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过去分词(好)


Grammar
The Past Participle

过去分词

过去分词是非谓语动词的一种 形式,表示完成和被动的动作。它 在句子中可以充当状语、定语、表 语和宾语补足语等成分。

Past participle
一. 形式与含义
若是及物动词(vt )则表示被动;动作已经 完成(

即先于谓语动词)

若是不及物动词(vi)则只表示完成。
如:a broken glass=a glass which has been broken a fallen leaf=a leaf which has fallen (down)
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二.过去分词的作用:

Past participle can be used as adverbial , attribute , predicative &object complement.

1. 过去分词做定语:
表示分词动作与所修饰的名词之间存在被动 关系。单一的过去分词做定语一般放在被修饰 的名词之前;过去分词短语做定语放在被修饰 的名词之后,过去分词及过去分词短语做定语 均可以转换为一个定语从句。 a broken heart 一颗破碎的心 已经升起的太阳 the risen sun a lost dog 丧家之犬 people addicted to drugs a school built for orphans

过去分词作定语有前置和后置两种情况: 1).前置定语
单个的过去分词作定语, 通常放在被 修饰的名词之前, 表示被动和完成意 义。

A.被动意义:

an honored guest 一位受尊敬的客人 The injured workers (受伤的工人)are now being taken good care of in the hospital.
B.完成意义

a retired teacher 一位退休的教师 They are cleaning the fallen leaves (落 叶) in the yard.

2).后置定语

过去分词短语作定语时, 通常放在被 修饰的名词之后, 它的作用相当于一个 定语从句。 This will be the best novel of its kind ever written. = that has ever been written Who were the so-called guests invited (= who had been invited) to your party last night?
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注意:
如果被修饰的词是由every/some/any/no + thing/body/one所构成的复合代词或指示代词 those等时,即使一个单一的分词作形容词用, 也要放在被修饰词的后面。 例如: Is there anything unsolved? There is nothing changed here since I left this town. Nothing reported ( in the newspaper) interested him.

过去分词及过去分词短语做定语均可以转换为 一个含被动语态的定语从句。
破损的窗户很快就会被换掉。 The broken window ______________________will be replaced soon. = The window which was broken will be replaced soon. 昨天买的书确实不错。 The booksbought yesterday _______________are of high quality. = the books which were bought yesterday are of high quality.

完成下面句子:注意现分,过分, 不定式 的区别

Polluted 1.______________(污染的)air and water are harmful to people’s health.
discussed 2. The problem ________________(讨论的) yesterday was very difficult to solve. being discussed 3.The problem ________________(正在讨论 的)now is very important . to be discussed 4.The problem ________________(将讨论的) is very important.

5.I know the young man sleeping on the bench. (在进行) = I know the young man who is sleeping on the bench. 6.The letter mailed last night will reach him tomorrow. (已完成) = The letter which was mailed last night will reach him tomorrow.

Summary: 不定时表示未发生或强调具体的动作。 V-ing表示正在发生的动作。

过去分词表示完成、被动的动作。

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过去分词作定语时,所表示的动作在谓语所 表示的动作之前发生.

The letter posted yesterday will soon reach him. They found a damaged car at the gate of the park. A letter posted today will reach him the
day after tomorrow.
今天发出的信后天就能收到。

过去分词短语有时亦可用作非限制性定
语,前后常有逗号。

Some of them, born and brought up in
country villages, had never seen a train.
他们当中有一些人, 生长在农村,从未见过
火车。

考点点拨
1.The Olympic Games,___ in 776 B.C. did not include women players until 1912. A. first played B. to be first played C. first playing D. to be first playing
①过去分词做定语与其修饰词之间是动宾关系 且过去分词表示的动作已完成。

②现在分词作定语表示动作正在发生,与修饰 词是主谓关系。
③不定式作定语表示将要发生的动作。 first played in 776B.C. = which was first played in 776 B.C.

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1).过去分词与现在分词作状语的异同
过去分词表完成 、被动,与主句主语之间 是被动关系;现在分词表进行、主动,与主句主 语之间是主动关系。如果一个被动的动作发 生在谓语动词之前,则可使用现在分词的完成 被动式或过去分词。

2).过去分词作时间状语
1. When it is heated, ice will be changed into water. When heated, ice will be changed into water.

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2. When it is seen under a microscope,

a fresh snowflake has a delicate sixpointed.
Seen under a microscope, a fresh

snowflake has a delicate six-pointed

shape.

3).过去分词作原因状语
1. Since/ As she was given advice by the famous detective, the young lady was no longer afraid. Given advice by the famous detective, the young lady was no longer afraid.
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2. Because it was done in a hurry, his
homework was full of mistakes. Done in a hurry _________________ , his homework was full of mistakes.

4)过去分词作条件状语
1. If they had been given more attention, the cabbages could have grown better.
Given more attention ___________________, the cabbages

could have grown better.

2. If I am compared with you, we still

have a long way to go.
Compared with you _________________, we still have a

long way to go.

5).作方式或伴随情况状语
1. The hunter left his house, followed by his dog. The hunter left his house, and he was followed by his dog.

2. She sat by the window, lost in thought.

She sat by the window, and she was
lost in thought.

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Summary
1) 过去分词在句子中可以作时间状语、 原因状语、伴随状语、条件状语和

让步状语等。
2) 过去分词作状语时,过去分词的逻辑

主语与句子主语有动宾关系。

过去分词作状语:
过去分词有两大特点: 1. 表示被动的动作; 2. 表示已经完成的动作。

因此,当过去分词作状语的时候一定要记
清楚过去分词与主语的关系是被动,

例如:

Rewrite with proper conjunctions
Example:
1. United we stand, divided we fail. If we are united, we will stand, but if we are divided, we will fail.

2. Asked what had happened, he told us about it. →When he was asked what had happened, he told us about it. 3. Well known for his expert advice, he received many invitations to give lectures. →Because he was well known for his expert advice, he received many invitations to give lectures.
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4. Given more time, we would be able to do the work much better. If we were given more time, we would be able to do the work much better. 5. Once translated into Chinese, the book became very popular among Chinese teenagers. Once it was translated into Chinese, the book became very popular among Chinese teenagers.

6. Deeply interested in medicine, she decided to become a doctor. Because she was deeply interested in medicine, she decided to become a doctor. 7. Left alone at home, Sam did not feel afraid at all. Although he was left alone at home, Sam did not feel afraid at all.

用过去分词作状语来改写句子。
1. As I was worried about the journey, I was unsettled for the first few days.

→ Worried about the journey , I was _______________________
unsettled for the first few days.

2. If he is given time, he’ll make a firstclass tennis player. → Given time , he’ll make a first-class _________ tennis player. 3) As I was confused by the new surroundings, I was hit by the lack of fresh air. → ______________________________, I Confused by the new surroundings was hit by the lack of fresh air.
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4) When he was questioned by the

police about the fire, he became tense.
→ __________________________ Questioned by the police ______, he became tense. about

the fire

Compare
1. Following the old man, we went
upstairs.—we followed

(跟着那个老人, 我们上去了)
2. Followed by the old man, we went upstairs. (we were) (被那个老人跟着, 我们上去了)

3. 从上面看,体育场好像一个鸟巢。 ____ from the top, the stadium looks like a bird nest. A. Seeing B. Seen 4. 从太空看, 宇航员看不到长城。 ____ from the space, the astronaut can not discover the Great Wall. A. Seeing B. Seen
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Difference between the Present Participle and the Past Participle Used _____for a long time, the book looks old. 由于用了很长时间,这本书看上去很旧. Using ______ the book, I find it useful. 在使用的过程中,我发现这本书很有用. Looking ________ at her, he jumped with joy. Looked _______at by her, he jumped with joy.

注意:分词在句子中作状语时,选择 现在分词还是过去分词,关键看主句 的主语。如分词的动作是主句的主语 发出,就选用现在分词,如果是被动 关系就用过去分词。

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另外,当分词作状语时,如果其逻辑
主语与整个句子的主语不一致时,需要 用独立主格结构或 with 复合结构来 替代。(此时,也可把该分词看成介词 的宾语补足语。)

表示时间 The meeting being over, all of us went home. 开完会后我们都回家了。 Her work done, she sat down for a cup of tea. 她干完了活,坐下来喝茶。 表示条件 The condition being favourable, he may succeed. 若条件有利,他或许能成功。 Weather permitting(=If weather permits), they will go on an outing to the beach tomorrow. 如果天气允许的话,他们将在明天 组织一次海滨小游。

There being nothing else to do, we went home. 没有别的事可做,我们就回家了。 表示原因 There being no taxis, we had to walk. 没有 出租车,我们只好步行。 It being a holiday, all the shops were shut. 由于 今天是假日,所有商店都关门了。 作伴随状语 He was lying on the grass,his hands crossed under his head(=and his hands were crossed under his head).他躺在草地上,两手交叉枕 在脑后。
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Filling in the blanks.
1. I like reading the novels written (write ) ______ by Zhang Ailing. 2. The girl ______ (write) a letter in the writing study is my cousin. 3.There is something wrong with my car and I have to get it repaired (repair). _______

4. I want the doors of my new house ______ painted (paint) white. 5. There was a surprised (surprise) look ________ on his face. 6. He was excited (excite) at the good ______ news. 7. The story was so moving (move) that ______ he was moved (move) to tears. ______

3.过去分词作表语:
过去分词做表语,表示主语的状态,且该状态 通常是由外界因素引起的。这时过去分词可以被 看作一个形容词,是形容词化的过去分词,所以 多半可以在其前加very。例如: 我对郭敬明写的小说很感兴趣。 I’m interested in reading novels written by GuoJingming 当他听到他在比赛中赢得第一名时很兴奋。

excited He became ________ when he heard he had won the first place in the competition.

过去分词作表语时要注意: 1. 及物动词的过去分词作表语,与句子主语是被动 关系,表示主语的状态,既表示被动,又表示完 成。
(1) The cup is broken. 茶杯破了。

2. 不及物动词的过去分词作表语,与句子主语是主 动关系,表示主语的状态,只表示动作的完成。 (2) He is retired. 他已退休。 3. 有些过去分词作表语时,构成的谓语很接近被动 结构。 (3) The city is surrounded on three sides by
mountains. 这座城市三面环山。

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【注意】过去分词作表语与被动语态的区别:过去分 词作表语,主要是表示主语的状态,而被动语态 则表示动作。 (1) The cup was broken by my little sister yesterday. 茶杯是昨天我小妹打碎的。(是被动语态,表 示动作) (2) The cup is broken .(表示杯子破了的状态。) (3) The library is now closed. 图书馆关门了。(过 去分词作表语)

常见作表语的过去分词有: disappointed, drunk, amused, frightened, married, excited, experienced, interested, confused, pleased, puzzled, satisfied, tired, worried等。

The window is broken. 窗户碎了。 Don’t get so excited. 别这么激动。

4. 过去分词作宾语补足语
(一)能够接过去分词作宾补的动词有以下三 类: 1. 表示感觉或心理状态的动词。如:see, watch, observe, look at, hear, listen to, feel, notice, think等。 (1) I heard the song sung in English. 我听 到有人用英语唱过这首歌。(过去分词sung 的动作显然先于谓语动作heard;) (2) He found his hometown greatly changed. 他发现他的家乡变化很大。(过去分词 changed的动作显然先于谓语动作found)

2. 表 示 “ 致 使 ” 意 义 的 动 词 。 如 : have, make, get, keep, leave等。 (1) I’ll have my hair cut tomorrow. 明天我 要理发。 (2) He got his tooth pulled out yesterday. 他昨天把牙拔了。 (3) Don’t leave those things undone. 要把 那些事情做完。 【注意】过去分词所表示的动作一定和宾语 有逻辑上的动宾关系。

(二)使役动词have接过去分词作宾补有两 种情况。 1. 过去分词所表示的动作由他人完成。 (1) He had his money stolen.他的钱给 偷了。(被别人偷去了) 2. 过去分词所表示的动作由句中的主语所 经历。如: (2) He had his leg broken.他的腿断了。 (自己的经历)
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5.“with +宾语+过去分词”结构 “with +宾语+过去分词”结构中,过去分词用作介 词 with的宾语补足语。这一结构通常在句中作时间、 方式、条件、原因等状语。例如: (1) The murderer was brought in, with his hands tied behind his back. 凶手被带进来了,他的双手被 绑在背后。(表方式) (2) With water heated, we can see the steam. 水一 被加热,我们就会看到水蒸气。(表条件) (3) With the matter settled, we all went home. 事情 得到解决,我们都回家了。(表原因) (4) She stood in front of him, with her eyes fixed on his face. 她站在他面前,眼睛注视着他。 (5) He stood for an instant with his hand still raised. 他仍然举着手站了一会儿。

1.你认识那个穿着红衣服的妇女吗? 2.舒服地坐在椅子上,他在沉思。 3.对于昨天发生的事故,我很震惊。 4.给予更多的关心的话,这些树会长得 更好。 5.他作了自我介绍,以便使自己被大家 认识。

1.Do you know the woman dressed in red? 2.He sat on the chair comfortably, lost in thought. 3.I am amazed at the accident happened yesterday. 4.Given more care, these tress will grow even better. 5.He introduced himself so as to make himself known to all of us.

6.昨天,我把衣服让人洗了。 7.上周一,我看到你兄弟被一个陌生 人打了。 8.将书合上背诵这篇课文。 9.我提高了声音以便使自己被听见。 10.如果被问及,你不要说我在家里。

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6.I had my clothes washed yesterday. 7.I saw your brother beaten by a stranger last Monday. 8.I recited this text with my text closed. 9.I raised my voice so as to make myself heard. 10.If asked about me, you don’t say I am in/at home.

11.你参加了昨天举行的会议吗? 12.从日本引进的这些种子已经坏了。 13.我想把这封信寄出去。 14.女工人将头发扎在后面来上班。 15.我们没有足够的食物吃的日子一去部 复返了。

11.Did you attend the meeting held yesterday? 12.These seeds brought in from Japan got bad. 13.I would like to have this letter posted. 14.The woman came to work with her hair tired behind. 15.The days are gone when we didn’t have enough food to eat.

16.我们必须适应改变了的形式。 17.用所给的动词写出两个句子。 18.他们在看足球比赛,兴奋而又满意。 19.他说爬山很累。但是我一点也不累。 20.即使在森林里迷路了,他也不担心。

16.We must adapt to the changed form. 17.Write two sentences with the given verbs. 18.They were watching football match, excited and satisfied. 19.He said that climbing was quite tiring but I was not tired at all. 20.Even lost in the forest, he was not worried about it at all.

连词加分词作状语:连词when和while 后可接现 在分词,而when , once , if , though ,although , even if \ though, unless , than , as 等可接过去分词.
Eg: 1)When\ while crossing the road , you should be careful .

2) When heated , water can change into steam.
3) Once printed , the book is very popular . 4) Even if invited , I won’t attend the party . 过去分词的固定结构: compared with \ to ; lost in thought …


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