Lesson 1 Global Warming
To practise using reporting verbs, e.g. warn, tell, ask, promise. ■ To practise using voc
abulary related to global warming. ■ To learn about the causes of global warming and raise our awareness of protecting our globe. ■ To talk about how to help reduce greenhouse gases.
Warm-up Brief News: Copenhagen, September 12, 2009
World leaders including U.S. President Barack Obama, Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao, address the general assembly (委员大会) of the United Nations Climate Change Conference 2009 in Copenhagen December 16-18, 2009. World leaders worked through the early hours to try and beat a Friday deadline for a deal on cutting emissions and helping poor countries cope with (对付) the costly impact of global warming.
What do you know about Copenhagen Conference?
The 2009 United Nations Climate Change Conference, commonly known as the Copenhagen Summit, was held at the Bella Center in Copenhagen, Denmark, between 7 December and 18 December 2009. The conference included the 15th Conference of the Parties (COP 15) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the 5th Meeting of the Parties (MOP 5) to the Kyoto Protocol.
The beautiful earth is our home.
Most environmentalists agree that global warming is an unnatural phenomenon caused by the emissions from burning carbon fuels such as coal, oil and petrol; they call this the ―greenhouse effect‖.
The Greenhouse Effect
Raising the Earth’s temperature will cause substantial melting of the polar ice caps which will then lead to a rise in the sea level and subsequent flooding of lowlying areas.
Global warming will also change countries’ climates and cause huge food and water shortages.
There have been several summits of governments to discuss this problem but many countries don’t want to make changes to their factories and industrial works as this would cost them money.
Do you know about any organizations in China or other countries that focus on environmental issues?
Do you know any special days of the year dedicated to the environment?
Greenpeace is an independent global campaigning organization that acts to change attitudes and behaviors, to protect and conserve the environment and to promote peace.
WWF (World Wildlife Fun) has been protecting the future of nature for more than 45 years, working in 100 countries. Clean Up the World inspire and empower communities to clean up, fix up and conserve their local environment.
World Earth Day (April 22) is a day designed to inspire awareness and appreciation for the Earth’s environment.
1.Which countries do you think contribute more to global warming? a) developed countries b) developing countries
Developed countries – more industry and technology.
2. Scan the text below for these words and work out their meanings. consensus general agreement
bounce to spring back from a surface
agriculture the science of growing food and raising animals - farming coincidence a striking occurrence of two or more events at the same time, apparently by chance
condemn sentence to punishment
reservation a doubt that prevents one accepting something wholeheartedly sacrifice the giving up of something prized for the sake of something considered more valuable advocate to support or urge by argument
Can we take the heat?
1. Choose the best answer to each question according to the text.
1) The main purpose of the first paragraph is __________. A. to introduce the topic of global warming to the readers B. to remind the readers of human activities in the past C. to introduce the greatest trouble in the future D. to mention the process of global warming in history
2) Which of the following is TRUE about greenhouse gases? A. Greenhouse gases will only do us harm. B. Greenhouse gases do more harm than good to humans. C. Greenhouse gases do more good than harm to humans. D. Proper greenhouse gases are quite necessary to the earth. Answer: D
3) Which of the following is NOT
mentioned as the result of global warming? A. Typhoons. B. Serious diseases. C. Polar ice melting. D. Heat waves. Answer: A
2. Read the text quickly and answer the questions. 1) What is global warming? Global warming is an average increase in the Earth’s temperature that leads to climate change. 2) What human activities are causing global warming? Industry, agriculture, the cutting down of forests, the increase in transport and the burning of fuels are causing global warming.
3) By how much has the global average temperature increased in the last 10 years? By 1°F ( one degree Fahrenheit). 4) Are greenhouse gases necessary for life on Earth? Yes, they are, because they trap heat from the sun in the Earth’s atmosphere. Otherwise the Earth would be cold and unsuitable for life.
5) How can we help solve the problem of global warming? We can make small changes like taking public transport, recycling, using lowflow shower heads, and buying energyefficient light bulbs to help stop global warming.
Para 3 Para 4 Para 5
What can we do to reduce global warming ? What is global warming and how it works ? Reasons and its effects ? Draw readers’ attention to the topic by asking questions---introducing ? the consequence of global warming
Fill in the blanks with the information from the text. Paragraph 1: Introduce the topic Global warming _________________ could be one of the biggest environmental problems in the 21st century.
Paragraph 2: What is global warming and
how it works.
Global warming means an average
increase in the Earth’s temperature which climate change in turn. causes _______________
Paragraph 3: Reasons human activitiesthat Scientists think it is ______________ cause global warming. Due to the increased industry agriculture, the ________________, cutting down of forests, the increase in transport, the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has risen by over 30% in the last 250 years.
Paragraph 4: The consequence of global warming Global warming will cause terrible climate changes like more frequent flood _______________ , heat waves and droughts. There are some serious diseases. Sea level will be raised; coastal areas will be flooded.
Paragraph 5: What can we do to reduce global warming? Government: reduce the amounts of carbon dioxide _____________________________. Individuals: play their own parts and make small changes like taking public transport , using recycled ___________________ paper and so on.
1. In the last few decades, scientists have reached consensus and reported that human beings are causing changes in the Earth’s climate — something previously seen as beyond our control. 译文：最近几十年来，科学家已经达成 一致意见，认为人类活动引起了地球的 气候变化，而地球的气候变化在以前看 来是我们人类所不能控制的。
结构分析： 本句中的并列连词and 连接两个并 列的谓语。第二个谓语动词reported后
接一个宾语从句that human beings are causing changes in the Earth’s climate。 而破折号后面的内容则是前面changes 的一个同位语，对changes作补充说明。
2. Looking ahead, scientists believe that global warming could be one of the biggest environmental problems facing the 21st century.
译文： 展望未来，科学家们认为，气候 变暖可能是二十一世纪人类面临的最 严重的环境问题之一。
结构分析： looking ahead是一个现在分词短语 在句中作状语，表示句子的主语 scientists发出的动作。动词believe的后 面则是一个宾语从句。宾语从句中的 现在分词短语facing the 21st century在
3. Without these naturally occurring gases, the sun’s rays would bounce back into space leaving the Earth cold and impossible to live on. 译文： 如果没有这些自然产生的气体， 太阳的光线将会被反射回太空中去， 地球将处于寒冷之中，而不适合生命 的存在。
without these naturally occurring gases是
介词短语作状语；the sun’s rays would
bounce back into space是句子的主体；
leaving the Earth cold and impossible to
4. Given this data, it seems that the link between human activities and rising global temperatures is not merely a coincidence.
译文： 根据这一数据推断，人类活动与 全球变暖之间的关系好像不仅仅是一 个巧合。
结构分析： 这是一个主从复合句，given this data 是过去分词作条件状语，相当于 when we are given this data; it seems… 是主句，it 是形式主语，真正的主语 是that the link… is not merely a coincidence; between human activities and rising global temperatures 是介词短 语作定语。
1. ...the Earth is warmed by gases trapped in the atmosphere.
[用法点拨] Trap 在句中为及物动词，表示“使困住； 使留住（= to keep sb or sth in a place）”， 如： The lift broke down and we were trapped inside it. 电梯出故障了，我们困在里面出不来。
[拓展] 1) trap作动词解时，也可表示“设陷阱； 捕捉；诱捕”。 The policemen trapped the thieves before they left the bank. 警察在小偷离开银行前设计逮住了他们。 The hunter was punished for trapping endangered wild animals. 猎人因诱捕濒危野生动物而受到惩罚。
2) trap也常用作名词，意思是“陷阱； 圈套；诡计；埋伏”。如： I won’t answer the question, for I know perfectly well it’s a trap. 我不会回答这个问题的，因为我清楚 地知道这是圈套。 Many women have fallen into the trap of loveless marriages. 许多女性陷入没有爱情的婚姻之中而 无法摆脱。
[即时演练] 选词填空： Soon after the earthquake, the army was called in to help rescue people _____ in the fallen buildings. A. trapped √ B. seized C. controlled D. wrapped
2. ...something previously seen as beyond our control. [用法点拨] beyond 在句中用作介词，表示“超出 （能力、范围等），为……所不能及 （= not within the range of sb or sth）”。 又如： The beauty of the scenery is beyond all description. 这风景美得无法形容。
I’m sorry it’s beyond my power to make a final decision on the project. 对不起，这个工程我无权做最终决定。 [拓展] 1) beyond 接表示空间的名词，意思是 “在……那一边；在……之外”。如： He is from a village beyond the mountain. 他来自山那边的一个村庄。 The airport is around 30 miles beyond the city. 机场离城市大约30英里。
2) beyond 接表示时间的名词，意为 “迟于；晚于”。如： Don’t stay there beyond midnight. 不要过了午夜还待在那儿。 My father came home 30 minutes beyond the usual time that evening. 我爸爸那天晚上回家比平时迟了30分 钟。
3) beyond常用于疑问句和否定句中， 表示“除了……之外”。如： I’ve nothing else to tell you beyond what you have already known. 除了你已经知道的以外，我再也没有 什么要告诉你的了。 I didn’t notice anything else at the party beyond his funny clothes. 晚会上，我没注意别的，只看到他穿 着滑稽可笑的衣服。
[即时演练] 选词填空： 1) Sorry, Madam. You’d better come tomorrow because it’s _____ the visiting hours. A. during B. at √ C. beyond D. before 2) It’s quite _____ me why such things have been allowed to happen. A. for B. behind C. against D. √ beyond
3) Elizabeth has already achieved success _____ her wildest dreams. A. at √ B. beyond C. within D. upon 4. — Why do you suggest we buy a new machine? — Because the old one has been damaged ______. A. beyond reach √ B. beyond repair C. beyond control D. beyond description
3. Looking ahead, scientists believe that global warming could be one of the biggest environmental problems. [用法点拨] look ahead 意思为“展望未来（= to think about and plan for what might happen in the future）”，如： Looking ahead, we expect changes to be made in the system of education. 展望未来，我们期待对教育体制进行 改革。
与 look 连用的常用短语： look after 照料；照顾 look back 回头看；回顾 look down on / upon 蔑视；看不起 look forward to 盼望；期待；预期；预料 look into 观察；调查 look out 留神；注意 look through（从头至尾）浏览；详尽核查； 温习 look up 向上看；查阅
[即时演练] 选词填空： 1) The building around the corner caught fire last night. The police are now ____ the matter. A. seeing through B. working out C. looking into √ D. watching over
2) ―Goodbye, then,‖ she said, without even _______ from her book. A. looking down √ B. looking up C. looking away D. looking on 3) I have ____ all my papers but I still can’t find my notes. A. looked through B. looked for √ C. looked after D. looked out
4. Global warming refers to an average increase in the Earth’s temperature. [用法点拨] refer to此处表示“指的是（= to mention or speak of sb or sth）”，如： Who did you refer to when you said someone was selfish? 你说有人自私，指的是谁呀？ Though she didn’t mention any names, everyone knew who she was referring to. 虽然她没提任何人的名字，但大家都知道 她指的是谁。
[拓展] 1) refer to还常用来表示“谈到；提到； 涉及到”。如： The student referred to his father three times in his composition. 该同学在作文里3次提到他父亲。 The book referred to his past experience as a teacher. 书中涉及到他以前当老师的经历。
2) refer to也有“参考；查阅”等含义。 如： He referred to his notebook now and then when giving his speech. 他在发表演讲时不时翻看笔记本。 Don’t refer to the dictionary every time you come across a new word. 不要一遇到生词就查字典。
3) refer to sb / sth as意思是“称某人 （某物）为……‖。如： Yao Ming is often referred to by basketball fans as ―the Little Giant‖. 姚明常常被篮球迷们称为“小巨人”。 The man prefers to be referred to as ―Doctor Lee‖ rather than ―Mr Lee‖. 该男子更喜欢人们称他“李博士”而 不是“李先生”。
[即时演练] 选词填空: The president spoke at the business meeting for nearly an hour without ______ his notes. A. bringing up B. referring to √ C. looking for D. trying on
5. Global warming refers to an average increase in the Earth’s temperature that, in turn, leads to climate change. [用法点拨] 1) in turn在句中的意思是“反过来；转 而（= as a result of sth）”，如： We found that Helen had told Tom, and he in turn had told Helen’s sister. 我们发现海伦已经告诉了汤姆，而汤姆 又告诉了海伦的妹妹。
Theory is based on practice and in turn serves practice. 理论是以实践为基础的，又反过来为 实践服务。 2) in turn也常用来表示“轮流；依次”， 如： The students answered the teacher’s questions in turn. 学生们依次回答老师的问题。
[即时演练]选词填空: 1) A clean environment can help the city bid for the Olympics, which ____ will promote its economic development. A. in nature B. in return C. D. in fact √ in turn 2) People try to avoid public transportation delays by using their own cars, and this _____ creates further problems. A. in short B. in case √ in turn C. in doubt D.
6. Global warming refers to an average increase in the Earth’s temperature that, in turn, leads to climate change. [用法点拨] lead to表示“引起；带来（= to cause sth to happen or cause sb to do sth）”， to是介词，如： Too much work and too little rest often lead to illness. 过量的工作和过少的休息会引起疾病。
[拓展] lead sb to sth 或lead sb to do sth 则表示 “引导某人；影响某人的言行”。如： What leads you to the conclusion that he isn’t fit for the job? 什么让你得出他不称职这一结论的？ He had led everyone to believe that his family was very wealthy. 他使得大家都相信他家境富裕。
[即时演练] 选词填空: We firmly believe that war never settles anything. It only _____ violence. A. runs into B. comes from C. leads to √ D. begins with
7. In the last few decades, scientists have reached consensus and … consensus n. 共识，一致，合意 There is broad consensus (of opinion) in the country on this issue. This should be the consensus shared by every member of the society. This meeting has been going on successfully, and we have reached a consensus.
The government is also undertaking
important educational work based on the D _______ of the members that the best
form of conservation is the prevention of damage. A. consequence B sense
8. …, we are condemning life on Earth … condemn vt. 判刑，谴责，官方宣称（某 事物）有缺陷或不宜使用
The criminal was condemned to death / to one year of hard labor. We condemned him for his bad conduct.
The old bridge has been condemned.
Voice your opinion
What will you do every day to help reduce greenhouse gases?
Taking public transport like buses can reduce greenhouse gas emissions. And taking train can also help a reduction of greenhouse gas. Buy recycled products. Recycle the bottles, paper and so on. Use low-flow shower heads. Buy energy-efficient light bulbs.
Vocabulary Use the expressions in the box in the correct form to complete the sentences.
beyond our control, pump into, as a result of, in large quantities, refer to, speed up pumped into the fish pond 1) Water was ___________ from the river. speed up to finish 2) We all need to ____________ in time!
3) There is nothing more we can do. The beyond our control situation is now ___________________. As a result of 4) ________________ the accident, she is now afraid of water. referred to global 5) The scientist _____________ warming at least three times in his speech. 6) The factory was producing greenhouse in huge quantities . gases _________________
Reporting 1. What verbs are used in the text to report these statements? Example 1) = to report that
1) Human beings are causing changes in the to report that Earth’s climate. 2) Gases pumped into the Earth’s atmosphere have been speeding up the process of global warming. to claim that
3) Global warming could be one of the biggest environmental problems facing the 21st century. to believe that
4) Global warming is mostly due to human activities. to insist that 5) Global warming will cause dramatic climate changes including more frequent floods, heat waves, and droughts. to warn that
2. Look at these sentences from the text and explain why the underlined verbs are not the same tense as the reporting verbs.
1) Recent reports from the IPCC warned that global warming will cause dramatic climate changes. because it is in the future 2) Scientists found that the temperature of the Earth is controlled by greenhouse because it is a general truth gases.
在转述他人的话、观点或看法时，常常使 用转述结构，转述结构也叫间接引语。在 转述别人的话时，需要注意以下几方面： 一、句子结构的变化 1) 如果转述的话是陈述句，转述结构一 般由转述动词+ (sb +) that 从句构成。如： He said, ―I’ll give you an examination next Monday.‖ →
He told us that he would give us an examination the next Monday.
此外类似的转述动词还有：repeat, admit, whisper, answer, reply, explain, announce, declare, think等，又如： He explained to us that he was late because of the heavy traffic. The judge declared that they were innocent and should be set free right away.
2) 如果转述的话为一般疑问句，转述 时要用连词whether或if 引导。这样的 转述动词主要有ask, wonder, inquire等。 如： He said, ―Do you have any difficulty with your pronunciation?‖ → He asked (me) whether/ if I had any difficulty with my pronunciation.
3) 转述的话为祈使句时，转述时要用 带to的不定式表达，这样的转述动词有： ask, advise, tell, warn, order, request等。 如： “Never come here again!‖ said the officer nearby. → The officer nearby ordered them never to go there again.
4)当转述的话形式上是疑问句，有表示 “请求，建议”意义时，可用ask sb to do sth /suggest doing/advise sb to do sth 等形式转述。如： “Would you mind opening the door?‖ he asked. → He asked me to open the door. ―Why not going out for a walk?‖ he asked us. → He advised us to go out for a walk. He suggested going out for a walk.
1) 如果转述内容是以宾语从句的形式出现， 则应注意正确使用宾语从句中的时态，注意 保持从句和主语谓语动词在时态方面的一致 性。主句中的谓语动词如果是过去时，从句 （即转述部分）的谓语动词在时态方面要作 相应的变化，变成过去时范畴的各种时态 （实际也是宾语从句的时态要求），如： He told me that he would take two days off work. The boy admitted that he had made a mistake.
2) 直接引语变成间接引语时，从句时态 无须改变的情况: (1) 当主句的谓语动词是一般现在时的时 候，如： He always says, ―I am tired out.‖ →
He always says that he is tired out.
(2)当直接引语部分带有具体的过去时间 状语时，如： He said, ―I went to college in 1994.‖ →
He told us that he went to college in 1994.
(3) 当直接引语是客观真理或自然现象 时，如： Our teacher said to us, ―Light travels faster than sound.‖ → Our teacher told us that light travels faster than sound. (4)当引语是谚语、格言时，如： He said, ―Practice makes perfect.‖ → He said that practice makes perfect.
(5) 当直接引语中有情态动词should, would, could, had better 等时， 如： The doctor said, ―You’d better drink plenty of water.‖ →
The doctor said I’d better drink plenty of water.
另外注意： 转述中的变化要因实际情况而定， 不能机械照搬。如果转述的时间没有 发生多大的改变或所转述的内容是一 个事实时，宾语从句中的谓语动词所 用的时态不必改变。 例如： (1) He says that he is leaving tomorrow. (2) Our teacher told us that the sports meet will take place next Monday.
3. Match the sentences with appropriate reporting verbs from the list. Then write the reported sentences. admit, report, forbid, ask, invite, order, suggest, threaten
1) We’ll close credit lines if you don’t reduce the amount of carbon dioxide you produce. They threatened to close our credit lines if we don’t reduce the amount of carbon dioxide we produce.
2) OK, you are right, some poisonous chemicals did escape into the atmosphere. They admitted that some poisonous chemicals had escaped into the atmosphere. 3) Why don’t you drop in tonight ahead your meeting?
He /She/They invited me to drop in tonight ahead of my meeting.
4) Stand up immediately! He /She/They ordered me to stand up immediately. 5) You can’t use your dictionaries during the test. He /She/They forbade us to use our dictionaries during the test. 6) Shall we have pancakes with honey? He /She/They suggested having / that we should have pancakes with honey.
7) Is the bus service running according to the timetable today? I/He /She/They/We inquired if the bus service was running according to the timetable today. 8) The fire has luckily caused no loss of life. They reported that the fire had luckily caused no loss of life.
I. 从A、B、C和D四个选项中选出可以填入空白处的最 佳选项。
1. He asked ________ for the computer. D A. did I pay how much B. I paid how much C. how much did I pay D. how much I paid 2. ―Have you seen the film?‖ he asked me. →He asked me _______. D A. had I seen the film B. have I seen the film C. if I have seen the film D. whether I had seen the film
3. ―Please close the window,‖ he said to me. C me _____ the window. →He ______ A. said to; to close B. told to; closing C. asked ; to close D. said to; please close
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II. 把下面的10个句子和转述动词配对,并将转述句 子补充完整(每空一词)。 remind, ask, encourage, complain, refuse, offer, suggest, advise, admit, warn 1. “Don’t forget the meeting at five o’clock tomorrow afternoon.” He reminded ________ me not ______ ______ to forget the meeting at five o’clock the next afternoon. 2. “I don’t think you should tell your parents about this matter.” His friend _______ ______ advised him not_______ to tell his parents about that matter.
3. “I’m sorry, but I can’t accept your gift.” The girl refused _____ _____ ______ his gift. to accept 4. “Don’t touch it! It may hurt you.” Li Ming _______ warned me not to touch it, for it might hurt me. 5. “Would you please lend me your pen?” He ______ asked __________ if / whether I could lend him my pen. 6. “Why don’t we have dinner together this evening?” He suggested ________ that we have dinner together ______ that evening. 7. “I know it was my fault.” She _________ admitted that it was her fault.
8. “I think the soup in your restaurant is too salty.” complained that the soup in The customer __________ _____ our / myrestaurant was too salty. 9. “Can I help you?” She _______ offered to help me. 10. “Come on. I’m sure you can finish the job on time.” He ___________ encouraged me to finish the job on time.
1. Finish off grammar exercises 9-10 on page 7. 2. Finish off Language Power exercises 1-6 on pages 52-53. 3. Talk about what you will do every day to help reduce greenhouse gases.
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