a little about Mars. There is almost no oxygen on Mars. It might be about 50 degrees above zero at noon and 100 degrees below zero at night, which prevents us from living there. Now that Mars is quite different

from our earth, if we are to go to Mars one day, we should
have to take along our own oxygen, food, clothing and shelter.


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