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语法盘点—倒装、强调、省略、插入语


倒装句、强调句、省略句、插入语小盘点 ——2009-10-30
一、倒装句型考点聚焦 1. 当表地点的 here, there,表时间的 now, then 和表方位 变化的副词 up, down, in, out, off, away 放在句首时。 谓 语动词常用 come, go, lie, run 等表位移的动词, 该动词 不用进行时。 〖温馨提示〗代词作主语时,

主谓语序不变。 当表地点的介词短语放在句首时。 In front of the house stands a big tree. 如果直接引语后注明是什么人说的,而且主语是名词 时,用完全倒装。若主语为代词,则不倒装。 “Let’s go,” said the man/he said. 在 “There be…” 结构中, 此结构中的 be 还可以用 seem, appear, stand, lie, live, exist, remain 等来代替。 在主系表结构中,把表语提前以示强调。结构为“表 语(形容词/过去分词/介词短语)+系动词+主语” 。 1) Present at the meeting were …出席会议的有?? 2) Gone are the days when…?的日子一去不复返了。 3) Among the goods are Christmas trees, flowers, candles and toys. 4.

2. 完 全 倒 装 3.

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部 分 倒 装

具有否定意义的副词或短语放在句首时,句子需要部 分 倒 装 。常 见 的这 类 词或 短 语有 not, little, never, seldom, hardly, rarely, scarcely, nowhere, by no means, in no way, at no time, under no circumstances 等。 2. 用于 no sooner…than…, hardly…when…, not until…句 型中。 1) Not until the teacher came did he finished his homework. 2) No sooner has she gone out than the telephone rang. 3. 当 so, neither, nor 表示前面的所说的情况也适用于后者 放在句首时。肯定用 so,否定用 neither 或 nor。 1) He hasn’t finish his work, nor/neither have I. 2) Tom can speak French. So can Jack. 〖温馨提示〗①当 so 引出的句子是对上文内容表示肯 定或赞同时,不用倒装。②若前面含有两种以上,如

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既有实义动词又有情态动词,或既有肯定也有否定的 情况,则用 It is the same with…或 So it is with… 1) —It was very hot yesterday. —So it was and so is it today. 2) He came late for school, but he was not punished. So it was with me./ It is the same with me. 当 only 修饰状语(副词、介词短语或状语从句)放在 句首时。 〖温馨提示〗①当 only 强调主语时,不倒装。 ②如果句子为主从复合句,则主句倒装,从句不倒装。 1) Only then did I realize I was wrong. 2) Only in this way can we master English. 3) Only when he told me did I realize what trouble he was in. so/such…that…句型中的 so/such 位于句首时,主句需 要部分倒装。 1) So frightened was he that he didn’t dare to go out. 2) Such a lovely girl is she that everyone likes her. 在虚拟条件句中从句谓语动词有 were, had, should 时, 可将 if 省略, 把 were, had, should 移到主语之前, 用部 分倒装。 1) Were I you, I would try again. 2) Should it rain tomorrow, I should stay indoors. 3) Had he followed my advice, he would have succeed. 用于“形容词/副词/名词/动词+as/though”引导的让步 状语从句中。 〖温馨提示〗如果表语是名词时,名词前 不用任何冠词。 1) Try as he would, he might fail again. 2) Pretty as she is, she is not clever. 3) Child as he is, he knows a lot. 在某些表示祝愿的句型中。 May you succeed!祝你成功! May you all be happy!祝大家幸福!

二、强调句型考点聚焦 1. 基本结构:It is/was +被强调部分+that/who… 2. 一般疑问句:Is/Was it +被强调部分+that/who… 3. 特殊疑问句:特殊疑问词+is/was it that… 4. not…until…的强调句型:It is/was not until…that… 5. 如果要强调谓语时,用助动词 do/does/did。
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1) He did write to you last week. 2) Do be careful when crossing the street. 6. 用 on earth, in the world 短语放在疑问词之后,进行强调。 Where on earth/in the world did you go last night? 7. 强调句型和几个相似句型的比较 ? It is/was +表语+that… ? It is/was +过去分词+that… ? It is/has been +时间段+since… ? It was/will be +时间段+before… ? It is/was +序数词+that… ? It be +时间+when… 1) It is necessary that we master a foreign language. 2) It’s generally believed that teaching is as much an art as it is a science. 3) It is two years since he joined the army. 4) It won’t be long before she recovers. 5) It is the first time that I have been here. 6) It was about noon when we got there. 7) It was at about noon that we got there. 三、省略考点聚焦 1. 在从属连词 if, unless, when, while, until/till, though, even though/if, as, as if, than 等所引导的状语从句中, 如果状语从 句的谓语有 be,同时主语与从句主语一致或是 it 时,从句 的主语和 be 常被省略。 1) He picked up a wallet while walking in the street. 2) I’ll go to help you if necessary. 3) We finished the task two days earlier than expected. 〖特别提醒〗before 和 after 引导时间状语从句时,通常不 采用以上省略形式。如果从句主语和主句主语一致,可把 before/after 用作介词,后面跟动词或名词形式。 1) He gradually recovered after being treated for a time. 2) You must finish your work first before going out to play. 2. 省略一个从句或从句的一部分,用 so 或 not(不可用 it 或 that) 。动词不定式的省略:在一定的语境中,在某些动词 (want, wish, hope, like, love 等)之后,为了避免重复,常 只保留 to,省略不定式结构中的其余部分。 〖特别提醒〗如 果是 to be 或 to have done 结构,则在进行省略时需在 to 之 后保留 be 或 have。

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语境省略和语篇省略 ? 语境省略:在对话中,交谈双方都知道所谈论的对象 或内容,则可以依据情节进行必要的省略,被省略部 分可根据语境补出。 1) —Let’s go to the seaside this weekend. —______ a good idea. A. Sound B. Sounding C. Sounds D. Sounded 2) —Where did you get to know her? —It was on the farm _____we worked. A. that B. there C. which D. where ? 语篇省略:为避免重复,依靠上下文的省略现象;能 在上下文中找到省略部分。 Tom has gone home, but I don’t know why ( he has gone home). 四、插入语考点聚焦 1. 单词插入语 (多为副词) : indeed, surely, still, otherwise , certainly, however, generally, personally, honestly, fortunately, luckily, though, besides, exactly, perhaps, maybe, probably, frankly 等。 2. 短语插入语: in fact, in one ’ s opinion, in general, in a word, in other words, of course, by the way, as a result, for example, on the contrary, on the other hand, to one ’ s surprise, 3. 短语插入语: in fact, in one ’ s opinion, in general, in a word, 4. in fact, in one’s opinion , in general, in a word, in other words, of course, by the way, as a result, for example, on the contrary, on the other hand, to one’s surprise , in short, as a matter of fact, in conclusion, in brief, or rather, most important of all, sure enough 等。 5. V-ing(短语)作插入语。常见的有:generally speaking, strictly speaking, judging from/ by, talking of, considering 等。 6. 不定 式 短语 作 插入 语 。 常见 的 有: to be frank , to be honest ,to be sure ,to tell you the truth ,to make matters worse , to sum up , to start with , to begin with 等。 7. 句子(陈述句和一般疑问句)作插入语。能用作插入语 的句子有: I am sure, I believe, I think, I know, I suppose,

I hope, I’m afraid , you see, what’s more , that is to say, believe it or not 等。 8. do you think 等常可作为插入语用于特殊疑问句中。其句型 为:疑问词+do you think+其他(正常语序) 。常用于这种结 构中的动词有 think, guess, suggest, suppose, believe, imagine 等。 五、There be 句型 1. There be 句型中的常用动词。除了动词 be 之外,还可以用 seem, appear, exist, stand, lie, rain, remain 等动词 2. There be 句型中的主谓一致。主语和谓语 be 必须在数上一 致。如果有两个以上的主语,谓语依最近的主语而定。 3. There be +主语+非谓语(to do/doing/done) 六、主谓一致考点聚焦 (一)就近原则 1. 在由 or, either…or…, neither…nor…, whether…or…, not only…but also…, not…but…连接两个并列主语时,谓语动 词的人称和数采用就近原则。 2. There be 结构中如果有两个和两个以上的主语时, 采用就进 原则。 (二)语法一致原则 1. 由 and 连接名词的情况 1) 主语由 and 或 both…and…连接时,表示不同的人或事 物,谓语动词用复数。 2) and 连接的两个名词表示同一人或物时,谓语用单数。 The singer and actress ________(be) coming here. 3) and 连接的两个名词表示同一概念时,谓语用单数。 All work and no play _______(make) Jack a dull boy. 2. 主语中含有 each, every 等时的情况 1) 由 and 连接的并列单数主语前如果分别有 no, each, every, many a 修饰时,谓语用单数。 Every woman and every man _______(is) at work. 2) 由 each 修饰的名词作主语时,谓语用单数;而 each 位 于复数主语后作同位语时,谓语用复数。 1) Each student ______ (have) an English-Chinese dictionary. 2) They each _______(give) a present. 3) every, either, neither, the other, anyone, anybody, anything, someone, somebody, something, everyone, everybody,
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everything, no one, nobody, nothing 等作主语时, 谓语一 般用单数。 all 作主语,如果 all 代替的是复数名词,谓语用复数形式; 如果 all 代替的是不可数名词,谓语用单数形式。 none 作可以表示可数名词,也可表示不可数名词,指可数 名词时,谓语用单数、复数皆可,指不可数名词,谓语用 单数。 主语后面有 with, as well as, together with, along with, like, such as, rather than, except, but, besides, including, in addition to 等引起的短语时,谓语动词与前面的名词保持一致。 一些表示部分概念或不定数量的名词或代词作主语时,谓 语动词与 of 后面的名词保持一致。例如:half of, most of, a lot of, plenty of, the rest of, the majority of 等。 专有名词作主语 1) 国名、人名、报纸名、书名、组织机构等专有名词作 主语,谓语用单数。 2) 以-s 结尾的海峡、山脉、群岛、瀑布等名称的名词作 主语时,谓语动词常用复数。 3) 某些以-s 结尾的学科名词、疾病名词、游戏名词作主 语时,谓语一般用单数。 表示时间、距离、钱数、重量的名词作主语时,若代表总 量或总和时,谓语一般用单数形式 一些由两个部分组成一体的复数名词,如 trousers, gloves, pants, shorts, jeans, glasses, scissors, shoes, compasses(圆规) 等作主语时, 谓语用复数。 若带有单位词 (如 a pair of 或 two pairs of) ,则有单位词决定谓语的单复数形式。 goods (货物) , surroundings (环境) savings (积蓄) , belongs (所有物)等名词作主语时,谓语用复数。 “the+形容词/分词”作主语时,如果指一类人,谓语用复 数;如果指事物或抽象概念时,谓语用单数。 1) The wounded ________(be) taken good care of. 2) The beautiful _________(be) not always good. 有些集合名词, 例如 police, cattle, people, poultry (家禽) ,folk (民众),youth(青年)等形式上单数,但意义上是复数, 谓语动词需用复数。 有些集合名词, 如 family, committee, class, crowd, crew, team, group, government, army, audience, enemy 等作主语时,若作 为一个整体,谓语用单数,若着眼于组成该集体的一个个

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成员或个体时,谓语动词用复数。 population 作主语时,通常看作单数,若其前由分数、百分 数修饰时,则用复数形式。 sheep, means, deer, work(工厂),species(种类)等单复数 形式相同的名词作主语时,谓语动词的单复数形式须在具 体的语境中决定。 1) Every means ___________(have) been tried. 2) All means _________(have) been tried. kind, sort 构成的短语作主语时,谓语动词的形式应与 of 前 的名词的数保持一致。 1) This kind of book ________(be) very popular. 2) Men of this kind ________(be) hard to deal with. “one and a half+名词的复数形式”作主语时,谓语动词一 般用单数。 “more than one+名词单数”和“many a +名词单数”作主 语时,尽管意义上是复数,但谓语用单数。 “one or two+名词复数”作主语时,谓语用复数。但“a/an+ 单数名词+or two”作主语时,谓语用单数。 1) One or two soldiers _____(have) been killed in the battle. 2) A soldier or two _______(have) been killed in the battle. 定语从句中的谓语动词要与先行词保持一致。 但如果在 “one of+先行词+定语从句”结构中,若 one 被 the very, the only 修饰时,定语从句的谓语用单数,没有则用复数。 1) I, who _____(be)your good friend, will share your joys and sorrow. 2) Mary is one of the students who ___(be)late this morning. 3) Mary is the only students who _______(be) invited. what 引导的名词性从句作主语,谓语一般用单数,但若表 语是复数,谓语动词用复数;when and where…用单数; when…and where…用复数。 1) What I want to say _________(refer) to all of you. 2) What I bought _______ three English books. 3) When and where to hold the meeting _______ not been decided. 4) When he was born and where he grew up ______ still unknown. the number of 和 a number of 作主语的情况。 such, the following 起指示代词作用时, 应根据所指内容来确

定谓语的单复数。 1) Such ______his words. 2) The following ______a good example. 七、语法错题回放 1. Mary, ________here — everybody else, stay where you are . A. come B. comes C. to come D. coming 2. We forget to bring our tickets, but please let us enter, _______? A. do you B. can we C. will you D. shall we 3. They have a good knowledge of English but little _____ they know about German. A. have B. did C. had D. do 4. Please do me a favor —_______my friend Mr. Smith to Youth Theater at 7:30 tonight. A. to invite B. inviting C. invite D. invited 5. You and I could hardly work together, ______? A. could you B. couldn’t C. couldn’t we D. could we 6. Either you or one of your students _____to attend the meeting that is due tomorrow. A. are B. is C. have D. be 7. Professor James will give us a lecture on the western culture , but when and where _____yet. A. hasn’t been decided B. haven’t decided C. isn’t being decided D aren’t decided 8. The company had about 20 notebook computers but only one-third _____used regularly. Now we have 60 working all day long. A. is B. are C. was D. were 9. _____by keeping down costs will Power Data hold its advantage over other companies. A. Only B. Just C. Still D. Yet 10. It was announced that only when the fire was under control _____to return to their homes. A. the residents would be permitted B. had the residents been permitted C. would the residents be permitted D. the residents had been permitted 11. I don’t mind her criticizing me, but ____is how she does it that I object to .
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A. it B that C. this D. which 12. —I reminded you not to forget the appointment. —______. A. So you did B. So I do not C. So did you D. So do I 13. Your uncle seems to be a good driver; ____, I wouldn’t dare to travel in his car. A. even so B. even though C. therefore D. so 14. _____is the power of TV that it can make a person suddenly famous. A. Such B. This C. That D. So 15. In the dark forests, _____some large enough to hold several English towns. A. stand many lakes B. lie many lakes C. many lakes lie D. many lakes stand 16. For a moment nothing happened. Then _____all shouting together. A. voices had come B. came voices C. voices would come D. did voices come 17. —Who should be responsible for the accident? —The boss, not the workers. They just carried out the order ______. A. as told B. as are told C. as telling D. as they told 18. I’m sure you’d rather she went to school by bus, _____? A. hadn’t you B. wouldn’t you C. aren’t I D. didn’t she 19. ____a certain doubt among the people as to the practical value of the project. A. It has B. They have C It remains D. There remains 20. Most of what has been said about the Smiths ____ also true of the Johnsons. A. are B. is C. being D. to be 21. That was really a splendid evening . It’s years ____I enjoyed myself so much. A. when B. that C. before D. since 22. _____that Marie was able to set up new branches elsewhere. A. So successful her business was B. So successful was her business C. So her business was successful D. So was her successful business

23. Sarah had her washing machine repaired the day before yesterday, _____she? A. had B. did C. hadn’t D. didn’t 24. _____, Carolina couldn’t get the door open. A. Try as she might B. As she might try C . She might as try D. Might she as try 25. _____about wild plants that they decided to make a trip to Madagascar for further research. A. So curious the couple was B. So curious were the couple C. How curious the couple were D. The couple was such curious 26. Mary and I see each other____, but not as often as we used to . A. sooner or later B. once in a while C. in the end D. more or less 27. So sudden _____that the enemy had no time to escape. A. did the attack B. the attack did C. was the attack D. the attack was 28. —Where did you get to know her ? —It was on the farm _____we worked. A. that B. there c. which C. where 29. Engines are to machines _____hearts are to animals. A. as B. that C. what D. which 30. With more forests being destroyed , huge quantities of good earth _____each year. A. is washing away B. is being washed away C. are washing away D. are being washed away 31. Unsatisfied _____with the payment , he took the job just to get some work experience. A. though was he B. though he was C. he was though D. was he though 32. —Do you have any idea what Paul does all day ? —As I know, he spends at least as much time playing as he___. A. writes B. does writing C. is writing D. does write 33. I’ve tried very hard to improve my English. But by no means ____with my progress. A. the teacher is not satisfied B. is the teacher not satisfied C. the teacher is satisfied D. is the teacher satisfied

34. ____and I’ll get the work finished. A. Have one more hour B. One more hour C. Given one more hour D. If I have one more hour 35. _____, he talks a lot about his favorite singers after class. A. A quiet student as he may be B. Quiet student as he may be C. Be a quiet student as he may D. Quiet as he may be a student 36. Never before _____in greater need of modern public transport than it is today. A. has this city been B. this city has been . C. was this city D. this city was 37. It’s beyond description .Nowhere else in the world ___such a quiet ,beautiful place. A. can there be B. you can findC. there can beD. can find you 38. Only by following this method _____. A. we can study English well B. can we be able to study English well C. can we study English well D. study English well can we 39. Not until _____his sunglasses _____him. A. he took off; did I recognize B. did he take off; I recognized C. he took off; I recognized D. did he take off ;did I recognize 40. It was not until dark ______he found _____he thought was the correct way to solve the problem. A. that ,what B. that ,that C. when ,what D. when ,that 41. She didn’t have enough money____ a present for her husband . A. with which to buy B. with that she bought C. which she could buy D. with buying 42. — If____, some terrible diseases would spread in the stricken-areas after the terrible earthquake in Sichuan province. —So people there in ___need of medical teams. A. don’t controlled ,short B. not controlling little C. not being controlled ,anxious D. not controlled ,desperate 43. ____makes some people appear astonishingly youthful while others seems much older than their actual age? A. what it is B. what is it that C. what it is that D.why it is what 44. ______seems to be a possibility that we shall be able to afford
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the car we need, A. it B. that C. there D. this Was it ___you came to the countryside that you knew __a happy life the farmers were living? A. until ,how B. not until that C. not until what D. when that We went to that movie a few weeks ago. Never before ____to that movie. A. have we gone B. had we gone C. did we go D. would we go In no case ___leave your position at present. A. you are able to B. will you be able to C. are you able to D. you will be able to —______matters to do the job well ____what you are or where you come from? —Neither. It depends on whether you put your heart into it. A. which is it that B. what it is that C. which it is that D. what it is which In the dark forest ____ many lakes, some of ____ large enough to hold several English towns. A. lie ,which B. lying ,which C. lie them D. standing them I still remember how many years ago ___I last met her in the countryside. A. when it was B. was it that C. when was it D. it was that As a matter of fact, Saudi Arabi’s oil reserves ____ those of Kuwait. A. come second following B. come second with C. are only second to D. are second only to ____either he or you going with me when the play ___here? A. Is ,is put on B.I s ,is put up C. Are ,is put on D. Are ,put up — The education system rather than the teachers ____ to answer for the overburden on the middle school students. —I agree, I hope the reform being carried out in our country at present will bring about the _____results. A. are; desired B. are; desiring C. is; desired D is; desiring If parents never expect their children to be helpful at home, they are sure_____ A. not B. not to C. not to be D. not to be that It was lack of money ,not of effort, ____ defeated their plan. A. which B. as C. that D. what


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