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Unit 3Travel journal-- Grammar


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Grammar

? The Present Continuous Tense
现在进行时

? The Simple Future Tense
一般将来时

一、现在进行时的构成
? 现在进行时由“be(am/is/are)+v-ing&

quot;构成。 be应为助动词,初学者最容易漏掉,它 应与主语的人称和数保持一致。

一、现在进行时的构成
现在进行时的变化 :
? 肯定句式:主语+be( am, is, are)+现在分词+… 否定句式:主语+be(am, is, are) +not + 现在分词+ 其它. ? 一般疑问句:Be(am, is, are) +主语+现在分词+ 其它? E.g. Are you taking notes?
? 特殊疑问句:疑问词+be(am, is, are)+主语+现在 分词+其它? E.g. What are you doing now?

二,现在进行时的应用
? 在实际运用时,现在进行时常用以下几 种情况: ? (1) 表示说话时正在进行或发生的动作, 这时要用现在进行时.这类情况常与now, at the moment现在,today今天等时间状 语连用. E.g. The students are taking notes now.

二,现在进行时的应用
? (2)表示当前一段时间或现阶段正在进行的动
作而说话时不一定在进行的动作。常与this

week, these days,this year等时间状语连用,
E.g. We are preparing for the sports meeting these days. 这些天我们正在为运动会做准备。

二,现在进行时的应用
? (2)有时通过上下文可以判断出应采用现在进 行时态。 E.g. ? Hurry up! We are all waiting for you. ? 快点!我们大家都等着你。 ? Look! They are reading over there under the tree. ? Listen! She is singing in the room. ? Where is Kate? She is reading in the room.

二,现在进行时的应用
? (3)现在进行时与always总是, usually通常,

continually [k?n?t nj??l?]不断地,forever老 ?
是,constantly [?k ?nst?ntl?]经常地等副词连 用时带有感情色彩。 表示赞赏,埋怨,厌烦 生气等。

E.g. He's always arguing with others. 他总是跟别人争辩。
The boy is forever asking questions. 那个男孩老是问问题。

二,现在进行时的应用
? (4)有的动词用于现在进行时表示“逐渐” 的含义。常用动词: grow/become/turn/run/go变成,finish完成, rise增强等 E.g.

Our study is becoming more interesting.
The leaves are turning red. 树叶渐渐地变红了

The unemployment [??nim?pl?im?nt] rate is rising in that country. 那个国家的失业率正在上升

二,现在进行时的应用
用现在进行时表示将来

当句子涉及确切的计划、明确的

意图和为将来安排好的活动时,
现在进行时可用于表示将来。句

中常有表示未来时间的状语。

二,现在进行时的应用
1) go,come,leave,start,arrive,return,
send,move,travel,fly,stay,start等表 示位置移动的词的现在进行时经常用于 表示将来确切的计划。

2) 表示交通方式、行程安排的动词,例如
fly, walk, ride, drive, take (a bus, a taxi)等 的现在进行时也经常用于表示将来。

练一练
1. Betty ________ (leave) for is leaving
Guangzhou by plane at 3:00 this is seeing afternoon. Her brother Bob ________ (see) her off. It’s half past one now. They __________ (wait) for a taxi are waiting outside the school gate.

2. The Browns ________ (go) to the are going

North China by train next week.
They __________ (stay) in Beijing are staying

for a week. They ________ (go) to are going
Xi’an. They __________ (get) there are getting

by air.

3. Some friends are coming (come) to _________

Anne’s birthday party this evening.
Anne’s mother __ (be) busy ______ getting is

(get) ready for the birthday dinner.
Anne _________ (help) her mother is helping now.

注意: 英语中一些表 “状态和感官” 的动词通常不用于进行时: 用法和单词 表存在或位置: be, lie, stand 例句 Japan lies to the east of China.

表所属: have, own, Taiwan belongs to possess, belong to, fit, China. suit Who owns this land?

表知觉: see, hear, smell, taste, sound, look, feel, seem, appear

I smell the dinner cooking. He seems quite happy.

表认识、信仰、意 He doubts whether 见、怀疑、猜测、 you will find your 希望: know, think, lost pen again. understand, doubt, suppose, hope, wish

表喜欢、反对、仇 We love our 恨、厌恶: love, like, motherland deeply. prefer, mind, hate, They envy her good want, dislike, envy fortune.

注意! 另外,表示将来的动作或状态, 还可用以 下几种形式:
① will / shall+动词原形,表示单纯的将来。 Shall只和I/ We 连用。 E.g. I shall/will be seventeen years old next month. Let’s go to see the film, shall we ? 咱们… Let us go to see the film, will you? 让我们… will还可表示临时的打算、决定 E.g. I don’t know if he will come to the party. I will call him now.

一般将来时的构成和用法
? ② be going to+动词原形: 表示即将发生 的或最近打算进行的事。这种打算事先经过 考虑的。

E.g. We are going to watching a movie tonight.
表示根据已有的迹象,主观判断将要或即 将发生的某种情况. E.g. It is going to rain. 要下雨了

一般将来时的构成和用法
③ be to+动词原形:表示注定会发生或
按计划要发生的事或征求对方意见。

E.g. Burns is to visit China in a week’s
time.伯恩斯(美国副国务卿)将于

一周后访问中国。
Are we to hand in the composition after

class?

④ be about to+动词原形,表示即将发生的动作, 不与表示将来的时间状语连用。意为“正要 做…”, 构成 “be about to do when = be on the point of doing sth when…”

“正要做…, 这时”
E.g. I was just about to go to bed when someone called me.

一般将来时的构成和用法
⑥ 一般现在时表示将来时
(1) 按规定的日程和时刻表要发生的未 来动作,仅限于动词come, go, leave, move, start, return, arrive, begin, stay 等动词. The plane takes off at 10:10 a.m.

一般将来时的构成和用法

(2) 用在状语从句中用一般现在时代替将来 时。在由if引导的条件状语从句 和when, before,as soon as,until/till引导的时间 状语从句中,常用一般现在时表示将来。 E.g. If you do that again, I’ll hit you.

E.g. I'll wait till he comes. 我要等到他来

练一练!
1.---Did you write to Grace last summer?

---No, but I'll ______ her over
Christmas vacation.

A. be seen
C. be seeing

B. have seen
D. to see

2. ---I’m going to the States? ---How long ___ you___ in the States? A. are; stayed B. are; staying C. have; stayed D. did; stay 3. I’ve won a holiday for two weeks to Florida. I ____ my mum. A. am taking B. have taken C. take D. will have taken

4. Selecting a mobile phone for

personal use is no easy task because
technology ____ so rapidly.

A. will change
B. has changed

C. will have changed
D. is changing

5. --- You’ve left the light on. ---Oh, I have. ___ and turn it off. A. I go B. I’ve gone C. I’ll go D. I’m going 6. --- Is this raincoat yours? ---No, mine____ there behind the door. A. is hanging B. has hung C. hangs D. hung

7. --- What’s that terrible noise?

---The neighbours____ for a party.
A. have prepared

B. are preparing
C. prepare

D. will prepare

8. Because the shop ____, all the

T-shirts are sold at half prices.
A.has closed down

B. closed down
C. is closing down D. had closed down

9. --- Can I join the club, Dad? --- You can when you ___ a bit old. A. get B. will get C. are getting D. will have got 10. I feel it is your husband who ___ for the spoiled child. A. is to blame B. is going to blame C. is to be blamed D. should blame

11. At this time tomorrow, ____

over the Atlantic.
A. we’re going to fly

B. we’ll be flying
C. we’ll fly

D. we’re to fly

12. ---Are you still busy? --- Yes, I___ my work, and it

won’t take long.
A. just finish

B. am just finishing
C. have just finished

D. am just going to finish

13. ---Did you tell Julia about the result?

--- Oh, no, I forgot. I ____ her now.
A. will be calling

B. will call
C. call D. am to call

14. --- What are you going to do this afternoon? --- I’m going to the cinema with some friends. The film ___ quite early, so we ___ to the bookstore after that. A. finished; are going B. finished; go C. finishes; are going D. finishes; go


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