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必修三Unit4


必修三 Unit 4 1. astronomy n.天文学 课本原句:Astronomy: the science of the stars. (p25) astronomer n.天文学家 2. system n.[C] 系统;体系;制度 [U] 条理,秩序 课本原句:In our solar system eight planets circle around the sun

. (p25) 拓展: solar system 太阳系 a social system 社会制度 under the new/old system 在新/旧制度下 have system in one’s work 工作有条理 例题:It’s not the educational __________ itself but the way that it’s performed that needs improving. A.method B.system C.process D.means 答案:B 3. religion n.宗教;宗教信仰 课本原句:Each religion and culture has its own ideas about how life began on earth. (p25) 4. theory n.学说;理论 课本原句: However, according to a widely accepted theory, the universe began with a “Big Bang” that threw matter in all directions. 5. violent adj.猛烈的;激烈的;强暴的 课本原句:The earth became so violent that it was not clear whether the shape would last or not. 拓展: violence n.暴力行为,暴行 do violence to…向……行凶;强暴对待…… take by violence 强暴 lay violent heads on 对……行凶,向……下毒手 violent death 横死 violent crime 暴力犯罪 a violent reaction 反应强烈 a violent storm 暴雨 a violent change 剧变 have a violent temper 例题:Tom’s father is so_________ that Tom is afraid to tell him he has failed. A.violent B.quiet C.happy D.pleasant 答案:A 6. in time 及时;终于 课本原句:They were in time to produce carbon, nitrogen, water vapour and other gases, which

were to make the earth’s atmosphere.(p25) 拓展: ahead of time 提前,趁早 all the time 一直,始终 in no time 立即,立刻 once upon a time 从前 take one’s time 不着急 kill time 消磨时光 at a time 一次 at one time 曾经,一度 例题: Every possible means has been used, but they couldn’t finish the task___________. A.in no time B.at a time C.at one time D.ahead of time 答案:D 7. carbon n.碳 课本原句:They were in time to produce carbon, nitrogen, water vapour and other gases, which were to make the earth’s atmosphere.(p25) 8. atmosphere n.大气层;气氛 课本原句:They were in time to produce carbon, nitrogen, water vapour and other gases, which were to make the earth’s atmosphere.(p26) 9. unlike prep.不同;不像 课本原文:Water had also appeared on other planets like Mars but, unlike the earth, it had disappeared later.(p26) 10. fundamental adj.基本的;基础的 课本原文:It was not immediately obvious that water was to be fundamental to the development of life.(p26) 11. dissolve vt. /vi. 溶解;解散 课本原文:What many scientists believe is that the continued presence of water allowed the earth to dissolve harmful gases.(p26) 12. harmful adj.有害的 课本原文:What many scientists believe is that the continued presence of water allowed the earth to dissolve harmful gases.(p26) 拓展: harm n.&v. 伤害,损害 harmless adj.无害的 harmlessly adv.无害地 do sb. Harm 对某人有害 do harm to sb. 对某人有害

例题:Every knows smoking is ________ to their health, but many of them can’t bear themselves away from it. A.harmful B.good C.helpful D.bad 答案:A 13. oxygen n.氧 课本原文: They multiplied and filled the oceans and seas with oxygen, which encouraged the later development of early shellfish and all sorts of fish.(p26)

14. lay eggs 下蛋 课本原文:They produced young generally by laying eggs.(p26) 例题:The living room is clean and tidy, with a dining table already ________ for a meal to be cooked. A. laid B.chosen C.gotten D.had 答案:A 15. exist vi.存在;生存 课本原文:They laid eggs too and existed on the earth for more than 140 years. 拓展: existing adj. 现存的,现行的 exist in 存在于 existence n.存在,生存 come into existence 出现,产生 例题:When _______ Pakistan ________ as an independent country? A.was;come into being B.did;come into existence C.was;come to existence D.did;come to existence 答案:B 16. give birth to 产生;分娩 课本原文:These animals were different from all life forms in the past, because they gave birth to young baby animals and produced milk to feed them.(p26) 拓展: at birth 出生,诞生 by birth 天生地,生来 be of good/noble birth 出生名门 a second birth 再生,新生 bring… To birth 使产生 例题:The woman _______ birth to twins last night might turned out to be a film star. A.to give B.who gave C.given D.being given 答案:B 17. thus adv.因此,于是 课本原文:Thus they have, in their turn, became the most important animals on the planet.(p26)

18. in one’s turn 轮到某人;接着 课本原文:Thus they have, in their turn, became the most important animals on the planet.(p26) 拓展: in turn 依次,轮流,反过来 take turns in sth/to do sth. 轮流做…… It’s one’s turn to do sth.轮到某人干某事 by turns 轮流,交替 例题:Some planets can take in carbon dioxide we breathe out and give off oxygen______. A.in case B.in turn C.in return D.in addition 答案:B 19. dioxide n.二氧化碳 课本原文: They are putting to much carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, which prevent heat from escaping from the earth into space.(p26) 20. puzzle n.谜,难题 课本原文: How life began on earth is one of the biggest puzzles that scientists found hard to solve. (p27) 拓展: puzzled adj. 迷惑不解的 puzzling adj. 令人迷惑不解的 puzzle over/about sth. 苦苦思索/仔细琢磨…… puzzle sth out 琢磨出……的答案 a puzzle to sb. 某人不懂 例题:I’ve been trying to ___________ why she’s so upset.(puzzle) 我一直想试图搞清楚她为什么如此烦恼。 答案:puzzle out 21. biology n.生物学 biologist n.生物学家 课本原文:How dinosaurs disappeared is not only a question which interests biologists and geologist.(p29) 22. gravity n.万有引力;重力 课本原文:They think that early in time it traveled through space as a small planet which was caught by the earth’s gravity.(p28) 23. satellite n.卫星;人造卫星 课本原文:Although its origin may still be a puzzle, the moon can never be anything more than a satellite of the earth.(p28) 24. physicist n.物理学家 课本原文:It is a favourite topic for discussion for physicists and astronomers.(p29)

25. block out 挡住(光线) 课本原文: As a result of this event, a great dust cloud formed in the sky blocking out the sunlight. (p29) 拓展: block off(用路障)封锁,堵住 block up 塞住,封住(孔,洞) block one’s way 挡住某人的路 例题:The memory was so terrible that she tried to _________(抹去它) (block) 答案:block it out 26. climate n.气候 课本原文:Since the last ice age, the climate of the earth has not changed very much.(p29) 27. crash vt./vi.碰撞;坠落 课本原文:Other scientists believe that a comet crashed into the earth long ago and caused the disappearance.(29) 28. spaceship n.宇宙飞船 课本原文:We visited the moon in our spaceship.(p30) 29. pull n./vt.拉(力) ;拖;牵引力 课本原文:As the rocket rose into the air, we were pushed back into our seats because we were trying to escape the pull of the earth’s gravity.(p30) 拓展: Pull away (汽车等)开走 Pull down 拆毁,摧毁 Pull in (车辆)进站停靠,靠边停靠 Pull out 驶出,拉出,拔出 Pull through 康复,痊愈 例题:We waved as the train ______________________.(pull) 火车驶出车站时我们挥手告别。 答案:pulled out of the station 30. cheer up 感到高兴;感到振奋 课本原文:I cheered up immediately and floated weightlessly around in our spaceship cabin watching the earth become smaller and the moon larger,(p31) 拓展: cheer V. 欢呼,喝彩 cheerful adj. 快乐的;高兴的 cheer sb. on (比赛中)以喝彩声鼓励;为某人加油 例题:They do this in order to encourage crowds to ________ their sports team______. 答案:cheer ……on

31. float vi./vt. (使)浮动; (使)漂浮;n.漂浮物 课本原文:I cheered up immediately and floated weightlessly around in our spaceship cabin watching the earth become smaller and the moon larger,(p31) 32. now that 既然 课本原文:Walking does need a bit of practice now that gravity has changed.(31) 33. break out 爆发 课本原文:We watched, amazed as fire broke out on the outside of the spaceship as the earth’s gravity increased.(p31) 34. watch out 密切注视;当心;提防 拓展: watch over 照顾;监督;保护 watch out for 留意 keep a watch 守望;注视 be under a close watch 被严密监视


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