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浅谈英国文化


浅谈英国文化
英国位于欧洲西部、大西洋的大不列颠群岛上,东濒北海,西临 大西洋。英国全称“大不列颠及北爱尔兰联合王国”,由于英国的主 要部分在大不列颠岛,所以“大不列颠”除了主岛的地理名称外,有 时在英文中有代指英国。 英国还有一个别称,即绰号,叫“约翰牛”。其来历是 18 世纪 英国作家约翰*阿布什诺曾出版一本名为 《约翰· 布尔的历史》 的书, 其中刻画的主人翁约翰·布尔是位性情急躁、举止滑稽的矮胖绅士。 此后漫画家又把这一形象画成一个头戴小圆帽,身穿骑马衣,足登长 筒靴的矮胖绅士。由于人物刻画栩栩如生,备受国人青睐,因而很快 传播开来,并演变成了英国或英国人的别称。 首都伦敦,具有两千多年的历史,是一座文化悠久的古老名城。 伦敦是英国的政治中心。位于伦敦中心的西敏寺区,权贵象征处处可 见,聚集了王宫、首相官邸、议会和政府各部,人们视西敏寺区为英 国的神经中枢。伦敦还是英国的商业、金融中心。其中威名遐迩的伦 敦城,是世界上最大的金融和贸易中心之一。据统计,这里的居民不 到一万,可每天到这里上班的人多达四十万。就是这弹丸之地,可以 说却对英国经济乃至世界经济具有举足轻重的影响。同时,伦敦还是 英国的历史文化名城。这里的博物馆、美术馆、科学博物馆和历史博 物馆,数量之多,在世界上也是少见的。除伦敦外,重要城市还有全 国第二大商港的利物浦、造船业中心格拉斯哥、重工业中心伯明翰等 等。

Capital London, with two thousand years of history, is a cultural history of the ancient city. London is the UK's political center. Located in central London district of Westminster, the powerful symbolism everywhere, gathering the palace, the official residence of the prime minister, parliament and government ministries, people, as the nerve center for the British Westminster area. London is the UK's commercial and financial center. Where Wal-Mart is well in the City of London, is one of the largest financial and trade centers in the world. According to statistics, less than ten thousand residents here can be here every day to go to work for up to four hundred thousand people. This is a small place, but then you can say that the UK economy and the world economy has a significant impact. Meanwhile, London is Britain's historical and cultural city. Here's museums, galleries, the Museum of Science and History, the sheer number is rare in the world. In addition to London and major cities across the country and the second largest commercial port of Liverpool, Glasgow shipbuilding center, center of heavy industry in Birmingham and so on.

英国官方和通用语均为英语, 英语是英国人民对世界闻名的一个 最大贡献。 经过几个世纪的演变发展, 英语已成为一种世界性的语言。 它不但是英语民族或国家的约 2 亿人口的母语, 而且作为一种非常灵 活的工具,英语已经成为了世界第一流的文学表达工具,无与伦比的 文学艺术家语言,更是商业和现代技术乃至多边外交的语言。 英国的“光荣革命”推翻了复辟王朝,最终确立了君主立宪制。 英国资产阶级革命,标志着世界近代史的开始,英国也是世界上第一 个完成工业革命的国家。在当时,大英帝国称霸世界,号称“日不落 帝国”。发展到今天,英国的政治制度不断完善,我们都知道英国是 一个实行君主立宪、议会民主、政党轮流执政的资本主义社会制度的 国家。国王是世袭的国家元首和武装部队总司令,形式上国王拥有最 高权力,但却没有实权。英国最高立法机构是议会,又分为上议院和 下议院。 英国管理国事的最高行政机构——政府, 实行内阁制。 而 “政

府”和“内阁”是两个不同的概念。英国政党主要有保守党、工党和 自由党、 英国有着历史悠久、丰富多彩的文化传统,文化艺术活动具有广 泛的群众基础。首都伦敦是举世闻名的戏剧、音乐和舞蹈中心,而遍 布英国的城镇和乡村每年都要举行各种各样的艺术活动, 吸引着大批 观众。曼彻斯特、爱丁堡和格拉斯哥已经成为了新兴的艺术中心。英 国政府十分重视文化艺术事业的建设, 而不断提高英国的文化艺术水 平更得到了英国社会各阶层人民的普遍支持。 为了更好地促进文化事 业的发展,英国政府在提供艺术经费的同时,鼓励工商企业赞助文化 艺术活动,积极支持各艺术机构和团体向商业化发展,广开渠道,筹 集资金。
Britain has a long history and rich cultural tradition, cultural and artistic activities have broad popular support. London is the capital of the world-famous theater, music and dance centers, towns and villages across the UK to be held in a variety of artistic activities each year, attracting large audiences. Manchester, Edinburgh and Glasgow has become a new arts center. The British Government attaches great importance to the construction of arts and culture, and constantly improve the level of British culture and the arts has been widely supported by more people at all levels of British society. In order to better promote the development of cultural undertakings, the British government in providing funding for the arts, while encouraging businesses sponsoring cultural and artistic activities, and actively support the various arts institutions and organizations to commercial development, open up more channels to raise funds.

在发展文化事业过程中,尽管存在党派之争,但英国的每届中央 和地方政府,都非常重视文化艺术事业的发展,特别近一二十年来, 英国政府为了重振英国在世界的形象,把繁荣和发展文化艺术,加强 和扩大文化交流,放在了重要位置。英国的基本文化政策设及的范围

相当广泛,包括被称为“大文化”的成分,除文学艺术外,还涵盖了 广播、影视、时装、园林、建筑以及体育、旅游等等各个方面。重视 对文化遗产的保护和开发利用;鼓励艺术活动创新的多样化;强调公 众对文化艺术活动的平等参与, 促进公众对文化遗产和现代艺术的欣 赏水平;推动对外文化交流和英国文化在全世界的传播。这些都有效 促进了英国 文化艺术事业的发展。
In the process of the development of cultural undertakings, despite the presence of partisanship, but the British are elected central and local governments have attached great importance to the development of arts and culture, especially in nearly two decades, the British government in order to revive Britain's image in the world, the prosperity and development of culture and the arts, to strengthen and expand cultural exchanges, in an important position. Britain's basic cultural policy setting and the range is quite extensive, including ingredient is called "Culture", in addition to art and literature, but also covers all aspects of the broadcast, film, fashion, landscape, architecture and sports, tourism and so on. The importance of cultural heritage protection and development; encourage innovation and diversification of the arts; emphasizing equality of public participation in cultural and artistic activities, and to promote public appreciation of the cultural heritage and modern art; to promote international cultural exchange and the British in the world spread. These are effectively promoted the development of arts and culture in the UK.

英国的科学研究和技术进步也有着悠久的历史, 在诸多领域取得 举世瞩目的成绩。从十六世纪牛顿发现了万有引力,到十八世纪瓦特 发明蒸汽机,一直到十九世纪法拉第发明了实用电,英国的科技水平 始终处于世界前列。英国重视教育事业,大学种类繁多,其中牛津大 学和剑桥大学在全世界也是一流水平。
Britain's scientific and technological progress also has a long history, has made remarkable achievements in many fields. From the sixteenth century, Newton discovered gravity, Watt invented the steam engine to the eighteenth century, until the nineteenth century Faraday invented the electric utility, the British science and technology level is always in the world. British emphasis on

education, the University of variety, of which the University of Oxford and Cambridge in the world is also the first-class level.

说起英国,不得不说英国的绅士文化。绅士风度的最大特征就是 保 守 , 礼 貌 以 及 尊 重 女 士 。 英 国 的 国 歌 还 是 “ God save the

queen/king”(神佑吾主/女王)。到今天,还有一些有名望的人仍 旧希望从女王哪里得到爵位。英国律师戴假发、穿长袍的习俗也一直 延留至今。礼貌、话不多。沉默是第二个特点。他们讨厌啰嗦的人。 跟他们聊天,话题也是很有讲究的:家庭、身份、年龄、工作甚至事 业都被认为是他们的私生活,别人无权干涉和过问,否则就违背了他 们的礼貌。“Silence is gold”是他们的永恒主题。尊重女士也

是绅士的一大特点。在英国,男士为女士开门、让座位、拿行李是司 空见惯的事。同时,服装穿着也要得体,一是要符合自己的身份,二 是要适合所在的场合。
Speaking of the UK, the British gentleman had to say culture. Gentleman's biggest feature is conservative, courtesy and respect for President. Britain's national anthem is "God save the queen / king". Today, there are some people who still want to get the prestigious knighthood from Queen where. British lawyer wearing a wig, wearing a gown custom has also been extended stay. Polite, did not talk much. Silence is the second feature. They hate long-winded person. Chat with them, the topic is very particular about: family, identity, age, work or even career are considered to be their private life, others have no right to interfere and intervene, otherwise contrary to their courtesy. "Silence is gold" is their eternal theme. Ms. respected gentleman is a major feature. In the UK, the men opened the door for the ladies, let seats, luggage is commonplace. Meanwhile, the clothing should be worn appropriately, it is necessary to comply with their own identity, and second, where to fit the occasion.

独特的地理位置,造就了英国终年湿润温和的气候,使英国成为 著名的旅游胜地。英伦三岛历史悠久,风光独特,跟有着丰富多彩的 文化遗产,各地众多的名胜古迹,如爱丁堡古城;还有建筑经典,像 圣保罗大教堂、大本钟、白金汉宫、伦敦桥、伦敦塔桥等。此外,名 人故居如达尔文博物馆,园林之最如皇家园林海德公园等,这些都促 进了因果旅游事业的发展。
Unique location, creating a humid year-round mild climate English, making the UK a famous tourist destination. British Isles long history, unique scenery, with a variety of cultural heritage has many attractions around, such as the ancient city of Edinburgh; and building a classic, like St. Paul's Cathedral, Big Ben, Buckingham Palace, London Bridge, Tower Bridge . In addition, former residence of celebrities such as Darwin Museum, most gardens such as the Royal Garden Hyde Park, all of which promote the development of causal tourism. .

世界各国的文化都是丰富多彩的,英国文化同样如此。

英国媒体文化也是丰富多彩的。其中,最让我们熟知的就是 BBC。
British media culture is rich and colorful. Among them, the most so we know that BBC. 英国广播公司始于 1992 年,有一些无线电广播器材制造商联合成立,通过征收 执照费和广播器材的销售利润支撑财政运转,国家也拨一部分款项,基本是半官 方的电视公司,在英国无线电广播中,BBC 迄今保持着统治力量,收听率达到 了人口的 56%,其节目产出占所有广播节目的 30%。另外,BBC 不但制作电视 节目,也制作广播节目,目前 BBC 就已经拥有了全球 1.2 亿的听众。今天 BBC 除了是一家在全球拥有高知名度的媒体,还提供其他各种服务,包括书籍出版、 报刊、英语教学、交响乐团和互联网新闻服务。 The BBC began in 1992, some radio equipment manufacturers jointly established by levying license fees and broadcast equipment sales profits support the financial operation, the state has set aside a portion of the money, the basic semi-official television company in the UK radio in, BBC so far maintained a dominant force, listening rate reached 56% of the population, and its output accounts for 30% of all program broadcasts. In addition, BBC, not only the production of television programs, but also the production of radio

programs, the current BBC already has the world's 120 million listeners. Today, in addition to being a BBC have high visibility in the global media, it also provides a variety of other services, including book publishing, newspapers, English teaching, orchestras and Internet news services. 英国广播公司(BBC)是主要的公共服务广播公司在英国,其在广播大厦的威斯 敏斯特市,伦敦总部。它是世界上最大的广播,约 23000 的工作人员。其主要 职责是提供公共服务广播在英国,海峡群岛和马恩岛。 The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is the principal public service broadcaster in the United Kingdom, with its headquarters at Broadcasting House in the City of Westminster, London. It is the largest broadcaster in the world, with about 23,000 staff. Its main responsibility is to provide public service broadcasting in the United Kingdom, Channel Islands and Isle of Man.

BBC 新闻是世界上最大的广播新闻采集操作。 提供给 BBC 国内广播服务以及电视网络,如 BBC 新闻,BBC 议会和 BBC 世界 新闻,还有 BBC 红色按钮,Ceefax 和 BBC 新闻在线。 新的 BBC 新闻服务,也证明了流行的是手机和 PDA 的移动服务。桌面消息提 醒,邮件提醒,以及数字电视警报也可提供。

BBC News is the largest broadcast news gathering operation in the world.It provides services to BBC domestic radio as well as television networks such as the BBC News, BBC Parliament and BBC World News, as well as BBC Red Button, Ceefax and BBC News Online. New BBC News services that are also proving popular are mobile services to mobile phones and PDAs. Desktop news alerts, e-mail alerts, and digital TV alerts are also available.


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