外研版 高二年级(选修6) Module 5
Vocabulary & reading
Cloning and DNA
Work in pairs. Look at the title of the passage and the words in t
he box. Decide which ones you’re likely to see.
acid bacteria embryos enzyme
experience gene human tissue organism
plant psychological stem cell structure
1. the structure of the acid DNA ? 2. a stem cell
3. A clone ? 4. the genetic make-up of a person or a plant
6. Enzyme ?
Work in pairs and answer the questions. What is___? 1. DNA the fundamental component of life 2. a clone an organism which is genetically identical to another
The structure of the acid DNA
The transparent twisting ladder made of the fundamental component of life
3. a stem cell a cell that can develop into every other type of cell 4. the genetic make-up of a person or a plant
the particular genes that give a person their physical characteristics
5. bacteria very small organisms that cause diseases 6. an enzyme chemicals formed in the body
in the body
Into the text:
Read the passage again and find the paragraphs which describe: a. When the structure of DNA was discovered Paragraph 1(1953) b. How to clone something Paragraphs 2,3(take the DNA from a single cell to create another identical individual)
c. four possible reasons for cloning Paragraphs 4(as an alternative treatment for couples who find it difficult to have children), 5(to reproduce the talents of exceptional people), 6(to obtain a supply of stem cells), 7(to help farmers grow resistant crops)
d. the disadvantages of cloning Paragraphs 4(a clone would be under unknown psychological pressure), 5(a clone may possess new vices instead of existing virtues), 6(embryos made form clones would be wasted which some people would find unacceptable), 7(to rely on a few cloned animals or crops would restrict biodiversity)
cloning’ s valid reasons (advantages)
As an optional treatment for couples who find it difficult to have children reproduce the talents of exceptional people
cloning’ s Disadvantages
A clone would be under unknown psychological pressure A clone may possess new vices instead of existing virtues
cloning’ s valid reasons (advantages) To obtain a supply of stem cells
cloning’ s Disadvantages Embryos made from clones would be wasted which some people would find unacceptable. To rely on a few cloned animals or crops would restrict biodiversity
To help farmers grow resistant crops.
Read the text again and decide whether the following statements are true (T) or false (F). 1. The science of genetics was discovered by two scientists, Watson and Crick at Cambridge University. ( F) 2. Stem cells in embryos can help someone recover from a disease, repair human tissue and so on. ( T )
3. The child who was a clone of one of his parents would have psychological pressure throughout his childhood.
According to the definition, find the proper words. 1. thin enough to be seen through transparent 2. A pattern of chemicals within the cell of a living thing that controls what it is like gene
3. The same or exactly alike identical 4. Be likely to cause argument or disagreement controversial 5. Can be chosen freely optional 6. Bad habit or personal quality vice 7. Can change or be changed to adapt to new needs flexible
8. Put into force by orders or by the law compulsory 9. Useful or simple to use in the mouth saliva handy
10. The natural watery liquid produced
1. It’s certainly true that in 1953, two scientists discovered the structure of the acid DNA. 2. It was in 1866 that Mendel first recorded the results of growing pea
3. He discovered a procedure to use enzymes to unzip the DNA and cut out a sequence of genes. 4. A clone is an organism which is genetically identical to another one.
5. A prize cow which resist bacteria or disease, or to sow a cloned crop which can resist rot or pests. 6. To rely on a few cloned animals or crops would restrict the biodiversity of the breed.
1. It’s certainly true that… 2. the structure of the acid DNA 酸性DNA结构 3. A transparent twisting ladder 透明的双螺旋结构 4. The fundamental components of life 生命的基本元素 5. The results of growing pea plants 种植豌豆的结果 6. The genetic make-up of the new plant 子代（下一代）的基因结构
7. a procedure to use enzymes 用酶的程序 8. Unzip the DNA 解开DNA 9. cut out a sequence of genes 截取一系列的基因片段 10. insert them into the host cell 把它们植入主细胞 11. combine…with… be combined with
12. be identical to 和…一样，与…一致 13. It’s certain that … 14. valid reasons 15. offer cloning as an optional treatment for couples… 为夫妇提供作为选择性治疗的（克隆） 16. find it difficult to do sth. 17. under unknown psychological pressure 在未知的心理压力下 18. reproduce the talents of exceptional human beings 复制非凡的天才
19. obtain a supply of stem cells 获取大量的干细胞 20. recover from a disease 从疾病中恢复 21. repair human tissue 修复人体组织 22. what is clear is that… 23. some voluntary code 一些不成文的法规
24. compulsory government regulations 强制性的政府条例 25. be handy to clone 克隆很方便 26. resist bacteria or disease抵御细菌和疾病 27. rely on 依靠，依赖 28. restrict the biodiversity of the breed 限制了生物品种的多样性。 29. research into / about / on 对…的研究
Language points 1. optional adj. 可选择的，随意的 1). This model comes with a number of optional extras. 可供选择的附件 2). Attendance at the lecture is optional. compulsory adj. 强制的 3). There are both compulsory subjects and optional subjects at school. 学校里既有必修课，又有选修课。 option n. 选择，选择权
2. resist v. 1). 抵抗；抵制；使不受…的伤害 resist sth. 抵制 反抗…使不受…的伤害 resist doing sth. 抵制做某事 叛军与警察对抗。 The rebel army resisted the police. The laborers prepared to resist and to overthrow this Government. 劳动人民准备反抗推翻这个政府。
For months the company has resisted changing its accounts system. 数月以来，这家公司阻止改变它的帐目
这种金属是防锈的. This metal resists rust. 3). 意为“经得住；不屈从”, 常用于否定句。 Jill couldn’t resist making jokes about his boldness.
她看到甜食就想吃。 She couldn’t resist sweets. 4). resist sth. 抵制 …的诱惑 resist doing sth. 抵制做某事的诱惑 can’t resist (doing) sth. 无法抗拒做某事 的诱惑；忍不住做某事 resist the temptation 抵制诱惑 resist arrest 拒捕
[词汇拓展] resistance n. （不可数）抵抗，对抗；反对, 抵抗力, 阻力 (与to连用) The firm has to overcome its resistance to new technology. 这家公司必须克服对采用新技术的阻力。
resistant adj. 抵抗的，有抵抗力的
The seedlings are resistant to cold weather. 这些秧苗有抗寒力。
3. rely on / upon 依靠；依赖；指望，信任； 信赖 They have to rely on / upon the river for their water. You can rely on/ upon me. rely on/ upon sb. to do sth. =rely on sb.s doing sth. 依靠某人做某事 rely on/ upon sb./ sth. (for sth.) 依靠某人/ 某物（做某事） rely on sb. = trust sb.信赖某人 rely on sth. = depend on sth. 依靠某事 rely on it that… 相信…， 指望…
We rely heavily on computer to organize our work in modern society. You may rely on it that he will come to pick you up. 你放心好了， 他会开车来接你。
The success of the project _____ on everyone making an effort. A. works
我们双方对应当怎么办的看法是一致的。 We are identical in our views of what should be done. 这就是我们去年住过的那家旅馆。 This is the identical hotel that we stayed in last year.
2) (常与with连用) 完全相同的 我的意见和他的意见相同。 My opinion is identical with his. 这两种式样几乎完全相同。 These two designs are almost identical. be identical to 与……完全相同 be identical in 在……方面是相同的 the identical = the same This picture is identical to the one my mother has.
This is the identical room we stayed in last year. (这是我们去年住过的同一间房间) 联想： 在……方面与……相似 be similar to…in… resemble sb. in… identically adv. identical twin 长相酷似的双胞胎之一
identify v. identify sb / sth as sb / sth identify sth with sth 认为某事物与某事 物等同 She identified the man as her brother. 她把那个男人认成了他的兄弟。 幸福和财富不能混为一谈。 One can’t identify happiness with wealth.
随堂练习 根据下列各句句意及所给单词的首字母提 示，写出该单词的正确形式。 1. The two words are i_______ in meaning. dentical That is, you can use one in place of the other. 2. This is an o______ painting by Picasso, riginal not a copy one. 3. They lost their home and all their p_________ in the storm. ossessions
4. They have o______ one million dollars btained from the government. Their next step is to find a business partner. 5. This is a box with f______ height and lexible width. It can expand to contain as much as five kilos. 6. Thanks to the doctor’s timely treatment, he r________ his health soon. ecovered 7. Membership of the club is r________ to estricted men only. Women are not allowed in.
8. C___________ education is education ompulsory provided by governments, which children are required by law to receive. 9. The box has a t__________ plastic lid ransparent so you can see what’s inside. 10. The first step in the p________ for rocedure making a kite is to build a frame.
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