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非谓语动词用法归纳(语法)


非谓语动词用法归纳 主动 概括;抽象;一般 3. having done 有先后动作表完成(一般用在句首) 5. to do 用在要求动词后;目的;将来;具体 在句中) 一,表格的用法 1. doing 的用法 (1)在要求动词后(作宾语) :avoid 避免 appreciate 感激/欣赏 acknowledge 承认/自认 admit 承认 advocate 提倡/主张 consider 考虑 can't help 不禁 can't stand 受不了 contemplate 细想 complete 完成 confess 坦白 dislike 不喜欢,讨厌 deserve 值得 delay 延迟 deny 否认 dread 可怕 defer 拖延 detest 嫌恶 enjoy 享有/喜爱 envy 嫉妒 endure 忍受 excuse 借口 escape 逃跑/逃避 finish 完成 forgive 原谅 fancy 幻想/爱好 favor 造成/偏爱 figure 描绘/ 计算 hate 讨厌 imagine 设想 involve 卷入/包含 keep 保持 miss 错过 mention 说到/讲到 mind 介意 pardon 原谅/饶 恕 permit 允许 postpone 推迟 practice 实行/实践 prevent 阻止 quit 放弃停止 risk 冒险 recall 回想 resist 抵抗/阻止 resume 恢复 repent 悔悟 resent 怨恨 stand 坚持/忍受 suggest 建议 save 营救/储蓄 tolerate 忍受 worth 值得 You should try to avoid making mistakes. The book is worth reading. The book deserves reading. (2)表进行 Walking on the grassland, I saw a snake.=When I was walking on the grassland, I saw a snake. The man speaking English is Tom. = The man who is speaking English is Tom. (3)表主动 The man speaking English is Tom = The man who speaks English is Tom. = The man who spoke English is Tom. Nobody dinks boiling water but boiled water.= Nobody dinks water that is boiling but the water that has boiled. (4)表伴随 I stand outside waiting for Mr. Chen. I lie in bed reading a novel. (5)表性质;特点 The film is very moving. She is understanding, so you had better discuss your business with her. (6)概括性,一般性 Climbing mountain is very interesting. Driving a car during the rush hour is tiring.在高峰时刻开车令人厌烦.(概括性,一般性) Our work is serving the people. (7)动名词的逻辑主语为;①人称代词的所有格+动名词;②名词's+动名词.例如: Tom insisted on my going with them.他坚持要我和他们一起去. He dislikes his wife's working late.他不喜欢他妻子工作得很晚. 2. being done 表示正在进行的被动 The boy being criticized by Mr. Chen is Tom. = The boy who is being criticized by Mr. Chen is Tom.
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被动 4. having been done 用于句首;要求动词后(有过去 时间或过去动作) 6. to be done 将来的被动 8. to have been done 用在要求动词后(有过去时间或 过去动作) 9. done 被动;完成(一般或普遍时间)

1. doing 用在要求动词后;进行;伴随;性质;特点; 2. being done 正在进行的被动

7. to have done 在要求动词后表完成的动作(一般用

Being criticized by Mr. Chen, the boy felt sad. = When the boy was being criticized by Mr. Chen, he felt sad. The building being built will be the tallest one in this city. = The building that is being built will be the tallest one in this city. 3. having done 有先后动作表完成(一般用在句首) Having finished the class, I went home. = After I had finished the class, I went home. Having done the work, I had a short rest. = After I had done the work, I had a short rest. Having done the work, I went back home. Having been done, the work was checked by the leaders. 4. having been done 用于句首;有先后动作表完成有先后动作表完成,(有过去时间或过去动作) I appreciate having been given the opportunity to study abroad two years ago. (要求动词后) =I appreciate that I was given the opportunity to study abroad two years ago. Having been given the opportunity to study abroad two years ago, I still appreciate your help then. = Because I was given the opportunity to study abroad two years ago, I still appreciate your help then I appreciate having been given the opportunity to study abroad two years ago. I enjoy giving the opportunity to study abroad to Mr. Wang. I appreciate being given the opportunity to study abroad now. Having been finished, the report was turned in.= After the report had been finished, it was turned in. 5. to do 的用法: (1)用在要求动词后: 接 to do 的动词(作宾语) attempt 企图 afford 负担得起 arrange 安排 appear 似乎,显得 ask 问 agree 同意 believe 认为,相信 begin 开 始 beg 请求 bother 扰乱/烦恼 care 关心,喜欢 choose 选择 claim 要求 consent 同意,赞同 contrive 设法,图谋 demand 要求 destine 注定 determine 决定 dread 害怕 desire 愿望 decide 决定 enable 能够 expect 期望 endeavor 努力 fail 不能 hate 憎恨/厌恶 happen 碰巧 hesitate 犹豫 hope 希望 intend 想要 incline 有…倾向 long 渴望 love 爱 learn 学习 mean 意欲,打算 manage 设法 neglect 忽视 need 需要 omit 忽略,漏 offer 提供 pretend 假装 plan 计划 prefer 喜欢/宁愿 prepare 准备 profess 表明 promise 承诺/允许 propose 提议 refuse 拒绝 swear 宣誓 start 开 始 seek 找/寻觅 try 试图 undertake 承接 volunteer 志愿 vow 起 wish 希望 want 想要 (2)表示具体动作,特别是表示将来的动作(做表语). Our work is to serve the people. The person to do the job is Tom. = The person who will do the job is Tom. To do two things at a time is to do neither.一次做两件事等于未做. What I would suggest is to start work at once.我的建议是立刻开始干. 如果主语是不定式(表示条件) ,表语也是不定式(表示结果) . To see is to believe.百闻不如一见. To work means to earn a living.工作就是为了生活. 如果主语是以 aim,duty,hope,idea,happiness,job,plan,problem,purpose, thing,wish 等为中心的 名词,或以 what 引导的名词性从句,不定式作表语是对主语起补充说明作用. His wish is to buy a luxurious car in the near future.他的希望是在不远的将来买一辆豪华轿车. The function of Louis Sullivan's architecture was to provide large uninterrupted floor areas and to allow ample light
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into the interior. The most important thing is to negotiate with them about the future of the plant. 省 to 的动词不定式 1) 情态动词 ( 除 ought 外,ought to): 2) 使役动词 let, have, make;在被动语态中则 to 不能省掉. The boss made them work the whole night. = They were made to work the whole night. 3) 感官动词 see, watch, look at, notice , observe, hear, listen to, smell, feel, find 等后作宾补,省略 to.在被动 语态中则 to 不能省掉. I saw him dance. = he was seen to dance. 注:感官动词还可以接现在分词,表示一个(短暂)动作正在进行;不定式则表示动作的整个过程. I saw him dance.(整个跳舞的过程) I saw him dancing.(我看见他时,他正在跳舞.强调动作正在发生) A cook will be immediately fired if he is found ________ in the kitchen. A. smoke B. smoking C. to smoke D. smoked find sb. doing sth 意为"发现某人正在做某事". 4) 表示个人意愿或倾向的 would rather,had better,might(just) as well:rather than 置于句首时. Rather than ride on a crowded bus, he always prefers to ride a bike. If you are planning to spend your money having fun this week, better ________ it—you've got some big bills coming. A. forget 5) why… / why not… 6) help 可带 to,也可不带 to, help sb (to) do sth: 7) but 和 except:but 前是动词 do 时,后面出现的动词用不带 to 的动词不定式;是其他动词时,则要带 to. He wants to do nothing but go out. He wants to believe anything but to take the medicine. 8)不定式做表语时,一般要带 to,但若主语部分中含有 do 的各种形式时,符号 to 可省去. We've missed the last bus. All we could do now is walk home. 9) 通常在 discover, imagine, suppose, think, understand 等词后,可以省去 to be: He is supposed (to be) nice. 他应该是个好人. 10)当两个或多个不定时短语由连词 and,but 或 or 连接时,后一个或几个不定式符号 to 常省略.但若表示 对比,对照关系时,则不能省略. He wants to move to France and marry the girl. The purpose of new technologies is to make life easier, not to make it more difficult. 6. to be done 将来的被动 The work to be finished tomorrow is important.= The work that will be finished tomorrow is important. = The work that is to be done is difficult to finish. 7.to have done 在要求动词后表完成的动作(一般用在句中) Mr. Chen is said to have done the job. = Mr. Chen is said that he did the job. Chinese men' basketball team is reported to have accepted a good training before the Olympic Games. = Chinese men' basketball team is reported that they accepted a good training before the Olympic Games. 8. to have been done 用在要求动词后(有过去时间或过去动作) The job is said to have been done by Mr. Chen. = The job is said that it was done by Mr. Chen.
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B. forgot

C. forgetting

D. to forget

9. done 被动;完成(一般或普遍时间) Seen from the moon, the earth looks like a blue ball.= When it is seen from the moon, the earth looks like a blue ball. The work done is important.= The work that has been done is important = The work that was done is important People cannot but feel puzzled,for they simply cannot understand how he could have made such a stupid mistake. 二,出题形式 1.空格在句首: (1)句子分前后两部分,后面分句的主语能发出前面的动作,前面空格用主动,否则用被动; (2)be interested in; be faced with; be devoted to; be delighted with; be addicted to; be seated on; be dressed in; (be) used/accustomed to; be armed with; be involved in; be concerned about/with; be attached to; 等在句首只能用--ed 形 式 Faced with so many difficulties, I work hard every day. Devoted to my work; I care nothing else. 2.空格在句中: (1)空格前面的名词能发出后面的动作,空格用主动,否则用被动 (2)要求动词(后接 doing 的动词;后接 to do 的动词) (3)有些动词后使用动名词和动词不定式作宾语的差别 forget to do 忘记要去做某事(此事未做)forget doing 忘记做过某事(此事已做过或已发生) stop to do 停止,中断(某件事) ,目的是去做另一件事 regret to do 对要做的事遗憾 try to do 努力,企图做某事 stop doing 停止正在或经常做的事 remember to do 记住去做某事(未做)remember doing 记得做过某事(已做) regret doing 对做过的事遗憾,后悔 try doing 试验,试一试某种办法

mean to do 打算,有意要… mean doing 意味着 go on to do 继而(去做另外一件事情) go on doing 继续(原先没有做完的事情) propose to do 打算(要做某事)proposing doing 建议(做某事) like /love/hate/ prefer +to do 表示具体行为;+doing sth 表示抽象,倾向概念 It is + no use, no good (fun, a great pleasure, a waste of time, a bore...)等名词+doing sth. It is no use crying.哭没有用.It is no good objecting.反对也没有用. It is a great fun playing football.打篮球很有趣.It is a waste of time trying to explain.设法解释是浪费时间. It is + useless (nice, good,interesting, expensive 等形容词)+ doing sth. It is useless speaking.光说没用. 3.空格在句尾: (1)物 + need, want, deserve, demand, require + doing( = to be done ) The blackboard needs cleaning. = The blackboard needs to be cleaned. (2)参考使役动词 make; let; get; have 的用法 Sb(1) makes sb(2) do 前面的人让/叫/使后面的人做某事 Mr. Chen makes us do English exercise. Sb(1) makes sb(2) doing 前面的人让/叫/使后面的人一直做某事(有前提条件,表示抱怨或发牢骚) Mr. Chen is too strict on our English study and he always makes us doing English exercise. Sb(2) is made to do 某人被让/叫/使去做某事 We are made to do English exercise. Sb makes oneself / one's point done 某人让/叫/使自己或自己的话/观点让别人听懂
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It is nice seeing you again.真高兴又遇到了你.

It is good Playing chess after supper.晚饭后弈棋挺好.It is expensive running this car.开这种小车是浪费.

Mr. Chen speaks English slowly in order to make himself understood in the class. Sb makes sth done 某人把/让/叫/使某事给别人做 I have my hair cut. Sb has done sth 某人已经做完了某事 I have cut my hair. (3)不及物动词构成的不定式做定语,要加上适当的介词和被修饰的名词形成逻辑上的动宾关系,这里的介词 不能省去. I need a pen to write with.我需要一支笔写字. There is nothing to worry about.没有什么值得发愁的. I find a house to live in. I get a chair to sit on. 三,独立主谓结构: 和以上所有句子只有一个逻辑主语不同,独立主谓结构有两个不同的主语. Weather permitting, we go out to have a picnic.= If the weather permits, we go out to have a picnic. Work done, I had a rest. = After the work had been done, I had a rest. Class being over, I went home. = Because the class was over, I went home. Kate being ill, I came to replace her position. = Because Kate was ill, I came to replace her position. Time ________, I'll go on a picnic with you this Sunday. A. permits 更多例子: ①All things considered, he is a fairly good teacher of English. ②Spring having come, the trees begin to turn green. ③There being no pen, I had to write the letter with a pencil. ④We had to stay indoors instead of playing outside, it raining very hard. (注意: 不要把后半部分写成一个句子: was raining very hard.在这种情况下, it 前后句之间就必须加上连词 and. ) ⑤Breakfast over, my father went to his office. ⑥The summer vacation being over, John returned to school from his hometown. B. to permit C. permitted D. permitting

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