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高考英语一轮复习代词课件[1]


代词
一.概念:

代词是代替名词的词, 按其意义、特征 及其在句中的作用分为:人称代词、物主 代词、指示代词、反身代词、相互代词、 疑问代词、不定代词、连接代词和关系代 词等。 二.相关知识点精讲
1.人称代词

人称代词有主格和宾格之分。通常主格作 主语,宾格作宾语或表语。省略句、感叹句 中用宾格。如: I lik

e table tennis. (作主语) Do you know him?(作宾语) ---Who is knocking at the door? ---It’s me. (作表语) Dear me! Goodness me! -Susan, go and join your sister cleaning the yard. -Why me? John is sitting there doing nothing.

(2)it的用法
①用作人称代词,指代前文提到过的事物。 ②用来代替指示代词this或that。 ③指时间、距离、天气等。 ④指代整个句子的内容。 ⑤作形式主语。当动词不定式、动名词或从句作 主语时,通常把它放在谓语之后,而用it作句子的形 式主语。

⑥作形式宾语。当复合宾语中的宾语是不定式、

动名词、宾语从句时,往往把宾语放在它的补足语后
面,而用it作形式宾语,放在宾语补足语之前。 ⑦用于强调句型。 ⑧用于以下句型It is+一段时间+since从句; It is/will be+一段时间+before从句。 ⑨用于某些习语中作宾语,对这些习惯只能从整体 上理解。 I took it for granted that she would come on time.

我理所当然地认为她会按时到来。
If I can help it. I can manage it. make it.

⑩当说话者不清楚或没有必要知道说话对象的 性别时 , 也可用 it 来表示。如 : It's a lovely baby. Is it a boy or a girl? -Who is knocking at the door? - It's me.

2. 物主代词 1)表示所有关系的代词叫物主代词。物主代词 分形容词性物主代词和名词性 物主代词,如下表所示。

2)形容词性物主代词的作用相当于形容词, 可在句中作定语。例如: 3)名词性物主代词的作用相当于名词,在句 中可用作主语、宾语和表语。 Our school is here, and ___ is there. --- Is this English-book ____? --- No. ___ is in my bag. I've already finished ___ homework. Have you finished ____?

3. 指示代词 指示代词包括:this,that,these, those。 1) this和these一般用来指在时间或空间上 较近的事物或人,that和those 则指时间和空间上较远的事物或人,例如: This is a pen and that is a pencil. We are busy these days. In those days the workers had a hard time

2)有时that和those指前面讲到过的事物 this 和these则是指下面将要讲 到的事物,例如: I had a cold. ___'s why I didn't come. What I want to say is ____; pronunciation is very important in learning English.

3)有时为了避免重复提到的名词,常可 用that或those代替,例如: The television sets made in Beijing are just as good as ____ made in Shanghai.
4)this 在电话用语中代表自己,that 则 代表对方。例如: -Hello! This is Mary. Is that Jack speaking?

5) this和that还可表程度,作状语用, 相当于so,意思是“这么”和“那 么”。 The book is about this thick. I don’t want that much.

4. 反身代词 英语中用来表示"我自己","你自己", "他自己","我们自己","你们自己" 等意义的代词称为反身代词,也有人称之为 自身代名词,其形式如表所示。

反身代词可在句中作宾语、表语、同位语。 1)作宾语,表示动作的承受者就是动作的 发出者,主语和宾语指同一个人或一些人。 He called himself a writer. 2)作表语。 It doesn’t matter. I’ll be myself soon. He is not quite himself today. 3)作同位语,表示亲自或本人。可放在名 词、代词之后,也可置于句末。 I myself washed the clothes. 或I washed the clothes myself.

反身代词的惯用语
?enjoy

oneself, feel/be oneself, make oneself at home, make oneself understood,help oneself to,come to oneself, bring sb. to oneself, behave oneself, dress oneself in, seat oneself for oneself为自己或独立地, by oneself独自地(=alone)

5.不定代词

some与any
? ?

一般用法:some、any可与单、复数可数名词及不可数名词 连用。some一般用于肯定句,any多用于疑问、否定或条件 句。 特殊用法:①any用于肯定句表示“任何”的意思。 Any day is okay for me. ②some用于单数可数名词前表示“某一”。 Smith went to some place in England.(定语) ③期待对方回答yes 时,some用在表示请求或邀请的问句中。 ④some和any在句中还可作状语,作副词。some意为“大约” 相当于“about”,而any则表示程度,意为“稍,丝毫”。如:

Would you like _____ bananas? Mum,could you give me _____ money? There are ____ 300 workers on strike. Do you feel ____ better today?

many和much few, little; a few, a little
?few和little表示没有多少,含否

定意义;而a few 和a little表示 有一些,有几个,含肯定意义。 另外,few、a few 修饰可数名 词;little、a little修饰不可数名 词。它们在句中常用作定语、主 语和宾语。

each和every
? 1)each(各个),指两个或两个以上的人

或物,侧重个体,在句中作主语、宾语、 定语和同位语。every(每个),指三个或 三个以上的人或物,侧重整体,在句中只 能作定语。 Every student it our class has a dictionary.(定语,强调班上“所有的人”) Each student in our class has a dictionary.(定语,强调各个个体) Each of them has been there. The teacher gave each of the students a new textbook. We each got a ticket.

2)every还可表示“每…,每隔…”. every now and then every few/several days every other/second day=every two days

no one/nobody 1)泛指人,不接of, 谓语用 单数 2) 一般回答who, anyone, anybody 引 起 的疑问句。 none 特指(上文提到的)人或物,可与of 连用,谓语单复数均可。 nothing 1)泛指物,不接of,谓语用单数 2)回答anything的一般问句及 what引导的疑问句.

1.________ No one (Nobody) likes a person with bad manners. 2.---Who is in the room?-No one (Nobody) ___________. 3.---Is there anyone (anybody) in the room? ----______/__ . No one Nobody 4. ________of us have/has seen him. None 5.—Can you see anything in the box? ---________.
Nothing

(6)such和so

such+a/an+ adj + n,. so +adj +a/an +n. such +adj +n.(pl或不可数名词) so +many/much/ few/little +n .(pl.n或不可数名词)

?在解答代词类题目时,我们应首先

分析题干,明确代词所指代的对象, 从而避免误判。具体说来,可从这 几个方面考虑:1.代词指代的是 人还是物。2. 代词指代的是可数 名词还是不可数名词。3. 代词指 代的是特指还是泛指概念。4. 代 词指代的概念是表示两者之间还是 三者或三者以上。5.代词所表示 的是肯定还是否定概念。

三.巩固练习
1. Tom, Please pass ________ the glasses. I want to read the newspapers. A. you B. me C. him D. her 2. The English novel is quite easy for you. There are ______ new words in it. A. a little B. little C. a few D. few 3. ---You want ________ sandwich? ---Yes, I usually eat a lot when I’m hungry. A. other B. another C. others D. the other

4. The doctors and nurses are doing their best to fight SARS. They think more of others than _______. A. they B. them C. themselves D. theirs 5. ---Which do you prefer, a bottle of orange or a bottle of milk? ---__________, thanks. I’d like a cup of tea. A. Either B. Neither C. Both D. None

6. ---Oh! I came in a hurry and forgot to bring food. ---Never mind. You can have ________. A. us B. ours C. you D. yours 7. ---Can I come this evening or tomorrow morning? ---_______ is OK. I’m free today and tomorrow. A. Either B. Neither C. Both D. None

8. ---How are you going to improve _______ this term? ---Work harder than last term. A. ourselves B. myself C. himself D. yourself 9. ---Could you tell me _______ she is looking for? ---Her cousin, Susan. A. that B. whose C. who D. which

10. ---Is _______ here? ---No. Li Lei and Han Mei have asked for leave. A. everybody B. somebody C. anybody D. nobody 11. Paul has _______ friends except me, and sometimes he feels lonely. A. many B. some C. few D. more 12. If you want to book a round-trip ticket, you’ll have to pay ______ $ 30. A. more B. other C. the other D. another

13. ---Do you live by yourself, Mr Wang? ---Yes. I have three sons. But ______ of them lives with me. They are now studying in America? A.neither B. both C. none D. either 14. ---Have you sent your parents an Email telling them you arrived safe? ---No. _______ of them can use a computer. A. None B. Both C. Neither D. All

15. Who taught _______ English last term? Was _____ Mr. Smith? A. you; it B. you; he C. your; it D. your; that 16. ---That woman has a bag in her right hand. What’s in her _____ hand? A. another B. other C. one D. the other

18. ---Is there a bus to the zoo? ---I’m afraid there’s _______ bus to the zoo. A. no B. any C. some D. none 19. You forgot your dictionary? You may have _______. A. me B. my C. mine D. myself 20. This is ______ classroom. Where is _______? A.our; them B. us; they C. our; theirs D. ours; theirs


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