Grammar and usage ---Noun Clauses 名词性从句
名词性从句相当于名词，可分别作主 句的主语、表语、宾语和同位语。因此， 名词性从句可分为主语从句、表语从句 、 宾语从句和同位语从句。
1.When we will start is no
2. She won’t believe that her son has become a thief. 宾语从句 3. My idea is that we should do it right now. 表语从句 4. I had no idea that you were her friend. 同位语从句
1. 主语从句+谓语 That she will win the match is certain. 2.It+be+形容词（名词词组、过去分词）+that从句 It is important that we teens should learn English. It is good news that he will attend the meeting on behalf of our school. It is said that our school will hold a sports meeting 3. It +seem (happen，appear等不及物动词)+that从句 It seems that Katy is not coming to this party.
主句 + 连接词(引导词) + 宾语从句 I don't know why he is always late for school.
We all agree with what you said at the meeting.
其基本结构为:主语 + 系动词 + that从句。 1. be, look, remain, 等系动词后均可跟表语从句： My suggestion is that we should go shopping. 2. as if 也可引导表语从句。
It looks as if it’s going to rain.
3.the reason why … is that … 和It is because …等结构。 It was because I got up late.
同位语从句在句中作同位语，它一般要放在主 句中某些名词的后面，说明这些名词的含义。可跟 同位语从句的名词主要有： fact, news, promise, reason, idea, hope, word, belief等。
Beijing ,the capital of China, is my hometown.
We heard the news that our team had won. We were happy to hear the news that was announced by our boss.
1. (2008山东)____ was most important to her was her family. A. it B. this C. What
2. (2009北京，31）At first he hated the new job but decided to give himself a few months to see _____it got any better.
A.When B. how C. why
3. (2006全国I,23）See the flags on top of the building?
That was _____ we did this morning. A. When B. which C. where
4. (2009浙江，12）Is there any possibility _____ you could pick me up at the airport? ---No problem. A. When
C. whether D. what
1.连接词 ：that、if、whether 无意义
2. 连接代词 ：who、 whom 、whose、 what、 which 作主/宾/ 表 3. 连接副词： when、 where、why、how
注意: 区别if 与whether
1. I don’t know __________ I’ll whether / if be free tomorrow. 2. I don’t know _______ or not whether I’ll be free tomorrow. 3. The question is _______ this whether book is worth writing.
5. It depends on _______ we will whether have enough money. 6. Whether they can do it matters _______ little to us. 7. _____ you are not free tomorrow, If I’ll go without you.
a. 主语从句并在句首 b. 表语从句 c. 同位语从句 e. 介词后的宾语从句 f. 直接加动词不定式只能用whether （to do）
If 表-是否常用于动词 后的宾语从 句
whether or not 直接连用时不用if
1. ____ the 2000 Olympic Games will be held in Beijing is not known yet. A. Whenever B. If C.Whetherthat D. That There is no doubt____ he will win the first place . 2. _____ we’ll go camping tomorrow depends on the weather. that 表肯定意义 A. If B. Whether whether表疑问 C. That D. Where
that 与 what 的区别
What he said makes me happy.
That a new teacher will come is true .
只起连接作用，无意义，在从句中不充当任 何成分, 且在宾语从句中有时可省（动词后）。 既起连接作用, 又在从句中作 主语, 宾语, 表 语 (且在名词性从句中只有what可作表语）
That 1. _______ he said so made us angry . What _______ he said at the meeting made us angry. what 2. A computer can only do_________ you have
instructed it to do. （01全国）
what China is no longer ______ it used to be .
4. A modern city has been set up in ______ was a
wasteland ten years ago. （04天津）
1. That he will succeed is certain . 2. Whether he will go there is not known . 3. What he said is not true . 4. Where he hid the money is to be found out . 5. Whoever comes is welcome.
1).主语从句一律用陈述句语序,即主语在前,谓语在后. 例: 误: When will he come is not known.
正: When he will come is not known.
2).连接词that在从句中无实际意义,但不能省略. 例: 误: He will not come to the meeting this evening is true.
正: That he will not come to the meeting this evening is true.
3).whoever, whatever, whichever等词可以引导主 语从句, 但no matter who, no matter what 等不能. Whoever breaks the school rules must be punished.
试比较：Whoever breaks the schools rules, he must be punished. No matter who breaks the school rules, he must be punished.
1.__________ was said here must be Whatever kept secret. 2._______ we need is more time. What 3._______ has taken away my bag is Who unknown. Anyone who Whoever 4.__________ breaks the law will be punished.
考点 ４ ：it作形式主语(主从) , 形式宾语（宾从）
1.他犯了那样一个错误真是遗憾。 ___________________________ is a pity . That he made such a mistake
It is a pity that… 2.他来不来不重要。 ________________________doesn’t matter. Whether he will come or not It doesn’t matter whether…
Can you understand them?
It is reported/ thought/said/predicted that… It is clear/necessary/certain that…
It is a pity/a shame/an honor that…
It doesn’t matter whether… It seems/appears that…
It happens that…
1.______ he wants is a book. What 2. ______ he wants to go there is obvious. That 3.The result is ______ we won the game. that 4.This is _____ we want to know. what 5.Is _____ he told us true ? what 6.We should pay attention to ______ the teacher is what saying. 7. I have no doubt _____ he will come. that 8. I have no idea _____ he did that afternoon. what
1)（2008浙江) ____ want to stay in a hotel has to pay their own way. A). anyone B). the one C). whoever D). who 2) ____ he said at the meeting astonished everybody present. ( 93) A).what B). that C). the fact D). the matter 3)（2006浙江） ____is our belief that improvements in health care will lead to a stronger,more prosperous economy. A). As B). That C). this D). It
why 1. I wondered _______ you were so angry. 2. It all depends onwhether they will support us . _______ 3. I can’t imaginewhat _______made him act like that. 4 . I’m delighted _______I have passed the exam. that 5. I find it necessary _______ we should do the homework. that
1) 宾语从句一律用陈述句的语序. 2) 引导宾语从句的连词that也无实际意义,多数 情况下可以省略. 3) whether和if都可以引导宾语从句 但: (1) 当whether后紧跟or not时, 不用if whether 例: I don’t know _______I will stay or not. (2) 介词后面的宾语从句不能用if whether 例: I worry about __________ I hurt her feeling.
4) that在宾语从句中的省略与保留 (1).在主+谓+it(形式宾语)+宾补+that从句 (真正宾语) 的句型中不省略. 例: We must make it clear that we mean what we say. (2).由连词and连接的两个由that引导的宾语 从句中, that 不省略. 例: He told me that he would come and that he would come on time.
(1) make /find/ feel / consider / think it + adj / n + that… / to do… (2)it 指代后面从句所叙述的内容,常用 like/dislike/love/hate/appreciate/make +it + if 或when从句 I hate it when people laugh at the disabled .
it 1. I’ve got to make clear that he told a lie. it 2. I like ___ in the autumn when the
weather is clear and bright. (2004 ) A. this B. that C. it D. one
3. 他发现很难使别人理解他. He found it difficult to make himself understood _________________________________.
1)（2005山东，26)The shopkeeper didn’t want to
sell for ____ he thought was not enough.
A). where B). How C). what D). which 2) (2006全国I，16) ---what did your parents think about your decision? ---They always let me do ____I think I should. A). when B). that C). how D). what
问题是我们是否可以信任他。 The question is
whether we can rely on him.
我建议买台大电脑。 My suggestion is that we( should)buy a big computer.
她看起来要哭了。 He looked as if he was going to cry.
1) 表语从句一律用陈述句的语序. 2) 表语从句的引导词that无实际意义,但不能省略. 3) 表语从句只能用whether,而不能用if 引导. 4) 不要使用 The reason … is because that … 句型, 应使用 The reason… is that… 或 This / it /that/ is because…等句型. 例如: 今天早上他迟到的原因是因为路上行人太多. 误: The reason why he was late this morning is because that there was a lot of traffic on the road. 正: The reason why he was late this morning is that there was a lot of traffic on the road. 或:He was late this morning. That was because there was a lot of traffic on the road.
1. (2009江西，33）The fact has worried many scientists____ the earth is becoming warmer and warmer these years. A). what B). which C). though D). that 2. (2009辽宁，29）Do you have any idea ____ is actually going on in the classroom? A). that B). what C).as D). which
1）The fact that he was killed made us surprised. 2）I have no idea when he will be back. 3）We heard the news that our team had won. 4）Can you find the answer to the question what was wrong with the computer? 5）He made a suggestion that we (should) read some original English literature works.
1.同位语从句的引导词: that ,whether, how , when,
idea, fact, news, belief, thought, doubt, suggestion; proof, message, order, conclusion, desire, theory, truth, word 等.
如果that作从句中的某一成分, 则是定语从句, 如果that不 作从句中的任何成分, 则是同位语从句. 例: (1) I had no idea that it was so late. (主系表 结构, that 不作从句中的成分, 同位语从句) (2) I still remember the place that we visited last year. (主谓宾结构, that作从句中的宾 语,定语从句)
同位语从句的简易判断方法： 我们可以在名词和从句之间加be,使之构成一个 新句子，如果合乎逻辑，句子通顺，则是同位语 从句，定语从句是不能用系表结构把先行词与从 句连接起来的。
eg: The belief that the earth is flat is still held in some countries. The belief is that the earth is flat.
1.The fact that Great Britain is made up of three countries AP is still unknown to many. 2.The news that is spreading around the airport is coming. AT 3.The suggestion that students should learn something practical is worth considering. AP 4.We expressed the hope that they had expressed. AT 5. We expressed the hope that they would come to China again. AP
1. The photographs will show you _______．（MET89） A. what does our village look like B. what our village looks like C. how does our village look like D. how our village looks like
1.(09四川8 ). News came from the school office _____ Xiao Lin had been admitted to Beijing University. 同位语从句 A. which B. what C. that D. where 2.(09天津9 ). It is obvious to the students ______ they should get well prepared for their future. A. as B. which C. whether D. that
3.(06上海)One advantage of playing the guitar is ______ it can give you a great deal of pleasure. A. how B. why C. that D. when
4.(上海01年春季）What the doctors really doubt is ____ my mother will recover from the serious 表语从句 disease soon． A. when B. how C whether D. why
5.(2006江苏) We haven't settled the question of_____ it is necessary for him to study abroad． A if B where C whether D that 宾语从句
6.(96 NMET ) _______we’ll go camping tomorrow depends on the weather. 主语从句 A. If B. Whether C. That D. Where
7.(2000NMET) ________she couldn’t understand was ______ fewer and fewer students showed interest in her lessons. 主语从句 A. that; what B. what; why C. what; because D. why; that 8.(09湖南) She is very dear to us. We have been prepared to do it takes to save her life.宾语从句 A.whichever B.however C whatever D.whoever 9.(09海南) Could I speak to is in charge of International Sales please? 宾语从句 A. who B. what C. whoever D. whatever
10.(96 NMET) _______ we can’t get seems better than ________ we have. 主语从句 A. what; what B. what; that C. that; that D. that; what 11.(07 全国卷II) ____ matters most in learning English is enough practice. 主语从句 A. what B. why C. where D. which 12.(08天津卷） The last time we had great fun was _____we were visiting the Water Park. 表语从句 A. where B. how C. when D. why
考点1．语序问题 1.No one can be sure ____ in a million years.
A.what will man look like B. what man will look like C. man will look like what D. what look will man like
2.You can’t imagine ____ when they received these nice Christmas presents.
A. how they were excited C. how excited were they B. how excited they were D. they were how excited
陈述 名词性从句在句中要用____语序,从句 的引导词必须始终置于______ 句首
1. He said that he will go to the station. . would travels 2. Our physics teacher once told us that light __________ （ travel ） faster than sound. 3. Tom says that Mary ____ (go) abroad last year and went has been _________ (be) there for nearly 5 months.
何时开会还没有决定。 has When the meeting will begin _____ (have) not been decided yet . 他们何时出发和他们去哪里还没有决定。 have When they will start and where they will go_____(have)still unknown. 何时何地开会还没有决定。
has When and where the meeting will begin _____ (have) not been decided yet . 单个的主语从句作主语时，谓语动词一般用 _____形式。如果是两个或两个以上的主语 单数 复数 从句作主语，谓语动词则用_____形式。由 总结归 两个或多个连接词引导一个主语从句，谓语 纳： 单数 动词用_____形式。
1. It is ordered that he _____ the examination?
B. has to take C. must take
2. It is strange that he _____ you this.
A. would tell B. should tell C. had told D. has told
基本句型：It is +形容词、名词、过去分词+ that ... + (should) do a. It is important (necessary, natural, strange, advisable etc)+that b. It is a pity( a shame, no wonder etc)+that c. It is suggested (ordered, proposed, required, demanded, requested,
insisted etc)+that 总结 归纳：
We suggested that the meeting ___________
A.should put off B.be put off C. was put off D.putting off
The smile on his face suggested that he ______(was/be/is)satisfied with our work. was
propose、demand、require、insist ．request、 command、order后的从句谓语动词用 __________________________ (should) + do/be done 注意suggest 当表示“暗示、表明“讲时，insist 表示 总结 归纳：
knew a. I wish I ______(know) the answer now.
b. I wish he __________(pass) the exam yesterday. had passed
would fly c. I wish I ________ (fly) to the moon in a few years.
对过去虚拟时，用had＋过去分词 对将来虚拟时，用would (might等)＋动词原形
考点4虚拟语气 c)表语和同位语从句中的虚拟语 气
1. His suggestion that you _____ once more sounds
A. try B. tries C. must try D. can try
2. The order given by the commander was that they _____ until the commander allowed they to. A. stopped B. didn’t stop C. stop D. not stop 在 suggestion, proposal, idea, plan, order, advice
等名词后面的表语从句、同位语从句中要用虚 (should) + do/be done 拟语气，即________________________
找出下列句子中的错误 1. I think that worthwhile that we spent so much money on
2. That is hard to decide when and where we will held our sports meeting. It
3. (09天津）It is obvious to the students whether they should get well prepared for their future. that 4. It doesn’t matter that you will come or not. whether 当主语从句较长，而谓语较短时，常常将从 后置 句______，而用it作为形式主语置于句首。 it 也可作形式宾语。
1. _____ is known to us all that 2008 Olympic Games _____ is known to us all, the the 2008 Olympic Games will take place in Beijing. will take place in Beijing. (福建 2008) A. It B. What C. As D. Which
2. He didn’t make ____ clear when and where the meeting would be held.（07年天津卷） A. this B. that C. it D. these
考点6 连接词 a) what / which what 1. ---Do you know______Miss Zhu’s address is ? ---She may live at No. 33or No. 4 4 of Xianxing No. or No. which road. I’m not sure of _________.
some book or other, does it 2. I read about it in some bookor other which matter _______ it was? （01北京春季）
No matter where
b) whatever /whoever/无论,不管… however/whomever/whichever/ … no matter what
____________ you go and __________you do, I’ll be wherever whatever right here waiting for you.
Whoever leaves the room last _________________________ought to turn off the light.
Whatever he had _________________was seized by the Japanese soldiers.
________等同类词既可以引导名词性从句， whatever 也可以引导让步状语从句， 而No matter what ____________等只能引导让步状语从句。
1. （09湖南）2．She is very dear to us. We have been prepared to do＿＿it takes to save her life. A. whichever B. however C. whatever D. whoever 2. ____,mother will wait for him to have dinner together. A. However late he is B. However he is late C. No matter how late he is D. No matter how he is late
3．______wants to stay in a hotel has to pay their own way. (浙江 2008) A. Anyone B. The one C. Whoever D. Who
1._____(What/That /whether) wasobvious. doubt to her, she Whathe wants to believe that there is no 1.Some researchers go there is most important That told me, was her family. be found. (05广东卷) that _____ a cure for AIDS will（ 08山东卷） I2. Wesure that whether/if willtomorrow. am doubt(__________come defeat the others. he will he ) 2.____ we can’t get seems better than ____ we have. whether 3.The problem is our team have enough time . The news that _______ wewon the match inspired us. A. What; what B.whether C. That; that D. That; what what; that 4.It doesn’t the school proud was game. than 90% of the The result is that we won the more 3._____made matter _______ you come or not whether 5.It all depends on_______the sky is universities. up. students had been admitted to key going to clear A．What…whether B．What…that A.if B. that C. / D. whether C．That…what D．That…because
有无词义 成分 /表语从句 / 同位语从句/介词后用whether 备注 1)主语从句 That表确定 无 that 2)Whether or not无 宾语从句中可省，其余不可省 连用 whether表是否
1）that 与whether 的区别 是否 2）whether 和if的区别
What与 that 的区别 有 缺少成分即主语，宾语，表语时用what
1. （08重庆卷）33. All people, __ they are old or young, rich or poor, rich or poor, have been trying their best to help those in need since the disaster. A. even if B. whether C. no matter D. however 2. （08北京卷）The companies are working together to create ______they hope will be the best means of transport in the 21st century. A. which B. that C. what D. who 3. (09浙江）10．－Is there any possibility ______ you could pick me up at the airport? －No problem. A. When B. that C. whether D. what
4. A modern city has been set up in the place ______ was a wasteland ten years ago. （04天津） A. what B. which C. that D. where
1. （09江西）The fact has worried many scientists ______ the earth is becoming warmer and warmer these years. A. what B. which C. that D. though 2. The suggestion ______he raised at the meeting is very good. A. which B. that C. what D. / 3. The suggestion ____ the students (should) have plenty of exercise is very good. A. which B. that C. what D. /
总结： 同位语从句前的名词是一个具有抽象意味的名词。从句 不充当 就是其内容。that在从句中_______成分。而定语从句 就是对前先行词进行修饰限定，关系词应代替先行词在 从句中____句子成分。 做题顺序：“二看” 充当
从句 句意 一看_____是否完整；二看_____确定答案。
１. 语序问题 ２. 时态问题 ３. 主谓一致问题 ４. 名词性从句中的虚拟语气 ５. it 作形式主语,形式宾语的用法 ６. 连接词
that,what ,which , whether, if, who, whom,whose,
whatever ,whichever,whoever ,whomever,whosever
when, where, why, how …
７ . 同位语从句与定语从句区别
人们参加志愿者活动的原因是他们有社会责 任感。作为一名学生，我会做我能做的事情 来奉献社会。让陷入困境的人们感到温暖是 非常重要的。志愿者相信世界上有一部分最 幸福的人就是那些给别人带来快乐的人。
The reason why they take part in the voluntary work is that they have their social responsibilities. As a student, I will do whatever I can to devote myself to our society. It is very important that we should let people in need feel warmer. Volunteers believe that some of the happiest people in the world are those who help to bring happiness to others.
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