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过去分词作状语


非谓语动词:过去分词
过去分词(短语)作状语
过去分词表示完成或被动,作状语时,表示动作发生的背景或者情况,在意义上相当于一个 状语从句,其省略的主语(逻辑主语)是主句的主语,且与主语之间存在被动关系。过去分 词作状语可以表示时间、条件、方式、原因、让步等。过去分词的否定式是将 not 放在其前 面。

一、过去分词作状语时的具体用法:

r />1) 过去分词作时间状语时,相当于一个时间状语从句。有时过去分词前可加连词 when 或 while 来强调时间概念. 例:1. Asked (When he was asked) what had happened, his face turned red. 当他被问及发生了什么的时候,他的脸红了。 2. When heated (When it is heated), water changes into steam. 当加热时,水变成水蒸气。 3.Told that his mother was ill(When he was told that his mother was illl), Li Lei hurried home quickly. 李蕾得知母亲生病了时,马上赶回了家。 4. Seen from the moon(When it is seen from the moon) , the earth looks green. 从月亮上看

时,地球是绿色。

2)

过去分词作原因状语时,相当于一个由 as, since, because 等词引导的原因状语从句。

例:1. Deeply (Because they were) moved by the movie, the children began to cry.

由于被电影深深地感动,孩子们哭了起来。
2. Frightened (Because she was frightened) by the horror movie, the girl didn't dare to sleep alone. 因为被惊悚电影吓坏了,这个女孩不敢单独睡觉。 3. Caught in a heavy rain (Because he was caught in a...), he was all wet. 4.

Satisfied with

what he did (Because the teacher was satisfied with...), the teacher

praised him in class. 由于老师对他所做的事情很满意,于是在班上表扬了他。

3)

过去分词作条件状语时,通常放在句子的前面,相当于 if, unless 等引导的条件状语从 句。
United, we stand; divided, we fall.

例:1. Compared

with you (If we are compared) , we still have a long way to go.

和你们比起来,我们还有很长的一段路要走。 2. Grown (If these seeds are grown) in rich soil, these seeds can grow fast. 如果种在肥沃的土壤里,这些种子能长得很快。 3. Given more time (If we were given more time), we would be able to do the work much better. 4. Given a few minutes (If I am given a few minutes), I’ll finish it. 再给几分钟的时间,我就

会完成了

4)

过去分词作让步状语时,相当于一个以 though / although 引导的让步状语从句,这类分 词或分词短语一般放在句子前面。

例:1. Left (Although he was left) at home, John didn't feel afraid at all. 虽然 John 被单独留在房间里, 他一点都不害怕。 2. Invited by him (Though I was invited by them) , I won’t take part in the party. 即使被邀请,我也不会参加聚会的。 3. Explained a hundred times (Although he was explained...) , he still can’t understand it. 即 使给他解释一百篇,她还是不会明白。 4. Trained ten hours a day (Though he was trained...), he will still be a fool. 即使每天训练

十个小时,他也还会是个傻瓜。

5)

过去分词作状语表方式或伴随状语时不用状语从句替换,但可以改写成并列句。

例:1.She walked out of the house, (and she was) followed by her little daughter. 她走出房子,后面跟着她小女儿。 2. (She was)

Dressed in white, (and) she looked really pretty.

穿着白衣服,她看起来确实很美。 3. She sat by the window, (and she was

) lost in thought.

United, we stand; divided, we fall.

二、过去分词与现在分词作状语的区别:
1) 过去分词表完成、被动,与主句的主语之间是被动关系;现在分词表进行、主动,与 主句的主语之间是主动关系。试比较: Following the old man, we went upstairs. 跟着那个老人, 我们上了楼。 = We followed the old man, and we went upstairs.

Followed by the old man, we went upstairs. 我们上了楼, 后面跟着那个老人。 = We were followed by the old man, and we went upstairs.

Seen from the top, the stadium looks like a bird nest. 从上面看,体育场好像一个鸟巢。 Seeing from space, the astronaut can not discover the Great Wall. 从太空看,宇航员看不到长城。

2)

若分词主语与句中主语不一致,则可以用其他方法来修正。

①用 with 的复合结构等. ②改为相应的状语从句来表达。 ③给分词添加自己的主语,构成独立主格结构 ④改变语态。 例如:完成作业后,孩子们出去踢足球了。 Finished their homework, the children went out to play football. Their homework finished, the children went out to play football. (×) (独立主格)

Having finished their homework, the children went out to play football. (现在分词完成形式) With their homework finished(表时间), the children went out to play football. (with 的复合结构) After finishing their homework, the children went out to play football. 例如:当他过马路时,一辆车撞到了他。 误:Crossing the road, a car knocked him down. 误:Crossed the road, he was knocked down by a car. 正:Crossing the road, he was knocked down by a car. 过马路时他被车撞倒了。 正:When he was crossing the road, a car knocked him down. 他过马路时车子把他撞倒了。 (介词+动名词)

United, we stand; divided, we fall.

※注意:分词的独立主格结构的由来 解决状语分词的逻辑主语与句子主语不一致的问题,也可在分词前加一个名词或代词,使 之成为分词的逻辑主语。由于加在分词前的名词或代词要用主格形式, 例:He crossing the road, a car knocked him down. The job finished, we went home. 工作结束后我们就回家了。 The weather being fine, we went swimming. 天气很好,我们就去游泳了。 He being absent, nothing couldn’t be done. 由于他缺席,什么事也干不成。 误:Barking madly,I led the dog out. 正:The dog barking madly, I led it out. 正:Barking madly,the dog was let out by me. 正:Becuase the dog was barkling madly, I led it out. 正:With the dog barking madly, I led it out. 三、有些过去分词因源于系表结构,已经被形容词化。故作状语时不表被动而表主动,表 示人的状态。 get lost; be dressed in; be lost in(沉溺于); be born; be tired of (厌烦); be seated; be tired from be compared with be worried about(表状态)

be interested in; be moved by; be disappointed at; be surprised at

四、选择现在分词还是过去分词,关键看主句的主语。如分词的动作是主句的主语发出, 分词就选用现在分词,反之就用过去分词。 Used for a long time, the book looks old. Looking at her, he jumped with joy. Using the book, I find it useful. Looked at by her, he jumped with joy.

五、正如第四点所说,不论是动词不定式作状语、-ing 分词做状语,还是动词的过去分词作 状语,其逻辑主语必须是句子的主语。但是,有一些非谓语动词短语已经游离出来,成为 单独的短语,在句子中作状语。如: (1) exactly / honestly / frankly / generally speaking, 准确地说不过去/ 老实地说 / 坦率地
United, we stand; divided, we fall.

说 / 一般说来。 例:1. Exactly speaking, he got here at eight fourteen this morning. 准确地说,今天早晨他是十 八点十四分来到这里的。 2. Generally speaking, a snake won’t attack a man unless it is bothered. 一般说来,蛇是不 会攻击人的除非你冒犯了它。 (2) judging from / by... 从 / 根据某东西判断 例:1. Judging by his accent, he is from Hunan. 从他的口音来判断,他是湖南人。 2. Judging from what he said, he is very honest. 从他所说的话来判断,它是很诚实的。 (3) providing / provided …假如 / 如果 例:1. Providing he follows our advice, we can help him. 要是他按我们的建议去做,我们就能 帮助他。 2. Provided he is free, he is sure to come. 如果他有空,他肯定会来。 (4) considering... 考虑到 例:1. Considering he was just a little boy, we didn’t punish him. 考虑到他还只是一个小孩,我 们就没有惩罚他了。 2. Considering it was late, we didn’t discuss the question. 考虑到时间不早了,我们就没有 讨论这个问题了。 (5) thinking of... 想到 / 考虑到 例: Thinking of the environment we live in, the waste can’t be thrown away around directly. 考虑 到我们所生存的环境,废物不能直接到处乱扔。 (6) talking of... 谈到 / 说到 例:Talking of math, he became excited. 谈到数学,他就兴奋起来了。 此外,还有短语:taking...into consideration 把某事考虑进去;calculating roughly, 粗略 地计算;supposing... 假定;to tell you the truth 实话告诉你;to be frank 坦白地说;to begin with 首先要做的是; to speak 可以这么说; so taken as a whole 从整体上来看; frankly, 坦 put 率地说;given that 鉴于等。

United, we stand; divided, we fall.

Ilearn 过去分词:作状语练习
Multiple Choices (Given a lever, anyone can move the earth with it. )
1. ____ into English, the sentence was found to have an entirely different word order. A.Translating B. Translated C. To translate D. Having translated 2. ____ the right kind of training, these teenage soccer players may one day grow into international stars. A. Giving B. Having given C. To give D. Given 3. ____ an important role in a new movie, Andy has got a chance to become famous. A. Offer B. Offering C. Offered D. To offer 4. ____ twice, the postman refused to deliver our letters unless we chained our dog. A. Being bitten B. Bitten C. Having bitten D. To be bitten 5. ____ from the top of the tower, the south foot of the mountain is a sea of trees. A. Seen B. Seeing C. Having seen D. To see 6. ____ time, he’ll make a first-class tennis player. A. Having given B. To given C. Giving

D. Given

7. The island, ____ to the mainland by a bridge, is easy to go to. A. joining B. to join C. joined D. having joined 8. ____ from this point of view, the question will be of great importance. A. Considering B. Consider C. To consider D. Considered 9. When ____ through the book, I came across an interesting picture. A. look B. looking C. looked D. being looked 10. ____ that film, I am afraid I cannot say anything about it. A. Not having seen B. Having seen C. Having been seen

D. Not seen

United, we stand; divided, we fall.


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