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石家庄精英中学 2013 年高二寒假作业【英语理科】 编号：02
Grammar--- Subjunctive Mood 虚拟语气
一．定义: 虚拟语气是动词的一种特殊形式，它用来表示所说的不是事实或者是不 可能发生的事情，而是一种愿望、建议或与事实相反的假设。 二．虚拟语气的相关用法 1. if 引导的条件虚拟句的构成： （1）对将来进行虚拟： If sb. did/were to /should do, sb. would /should/could/might +do （2）对现在进行虚拟： If sb. did(were), sb. would/should/could/might +do （3）对过去进行虚拟： If sb. had done sth, sb.would/should/could/might +have done （1）If it should rain/were to rain/ rained tomorrow, the sports meeting would be put off. （2）If I had time, I would learn how to play the piano. If I were you, I would seize every chance to study English. （3）If you had taken his advice, you wouldn’t failthe test. 抄 以 上 例 句 并 背 诵 : ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 2.错综时间条件句：当条件状语从句表示的行为和主句表示的行为发生的时间不一致时，被 称作“错综时间条件句”，动词的形式要根据它所表示的时间 作出相应的调整。 If you had followed my advice just now, you would be better now. If you had watered the flowers yesterday, they would live now. 抄 以 上 例 句 并 背 诵 : ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 3.省略 if 的条件虚拟句 当 if 引导的虚拟条件句中有 were， had， should 时， 可把 if 省去， were, had, should 把 提到句首，变为倒装句式。 If I were at school again, I would study harder. → Were I at school again, I would study harder. If you had come earlier, you would catch the bus. → Had you come earlier, you would catch the bus. If it should snow tomorrow, we would not go out. → Should it snow tomorrow, we would not go out. 抄以上例句并背诵
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________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 4.含蓄条件虚拟句 有时为了表达的需要，在虚拟语气中并不总是出现 if 引导的条件句而是通过上下 文或用介词短语等表示出来,这种句子叫含蓄虚拟条件句,常用的词有 with, without, but for, otherwise /or 等。 But for your help, we couldn’t have finished the work ahead of time. I was busy then. Otherwise, I would have help him. Without air, human beings couldn’t be able to survive. 抄 以 上 例 句 并 背 诵 : ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 5. 虚拟语气在名词性从句中的运用 (1) wish 后面的宾语从句一般用虚拟语气，表示一种不可能实现的愿望。其谓语 构成形式为： did/were（对现在） had done（对过去） could/would/ might + do （对将来） I wish I were ten years younger now. I wish that I had met him yesterday. I wish I would be a scientist. (2) sb. did (对现在或将来) would rather sb. had done （对过去） I would rather he didn’t hear of the news tomorrow. I would rather I had given my brother that book many years ago. 抄 以 上 例 句 并 背 诵 : wish:___________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ would rather:____________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ (3)用于（一 坚持）insist， （二命令）order/command， （三建议）suggest/advise (recommend)/propose， （四要求）desire/demand/require/request, (一宁愿) prefer 这些词后的宾语从句中。…that sb. (should) do. He ordered that the patient (should) be sent to hospital without delay. They insisted that the boy (should) go with them. 注意：当 suggest 表示“暗示、表明”时，insist 表示“坚持说，坚持认为”时，后面 用陈述语气。 His pale face suggests that he is ill. 他苍白的脸色表明他得病了。 She insisted that she was right. 她坚持说她是对的。
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另外， 这些词用在主语从句中的时候， 也用虚拟形式。 即： It’s suggested ( ordered, demanded, proposed, commanded, requested, desired, insisted, required ) that … (should) do；在这些词的名词后的表语从句和同位语从句中，也用（should）+ do It is suggested that the meeting should be put off till next week. We all agreed to his suggestion that we should go to Hong Kong. (4) It is +n./adj. + that … 如果句中有“应该、竟然”之意， 用（should）do 此句型中常用表示情绪、观点的形容词或名词作表语 It’s strange that he shouldn’t have come yesterday. 6. It is (high/about) time that sb. did/ should do （should 不能省） It is (high/about) time that we should go home/ went home. 7. in case least for fear( that)引导的句子中，常用(should )do 表示“唯恐，以免” 。 She took the raincoat with her in case /for fear that /lest she (should) be caught in the rain. The student is working hard for fear that he should fail the exam. 8. If only… “要是?该有多好啊” , 虚拟形式同 wish 的用法 If only I could see him now. If only I knew the answer. If only I hadn't lost it 9. as if/as though 引导的从句中，也用虚拟语气。虚拟形式同 wish 的用法。 It looks as if he knew everything. He talked as if he knew what had happened. 10. even if, even though 引导的从句中,也可用于虚拟语气，其形式同 if 从句。 抄 以 上 例 句 并 背 诵 : ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 针对性练习： 1. If you asked your father, you ______ permission. A. may get B. might get C. should have called D. maybe get 2. If it _____rain tomorrow, we would have to put off the visit to the Yangpu Village. A. were B. should C. would D. will 3. If she had worked harder, she______. A. would succeed B. had succeeded C. should succeed D. would have succeeded 4. You didn’t let me drive. If we _____ in turn, you ________so tired. A. drove, didn’t get B. drove, wouldn’t get C. were driving, wouldn’t D. had driven, wouldn’t have got 5. If I had seen the movie, I_____ you all about it now. A. would tell B. will tell C. have told D. would have told 6. If you _______that late movie last night, you would not be so sleepy now.
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A. haven’t watched B. didn’t watch C. wouldn’t watch D. hadn’t watched 7. ______I you, I would go with him to the party. A. Was B. Had been C. Will be D. Were 8._______ more careful, his ship would not have sunk. A. If the captain were B. Had the captain been C. Should the captain be D. If the captain would have been 9. ________it rain tomorrow, the sports meeting would be put off. A. Were B. Should C. Would D. Will 10. —We could have gone there by bus. —Yes, otherwise we _______ late. A. weren’t B. hadn’t been C. couldn’t be D. couldn’t have been 11. Without electricity human life___________ quite different today. A. is B. will be C. would have been D. would be 12. _______the English exam I would have gone to the concert last Sunday. A. In spite of B. But for C. Because of D. As for 13. How I wish it ________ now. A. hadn’t rained B. wouldn’t rain C. weren’t raining D. doesn’t rain 14. “I wish you ____ me to put these things away,” he said. A. will help B. help C. are helping D. would help 15. I wish that I _______ the concert last night. A. could B. had attended C. could have attended D. attended 16 . Look at the terrible situation I am in! If only I ____ your advice A. follow B. would follow C. had followed D. have followed . 17. If only I ______ as young as you are! A. being B. am C. be D. were 18. The sun rises in the east and sets in the west, so it seems as if the sun ________round the earth. A. were circling B. circles C. is circling D. be circling 19. Looking round the town, he felt as though he ____ away for ages. A. has been B. was C. is D. had been 20. It is necessary that he________ there in time. A. is B. was C. were D. be 21. It is time that the government ____ measures to protect the rare birds and animals. A. takes B. took C. has taken D. taking 22. I would rather you___ tomorrow. A. come B. had come C. came D. have come 23. It was ordered that no smoking _____in the library. A. be allowed B. would be allowed C. was allowed D. had been allowed 24. He give the order that we _____there on time. A.be B.are C.had been D.will be 25. He insisted that he__________(be) innocent, so he insisted that he______(set free) 26. Mary’s pale face suggested that she_____ (be) ill. And we suggested that she__________ (have) a medical examination.
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