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珍贵资料--高中英语语法总结归纳--历年高考真题常考点详细归纳讲解与练习6--句子结构和成分


句子结构及成分
① 相关概念
1. 词性的英文缩写 英语中一些单词是及物还是不及物,可能与汉语不同。 He listens to the music every day. (listen 为不及物动词, 而汉语中“听”是及物动词。)

在英语学习中,掌握单词词性非常重要。如果 我们在记单词的时只记拼写、读音而不记词性的话, 我们就不知道如何

使用它们,所以我们在记单词时 指出下列句中斜体动词是及物动词还是不及物动词, 及物动词填 vt.,不及物填 vi.。 一定要把单词词性记准记牢。 缩写字母 n. v. vt. vi. modal v. aux. v. adj. adv. num. interj. pron. prep. art. conj 原词 noun verb transitive verb intransitive verb modal verb auxiliary verb adjective adverb numeral interjection pronoun preposition article conjunction 代表词性 名词 动词 及物动词 不及物动词 情态动词 助动词 形容词 副词 数词 感叹词 代词 介词 冠词 连词 考点1. 考点2. 考点3. 考点4.

The baby stopped crying when he saw his mother. (vt) She spoke at the meeting this morning. (vi) Shall I begin at once?(vi) She began working as a teacher after she left school.(vt) (vt)

3. 实义动词、助动词与情态动词 实义动词和助动词是根据动词在句子中的含义 和作用来划分的。实义动词也叫行为动词。 实义动词 指的是那些意义完全且能够独立作谓语的动词。 如: He lives quite near. (live“住”,有明确的意义,单独 作谓语,为实义动词。) I like reading. (like “喜欢”,意思明确,单独作谓 语,为实义动词。 ) I bought a pen yesterday. (bought “买”,意义明确, 单独作谓语,为实义动词。 )

2. 及物动词和不及物动词

实义动词后面跟宾语时,这个动词是及物动词。 实义动词后面不跟宾语时,此时这个动词是不及物 动词。 The door opened. 助动词 (open 后面没跟宾语,此时,open 是不及物动词。) He opened the door. 助动词的“助”是“帮助”之意。因此,助动词是 (open 后面有宾语 the door, 此时, open 是及物动词。 ) 指那些用来帮助构成时态、语态、虚拟语气、疑问 句、否定句、倒装句和帮助强调的词。这些词本身 注意:英语中一个动词是及物动词还是不及物动词, 无词汇意义或意义不完全,不能单独作谓语。 关键是看它用在句中时后面是否跟宾语。 有些动词既可作及物动词又可作不及物动词,词义相 同。 如: The meeting began at six. < vi.> We began the meeting at six. < vt.> 有些动词既可作及物动词又可作不及物动词,但词义 不同。 如: The man walked away. (walk 不及物动词,意为“走”) He walked the dog every day. ( walk 及物动词,“遛”) She washes clothes at home. (wash 及物动词,“洗”) The clothes washes well. (wash 不及物动词,“耐洗”) 帮助构成时态的: The boy is crying.(is 用来帮助构成现在进行时,和 crying 一起作谓语,是助动词。) He has arrived. (has 用来帮助构成现在完成时,和 arrived 一起作谓语,是助动词。) I have been painting all day. (have been 用来帮助构成 现在完成进行时,和 painting 一起作谓语,都是助动 词。 ) 帮助构成否定句和疑问句的: Does he like English? (does 帮助构成一般疑问句,没有 具体意义,是助动词。) He doesn’t have lunch at home. (does 只是帮助构成否定 句,没有具体意义,是助动词。)

帮助构成被动语态的 Trees are planted in spring. (are 帮助构成被动语态,没 有具体意义,是助动词。) The house has been pulled down. (has been 帮助构成时 态和语态,是助动词。) 帮助构成虚拟语气 If he had come yesterday, I wouldn’t have made such a mistake.(had, have 帮助构成虚拟语气, 是助动词, 属于 谓语的一部分。) 帮助构成倒装句的 So did he love his mother that he bought her many presents on her birthday. (他如此爱他的母亲以至于他母亲生日那一天,他给她 买了许多礼物。did 只是帮助构成倒装句,没有具体意 义,是助动词。) 帮助构成强调意义的 He did come yesterday. (他昨天确实来过。did 起强调作 用,没有具体意义,是助动词。) 因此可以看出,常见的助动词为 do, be, have,它们 为基本助动词。 一个词既可以作实义动词也可以作助动词,具体是 哪一种,主要看它们在句中的功能。 He did his homework at seven o’clock.(did 单独作谓语, 意为“做”,是实义动词。) Did he do his homework yesterday? (did 是助动词,帮助 构成一般疑问句,do 是实义动词,意为“做”,是实义 动词。) He has had breakfast. (has 是助动词,帮助构成现在完 成时,had 是实义动词,意为“吃”。has had 一起构成 了句子的谓语。) 情态动词 情态动词同助动词一样,不能单独作谓语,要 和实义动词一起作谓语。因此,情态动词也称为情 态助动词。情态动词同基本助动词的区别在于,基 本助动词本身无意义,而情态动词有自己的意义。 如: He can swim across the river.(can 的词义为“能够”) You must stay at home. (must 词义为“必须”) I might leave tomorrow.(might 的词义为“或许” ) 4. 谓语和非谓语 在英语中,一个主谓结构中只能有一个谓语,再 出现动词时,要变成非谓语形式,即:在前面加 to 构 成动词不定式,或在后面加-ing 构成动名词或现在分 词,或在后面加-ed 构成过去分词。也就是说,非谓 语是指:动词不定式、动名词、现在分词和过去分词。 先找出句中的谓语,然后改正句中的错误,并说明原 因。 考点1. Getting up early is good for our health.

早起有利于我们的身体健康。 考点2. 考点3. 考点4. 考点5. 考点6. 考点7. I want to go home now. 我现在想回家。 My favorite sport is playing football. 我最喜爱的运动是踢足球。 There is a bird sings in the tree. 有一只鸟正在树上唱歌。 The boy sits over there likes singing. 坐在那边的那个男孩喜欢唱歌。 The house was built last year has been sold out. 去年建的那座房子已经出售了。 The girls are singing over there are my classmates. 在那边唱歌的那些女孩是我的同学。 My parents wanted him work hard. 我父母亲想让他努力学习。 I remember saw him that day. 我记得那天看见过他。 我看到他跑进那座建筑物。 5. 主动关系和被动关系 先看下面两个题: 1. ______ wonderful, this kind of food enjoyed a good sale. A. Tasted B. Being tasted C. Tasting D. Having tasted 2. The food ______ delicious sells well. A. smells B. smelled C. smelling D. is smelling 一些同学分别选 A 和 B。他们说,食物是被品尝、 被闻的, 和食物构成被动关系, 所以要用过去分词。 这种说法是错误的。 非谓语中的主动关系和被动关系,不是从谁做了这 个动作着眼, 而是从恢复成一句话后是 “主动语态” 还是“被动语态”着眼。 主动关系: 从逻辑关系上看,相当于主动语态。如: The boy crying over there is Tom.(在那边哭的那个男孩) 从逻 辑上讲,the boy…cry, 男孩哭,相当于主动语态,是 主动关系。 被动关系: 从逻辑关系上看,相当于被动语态。如:The house built last year is the strongest.(去年建的那座房子) 从逻辑上讲, the house was built,房子被建, 相当于被 动语态,是被动关系。 在上两题中, 逻辑关系可以表达为: This kind of food tasted wonderful. The food smells delicious. 逻辑上 food 和 taste、smell 是一种主谓关系,是主动语态, 因此填现在分词。

考点8. 考点9.

考点10. I saw him walked into the building.

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因此,上两题的答案为 C 和 C。 6. 逻辑上的主谓关系 在判断是否是宾语补足语时,一般说,“宾语和 宾语补足语构成逻辑上的主谓关系”。一些同学对这 句话不理解。如: He asked me to lend him some money.他让我借给他 一些钱。 “me”是宾语,“me to lend him some money”意为 “我借给他一些钱” 。从意思上看,这像一句话, “我” 是主语, “借给他一些钱”是谓语部分,但在英语原句 中,它们却不是真正的主谓关系。因此可以说“逻辑 上的主谓关系” ,是指,从意思上看像主谓关系,而实 际上不是。“to lend him some money”是宾语补足语。 well。 “us”是“to learn English well”的逻辑主语,二 者 构 成 了 逻 辑 上 的 主 谓 关 系 。 for somebody to do something 是动词不定式的复合结构。) It’s very kind of you to help me.(of you to help me 也是 动 词 不 定 式 的 复 合 结 构 。 与 for somebody to do something 的区别参看 P. 错误!未定义书签。错误! 未找到引用源。 ,you 和 to help me 构成了逻辑上的主 谓关系。 ) Tom’s coming late made our teacher angry.(Tom 迟到使 我们老师生气。coming 是动名词,Tom’s coming late 是动名词的复合结构。 Tom 是 coming late 的逻辑主语, 二者是逻辑上的主谓关系。) 8. 没有人称和数的变化

先看下列三组句中 have、do 和 be 的变化形式 判断下列句中画线部分是否是宾语补足语。 (是的填 T, I have a book 不是的填 F) He has a book. 写作专练1. I want him to come at once. (T) They have a book. 写作专练2. He lent me some money. (F) I enjoy watching TV. You enjoy watching TV. 写作专练3. He made the boy cry again. ( T ) We enjoy watching TV. 写作专练4. The teacher found him cheating in the exam. He is sleeping. (T) I am sleeping. 写作专练5. Don’t leave the door open at night. (T) They are sleeping. 7. 复合结构 在我们学习语法的过程中, 我们可能会听说 “复 合宾语” 、 “动名词的复合结构”和“动词不定式的 复合结构” 。 实际上,这几个“复合” ,都有“逻辑上的主谓关系” 之意。如: He invited us to come to the party. (us 是宾语,to come to the party 是宾语补足语;宾语和 宾语补足语合在一起称为复合宾语。宾语和宾语补足 语是逻辑上的主谓关系。) It’s important for us to learn English well. (it 是形式主语,真正的主语是 for us to learn English “人称的变化”是指:谓语动词用什么形式,受前 面主语是第几人称的影响。 主语同为单数 (表示一个 人) , be 在第一人称 I 后用 am, 在 you 后用 are, 在 he 后用 is; do 和 have 在一、二人称后用原形,在第 三人称后用为 does, has。 “数”是指“单数和复数” 。 “数的变化”是指谓 语动词用什么形式, 还受前面主语是单数还是复数的 影响。如果主语是复数,be 要用 are 的形式,do 和 have 用原形。如果主语是第三人称单数,be 用 is, do 和 have 要用 does 和 has。 情态动词没有人称和数的变化。如: He / I / We can swim.

② 句子成分
英语的句子成分主要有六种:即主语、谓语、宾 语、定语、状语和补语。 (可以熟记为:主谓宾,定 状补)除了这六种主要成分之外,还有“表语”和“同 位语”的说法。但表语和系动词一起作谓语,因此划 分成分时, 划分在谓语上。 同位语分为主语同位语和 宾语同位语,属于主语或宾语的一部分。 1. 划分句子成分时的常用符号 英语中划分句子成分的符号 主语 谓语 宾语 定语 在下面画直线 在下面画曲线 在下面画双横线 在下面画虚线 (一行点使我们想到一 排钉子,“钉”谐音为“定语”的“定”)

状语 补语 同位语

下面为短横线 (短横线使我们想到短 木桩,木桩撞(状)钟) 上一短横, 下一短横 (下一短横好像是 为了弥补上面短横间的空隙) 上下双曲线, (虽都有曲折,上下位臵 基本相同

He has caught a bad cold. My sister is crying over there. I have been waiting for you all the time. I would stay at home all day. 由系动词加表语构成。系动词不能单独作谓语,要和 表语一起作谓语。如: We are students. Your idea sounds great. 4. 表语 表语多是形容词, 用以说明主语的身份、 特征和 状态,它一般位于系动词(如 be, become, get, look, grow, turn, seem 等)之后。表语一般由名词、代词、 形容词、分词、数词、不定式、动名词、介词短语、 副词及表语从句表示。 画出下列句中的表语,并说明由什么充当。 a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) 5. 宾语 宾语由名词性的词充当, 表示动作的对象或承受 者,一般位于及物动词和介词后面。 宾语分为动词宾语和介词宾语, 分别构成动宾结 构和介词结构。 画出下列句中的宾语, 并说明由什么充当。 They planted many trees yesterday. (How many dictionaries do you have?) I have five. They helped the old with their housework yesterday. I wanted to buy a car. I enjoy listening to popular music. I think(that)he is fit for his office. 6. 宾语补足语 英语中有些及物动词,除有一个直接宾语以外, 还要有一个宾语补语, 才能使句子的意义完整。 宾语 补足语和宾语构成逻辑上的主谓关系。 换句话说, 在 意思上,宾语相当于宾补的主语。 带有宾语补足语的一般句型为:某些及物动词 (如 make 等) +宾语+宾补。 宾补可由名词、 形容词、 副词、不定式、分词、介词短语和从句充当。 Our teacher of English is an American. Is it yours? The weather has turned cold. The speech is exciting. Three times seven is twenty one. His job is to teach English. His hobby(爱好)is playing football. The machine must be under repairs. The truth is that he has never been abroad.

2. 主语 主语是一个句子所叙述的主体,一般位于句首, 通常由名词性的词来充当。 可以作主语的词性或语法结构: 1. 名词 2. 代词 3. 数词 4. 名词化的形容词(如 the rich)5.不定式 6.动名词 7.主语从句等表示。 在下面句子的主语下面画横线,并说出由什么充当。 ① During the 1990s, American country music has become more and more popular. ② We often speak English in class. ③ One-third of the students in this class are girls. ④ To swim in the river is a great pleasure. ⑤ Smoking does harm to the health. ⑥ The rich should help the poor. ⑦ When we are going to have an English test has not been decided. ⑧ It is necessary to master a foreign language. ⑨ That he isn’t at home is not true. 改正下列句中的错误,并说明原因。 (多看下) That He failed the exam is the reason why he dropped out. That why he was late for school was that his mother was ill. Beyond the mountains lie a small village. Gone is the days when I had to go to school on foot. Play basketball is my favorite sport. Give up English is not an option. 正确运用主语的各种形式(P. 错误!未定义书签。) 3. 谓语 谓语由动词充当,说明主语所做的动作或具有 的特征和状态。谓语的构成如下: 简单谓语:由一个动词或动词短语构成。如: He practices running every morning. He reads newspapers every day. 复合谓语: 由情态动词或其他助动词加动词构成。如: You may keep the book for two weeks.

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用下画线画出下列句中的宾语补足语,并指出是什么 词充当,同时体会宾补和宾语之间的逻辑关系。 His father named him Dongming. They painted their boat white. Let the fresh air in. You mustn’t force him to lend his money to you. We saw her entering the room. We found everything in the lab in good order. We will soon make our city what your city is now. I want your homework done on time. 7. 主补 对主语的补充。含有宾语补足语的句子在变成 被动语态,宾语作主语时,原来的宾补就成了主语 补足语。 He was elected monitor. She was found singing in the next room. He was advised to teach the lazy boy a lesson. 8. 定语(重点) 定语是对名词或代词起修饰、限定作用的词、 短语或句子,汉语中常用“……的”表示。定语通 常位于被修饰的成分前。 在英语中,许多情况下,定语是放在所修饰词 后面的,这点与汉语习惯不同,也是许多同学不能 读懂长句的主要原因。 a) 副词用作定语一般要后臵。 People there are very friendly. (那儿的人们) He didn’t like the man downstairs. (楼下的那个 人) b) 形容词短语作定语一般放在所修饰词之后。 单个形容词作定语一般放在所修饰词之前,而形 容词短语作定语一般放在所修饰词之后。 The next man is a scientist. The man next to me is a scientist. (我旁边的那个人) c) 介词短语作定语时要后臵。 The boy under the tree is Tom.(树下的那个男孩) The tallest boy in our class is John. (我们班最高的 那个男孩) d) 现在分词短语、过去分词短语、动词不定式 作定语常后臵。 那座房子) 口头翻译下列句子,用下画线标出定语部分,留意定 语的位臵,并说明定语是由什么词性或结构充当。 ① The letter on the desk is for Mr. Wu. ② The woman with a baby in her arms is his mother. ③ We need a place twice larger than this one. ④ She carried a basket full of eggs. ⑤ It’s a book worth no more than one dollar. ⑥ It’s a city far from the coast. ⑦ He has money enough to buy a car. ⑧ The man downstairs was trying to sleep. ⑨ There are lots of places of interest needing repairing in our city. ⑩ Tigers belonging to meat-eating animals feed on meat. ? A boy calling himself John wanted to see you. ? He picked up a wallet lying on the ground on the way back home. ? There are many clothes to be washed. ? Most of the singers invited to the party were from America. ? Then the great day came when he was to march past the palace in the team. 用活形容词短语作后臵定语(P. 错误!未定义书签。 ) 9. 状语 修饰动词、形容词、 副词或整个句子, 说明动作 或状态特征的句子成分,叫作状语。 He writes carefully. He walks slowly. (认真地写,慢慢地走,修饰动词用副词,作状语) This material is environmentally friendly. (修饰形容词用副词,作状语) He runs very slowly. (修饰副词 slowly, 因此 very 是副词,作状语) Unfortunately, he lost all of his money. (修饰整个句子用副词,作状语) 几个并列状语的先后顺序:方式→地点→时间 一个句中有几个并列状语时,其顺序较灵活, 但一般是:方式→地点→时间。如: He worked hard at his lessons last year. I found a lost pen outside our school yesterday morning. He was walking slowly outside the park at that moment.

I have something to say. (直译:我有要说的话) The boy crying over there is my classmate. (在那边 哭的那个男孩) The house built last year is impressive.(去年建的

IV. She put the eggs into the basket with great care. V. She came in with a dictionary in her hand. 正确安排并列状语的顺序(P. 错误!未定义书签。 ) 频度副词 often, always, usually, sometimes, never 等在 句中的位臵 位于情态动词、系动词、 助动词之后, 实义动词之前。 You can never tell what he will do. He is often late. He is always helping others. He often came late. VI. In order to catch up with the others, I must work harder. VII.To make his dream come true, Tom becomes very interested in business. VIII. The boy needs a pen very much. IX. The boy really needs a pen. 10. He was so tired that he fell asleep immediately. 11. She works very hard though she is old. 12. I am taller than he is. 13. I shall go there if it doesn’t rain. 14. On Sundays, there is no student in the classroom. 15. Having to finish his homework, the boy needs a pen. 10. 同位语 注意频度副词的位臵(P. 错误!未定义书签。 ) 状语按意义分类 在句子成分中,主语、谓语、宾语、定语、表 语、补语都比较好辨认,如果这几个成分都不是, 那很可能就是状语了。因此,状语的种类很多,可 以表示时间、地点、原因、目的、结果、程度、条 件、方式和让步等。 指出下列画线部分属于什么状语。 I. How about meeting again at six? II. Mr. Smith lives on the third floor. III. Last night she didn’t go to the dance party because of the rain. 同位语是在名词或代词之后并列名词或代词 对前者加以说明的成分,近乎于后臵定语。如: We students should study hard. / (students 是 we 的同 位语,都是指同一批“学生” ) It’s good to us students. 选择正确答案,并口头说出句中那个是同位语。 The young man, ______,works in the office. A. me brother B. my brother C. my brothers D. me Our English teacher, ______, often helps us with study. A. Mrs. Wang B. Mrs. Wangs C. Mrs. Wang’s. D. of him ______, some railway workers, are busy repairing the train. A. Them B. He C. They D. Theirs

③ 简单句的五种基本结构
英语句子的基本结构可以归纳成五种基本句型 及其扩大、组合、省略或倒装。掌握这五种基本句 型,是掌握各种英语句子结构的基础。 英语五种基本句型结构如下: ① ② ③ ④ ⑤ S S S S S V V V V V (主+谓) O (主+谓+宾) o O (主+谓+间宾+直宾) O C (主+谓+宾+宾补) P (主+系+表) 谓语(predicate) 定语(attribute) 补语(complement)

主语 谓语

主语(subject) 宾语(object) 状语 (adverbial) 表语(predicative)

基本句型一:S V (主+谓) 用符号表示为: 这类句子的谓语动词都是不及物动词, 都不带宾 语,但可以带状语。如:

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It is raining now. (S V) We’ve worked for 5 hours. (S V) The meeting lasted half an hour. (S V) Time flies. (S V) 分析下列句子成分,并在后面括号内标明属于五种基 本句型中的哪一种。 1. Dark clouds hung overhead. ( 3. He is smiling all over his face. ( 4. I did well in English. ( ) ) ) ) ) 2. Gradually a smile appeared on her face. ( The food stays fresh in the fridge. 食物在冰箱里仍然很新鲜。 The house stood empty for years.房子空了数年。 He lies awake in bed.他躺在床上,醒着。 表“像”系动词 用来表示“看起来像”这一概念,主要有seem, appear, look。如: Something seems wrong. 好像出差错了。 He appears young. 他看起来很年轻。 感官系动词 感官系动词主要有look “看起来” , feel “摸起来” , smell “闻起来”, sound“听起来”, taste“尝起来” 。 This kind of cloth feels very soft. 这种布手感很软。 This flower smells very sweet. 这朵花闻起来很香。 变化系动词 这些系动词表示主语变成什么样。变化系动词主要有 become, grow, turn, fall, get, go, come, run。 He became mad after that. 自那之后,他疯了。 She grew rich within a short time. 她没多长时间就富了。 He fell ill yesterday.他昨天病了。 Eggs go bad easily in summer. 蛋夏天容易变坏。 His face went red.他的脸变红了。 What he had dreamt of came true. 他的梦想实现了。 Still waters run deep.静水流深。 终止系动词 表示主语已终止动作,主要有prove, turn out, 表达“证 实” , “变成”之意。如: The rumor proved false. 这谣言证实有假。 His plan turned out a success. 他的计划终于成功了。 (turn out表终止性结果) What he predicted turned out (to be) wrong. 他预言的结果是错的。 用下画线画出下列句中的系动词。 1. His advice proved right. 2. The shop stays open till 8 o’clock. 3. The machine went wrong. 4. All these efforts seem in vain. 常见的系动词 状态系动词 用来表示主语状态,只有be一词。如: He is a teacher. 他是一名教师。 持续系动词 用来表示主语继续或保持一种状况或态度,主要有 keep, remain, stay, lie, stand。如: He kept silent at the meeting. 他开会时保持沉默。 This matter remains a mystery. 此事仍是一个谜。 5. These words sound reasonable. 6. The room soon became crowded. 7. The days are getting longer and longer. 8. He fell ill yesterday. 9. Trees turn green in spring. 10. What you said sounds great. 系动词不能单独作谓语,要和表语一起作谓语 He is a student. (S V P)

5. He talked loudly in the classroom yesterday. ( 基本句型二: S V P (主+系+表)

系动词主要是 be,但还有一些动词有些时候也 可作系动词,有人称之为半系动词。 如何辨别系动词 有些动词既可作连系动词,又可以作实义动 词。 如何来辨别呢?有一个最简便的方法,即用 连系动词be替换句子中的这些动词, 句子仍然成立就 是连系动词;反之,不能替换的,就是行为动词。 如: ① She looks beautiful. (looks变为is之后,她是美丽 的,句意没有大的变化,looks是系动词。) Look at the picture.(look不能换为be, look为实义动 词。) ② He felt the book with his right hand.(feel是“摸”的意 思,不能换为was, 是实义动词。) The silk feels soft.(这种丝绸摸起来很柔软,feels 换为is之后,句意变化不大,因此是系动词。) 辨别下列斜体动词是系动词还是实义动词。 ① The door stays open at night. ② He tasted the food, and the food tasted delicious. ③ The book still lies open on the desk. ④ What he said proved true. ⑤ He can’t proved his theory(理论).

Your idea sounds great. (S V P) 在一个英语单句中,一般情况要有谓语动词 要注意: 介词短语和形容词不能单独作谓语, 要 和系动词一起作谓语。 改错: ①Our school very beautiful and we like it very much. ②Your book on the desk. 答案及解析: Our school is very beautiful and we like it very much. (句中没有谓语动词) Your book is on the desk.(句中没有谓语动词)

(需借助 to 的)allow, bring, deny, give, grant, hand, leave, lend, offer, owe, pass, pay, permit, promise, read, refuse, sell, send, show, teach, tell, wish, write 等。 (需借助 for 的) buy, choose, fetch, get, make, order, paint, play(演奏), save, sing, spare 等。 一般用 to 多些,用 for 的记住常用的三个就行:get, buy, make。 He sent me an English-Chinese Dictionary. = He sent an English-Chinese Dictionary to me. She bought John a book. = She bought a book for John. 分析下列句子成分,口头说出间接宾语和直接宾语。 She ordered herself a new dress. She cooked her husband a delicious meal. He brought you a dictionary. He denies her nothing. I showed him my pictures.

不要忘了使用系动词(P. 错误!未定义书签。 ) 基本句型三: S V O (主+谓+宾) 此结构是由“主语+及物动词(词组)+宾语”构 成。如: She likes English. We planted a lot of trees on the farm yesterday. 用下画线画出下列句中的宾语。 练习1. People all over the world speak English. 练习2. Jim cannot dress himself. 练习3. All of us believe that Jack is an honest boy. 练习4. He did not know what to say. 练习5. He just wanted to stay at home. 练习6. He practices speaking English every day. 基本句型四: S V o O (主+谓+间宾 +直宾) 有些及物动词可以有两个宾语,如:give“给” , pass“递” ,bring“带” ,show“显示” 。这两个宾语 通常一个指人, 为间接宾语; 一个指物, 为直接宾语。 间接宾语一般位于直接宾语之前。 一般的顺序为:动词 + 间接宾语 + 直接宾语。 如:He gave me a cup of tea. (S V o O) 强调间接宾语顺序为: 动词 + 直接宾语 + 介词 + 间接宾语。如: Show this house to Mr. Smith. 若直接宾语为人称代词:动词 + 代词直接宾语 + 介词 + 间接宾语。如: Bring it to me, please. (不能说 Bring me it, please.) 常跟双宾语的及物动词有:

I gave my car a wash. I told him that the bus was late. He showed me how to run the machine.

用活双宾语句式(P. 错误!未定义书签。 ) 基本句型五:SVOC (主+谓+宾+宾补) 此句型的句子特点是:动词虽然是及物动词, 但是只跟一个宾语还不能表达完整的意思,必须加 上一个补充成分来补足宾语,才能使意思完整。 宾语补足语:位于宾语之后对宾语做出说明的 成分。 (答疑 qq 329950885)宾语与其补足语有逻辑上 的主谓关系,它们一起构成复合宾语。 The war made him a soldier.(SVOC“他成为一个 士兵” ,构成逻辑上的主谓关系) New methods make the job easy. (SVOC) I often find him at work. (SVOC) The teacher asked the students to close the windows. (SVOC) I saw a cat running across the road. 分析下列句子并划分成分,在后面的括号内标明是什 么充当句子的宾语补足语。 1. They appointed him manager. ( 2. They painted the door green. ( 3. He pushed the door open. ( 4. They found the house deserted. ( ) ) ) )

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5. What makes him think so? ( ) 6. We saw him out. ( ) 7. He asked me to come back soon. ( ) 8. I saw them getting on the bus. ( ) 9. We all think it a pity that she didn’t come here. ( ) 10. I’ll have my bike repaired. ( ) 11. We elected him monitor. ( ) 12. Don’t keep the lights burning. ( ) there be 句型 C. They had D. There had ______ a beautiful palace ______ the foot of the hill. A. There stand; at B. There stands; under C. Stands there; under D. There stands; at 答案:B, D there be 与 have 的区别 there be … “某地有某物, 某时有某事” ; have 表 示“某人拥有某物” 。

此句型是由“there + be + 主语 + 状语”构成, 改错: 用以表达“存在有” 。它其实是倒装的一种情况,主 There has a book on the desk. 语位于谓语动词 be 之后,there 仅为引导词(也有 There will have a meeting this evening. 看作形式主语的) ,并无实际意义。 答案:①把 has 改为 is; ②把 have 改为 be。 be 与其后的主语在人称和数上一致, 有时态和数的变 提示:没有 there have 这种表示“有”的方法。 化。 双重谓语(仅供了解) 现在时 there is / are … 典型例句: 过去时 there was / were… 将来时 there will be…/there is / are going to be... He left this morning very gay. 完成时 there has / have been… She left a shy girl and returned a young mother. 可能有 there might be... 分析:双重谓语的基本形式是:行为动词+表语,后 肯定有 there must be …/ there must have been... 面的名(答疑 qq 329950885)词或形容词说明主语 过去曾经有 there used to be … 从事该行为时所处的状态。用作双重谓语的动词 似乎有 there seem / seems / seemed to be … 多为那些表示位臵移动变化的行为动词。如: 碰巧有 there happen / happens / happened to be … return,leave, go,come,arrive,start 等。 可 用 live, stand, come, go, lie, remain, exist, arrive 等词代替 be 动词。 此时还表示存在有,但表意要更具体一些。如: There lived an old man at the foot of the mountain. There came a shout for “help”. There exists no air on the moon. There lies a book on the desk. There stands a tree on the hill. ______ a certain doubt among the students as to the necessity of the work. A. It existed B. There existed 句①意为:上午离开时,他很开心。 句②意为:她离开时还是一个害羞的女孩,回来 时却是一位年轻的母亲。

正确运用两个“有”there be 与 have (P. 错误!未定义书签。 )

④ 简单句、并列句和复合句
句子按结构可分为简单句、并列句和复合句。 简单句 只有一个主语 ( 或并列主语 ) 和一个谓语 ( 或并列谓 语)。如: He often reads English in the morning. Tom and Mike are American boys. She likes drawing and often draws pictures for the wall newspapers. 并列句(参看 P. 错误!未定义书签。错误!未找到引 用源。) 由并列连词(and, but, or 等)或分号(;)把两 个或两个以上的简单句连在一起构成。要注意 , 逗 号是不可以连接句子的,这一点和汉语不同。如: (画线部分为并列谓语,只有一个主语,仍为简单 句。)

You help him and he helps you. The future is bright; the road is tortuous. 前途是光明的,道路是曲折的。 表示连接两 个同等概念,常 用 and, not only…but also…, neither…nor…, then 等连接。 The teacher’s name is Smith, and the student’s name is John. He not only stole my money, but he also took my watch away. 表示选择,常用的连词有 or, either…or…, otherwise 等。 Hurry up, or you’ll miss the train. 表示转折,常用的连词有 but, still, however, yet, while, when 等。 He was a little man with thick glasses, but he had a strange way of making his classes lively and interesting. 表示因果关系,常用的连词有 so, for, therefore 等。 August is the time of the year for rice harvest, so every day I work from dawn until dark. 复合句 复合句含有两个或两个以上主谓结构,其中一 个主谓结构作另一个的成分。(而并列句的两个主 谓结构间是并列关系, 而不是从属关系。) 当简单句的一个成分从词或词组变为句子时,整个句 子就成为复合句了。 I. It is wrong. (只有一个主谓结构,是简单句。 ) What he said is wrong. (what he said,是一个主谓结构,he 为主语,said 为谓语,what 是宾语。What he said is wrong. 是 另外一个主谓结构,What he said 作主语,是主语 从句;is wrong 系表结构作谓语。因此,本句是复 合句。 ) II. The boy over there is my brother. (只有一个主谓 结构,是简单句。 ) The boy who is wearing a hat is my brother. (The boy over there is my brother.只有一个主谓 结构, 是简单句。 当 over there 变为 who is wearing a hat 时(也是一个主谓结构) ,整个句子就变成了 复合句,who is wearing a hat 是定语从句。 ) III. I was doing my homework at six. (只有一个 主谓结构,是简单句。 ) I was doing my homework when he came in. (I was doing my homework 是一个主谓结构,he came in 也是一个主谓结构。后面一个主谓结构作 前一个的时间状语,是时间状语从句。因此本句 是复合句。 ) 从上面这几个句子,我们可以看出: 一个句子如果含有从句,如名词性从句(主语从句、 宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句)、定语从句和状 语从句等,这个句子就是复合句。

复合句的从句和主句之间要用连接词连接。 在上面句 1 中,what 是连接词;在句 2 中,关系 代词 who 就是连接词;在句 3 中,when 起连接 作用。 判断下列句子是简单句、并列句还是复合句。 We often study Chinese history on Friday afternoon. The boy who offered me his seat is called Tom. There is a chair in this room, isn’t there? My brother and I go to school at half past seven in the morning and come back home at seven in the evening. He is in Class One and I am in Class Two. He was fond of drawing when he was yet a child. Neither has he changed his mind, nor will he do so. What he said at the meeting is very important, isn’t it? The farmer is showing the boy how to plant a tree. Both Tom and Jack enjoy country music. Right now it is the summer vacation and I’m helping my Dad on the farm. It is the time of year for the rice harvest, so every day I work from dawn until dark. Sometimes we go on working after dark by the lights of our tractors. We grow rice in the south of the States, but in the north where it is colder they grow wheat. Although the farm is large, my Dad has only two men working for him. 引导的是什么从句,不仅要根据连词,还要根据句子 结构和句意来判别 说出下列复合句中,where 引导的是什么从句。 You can find it where you left it.( Tell me the address where he lives.( I don’t know where he comes from.( Where he was born is not known yet.( This place is where they once lived.( ) ) ) ) )

一个句子有两个主谓结构时,要考虑它们之间的连接 问题 一个句子如果出现两个主谓结构, 那它就不是简 单句了,要么是并列句,(答疑 qq 329950885)要 么是复合句。 这时我们就要考虑连接词的问题。 直接 用逗号连接的两个简单句是错误的。 这时, 我们有四 种方法来改正这个错句: 改为并列句:我们可以使用 and, so, but 等并列连词来 把它们连接起来。

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改为复合句:加上从属连词,把其中的一个分句改为 状语从句、定语从句或名词性从句。 改为简单句:把其中的一个主谓结构的谓语破坏掉, 从而使其变成独立主格结构。 (参看 P. 错误!未定义 书签。 ) 改标点: 把逗号改为分号 (根据句意有时也可用冒号、 破折号等) 。 I like English, my English is very good. × I like English and my English is very good. √(并列句) As I like English, my English is very good. √(含有原 因状语从句的复合句) I like English; my English is good. √(用分号) I liking English, my English is very good. √ (把一个分 句改为独立主格结构) I have a house, its windows are very big. × I have a house and its windows are very big. √ (并列句) I have a house, whose windows are very big. √ (含有定 语从句的复合句) I have a house; its windows are big. √ (用分号) I have a house, its windows very big. √ (后面为独立主 格结构) 利用英语句子结构规律做下列各题。 Five people won the “China’s green figure” award, a title ______ to ordinary people for their contributions to environmental protection. A. is given B. was given C. being given D. given All the preparations for the task ______, and we’re ready to start. A. completed B. complete C. had been completed D. have been completed 【2006 辽宁】 I was told that there were about 50 foreign students ______ Chinese in the school, most ______ were from Germany. A. study; of whom B. study; of them C. studying; of them D. studying; of whom Everywhere you can see people in their holiday dress, ______ with smiles. A. their faces are shining B. whose faces shining C. their faces shining D. faces shining whose Many students ______ around, I explained the story into details. A. stood B. standing C. to stand D. were standing I have five friends, some of ______ are businessmen. A. that B. whom C. they D. them I have five friends, but none of ______ are businessmen. A. that B. whom C. they D. them 【2013 上海】________ at the photos, illustrations, title and headings and you can guess what the reading is about. A. To look B. Looking C. Having looked D. Look

高中英语语法通霸 2014 版 答案:

a)
相关概念

句子结构及成分

指出下列句中画线动词是及物动词还是不及物动词,及物动词填 vt.,不及物填 vi.。 1.vi. 2. vt. 3. vi. 4. vi. 5. vt. 6. vi. 7. vi. 8. vt.;vt. 9. vt. 10. vi. 指出下列斜体单词是实义动词还是助动词。 1. 3. 5. 6. 7. 8. 助动词 助动词 助动词 助动词 助动词 助动词 实义动词 2. 助动词 实义动词 实义动词 4. 实义动词 实义动词 助动词 实义动词 助动词 实义动词 实义动词

先找出句中的谓语,然后改正句中的错误,并说明原因。 is 是系动词,属于谓语部分;get up early 在句中作主语,要用成非谓语形式;作主语一般用动名词,因此把 get 变为动名词 getting。 want 在句中作谓语;go home 作宾语,而 want 后面常跟不定式作宾语,因此在 go 前面加 to。 is 是系动词,后面跟表语,把 play 变为 playing 构成动名词来作表语。 is 为谓语动词,sings in the tree 实际上是作 bird 的定语,bird 和 sing 构成主动关系,用现在分词作定语,因 此,把 sings 改为现在分词 singing。 likes 是谓语动词,“坐在那边”作后臵定语,“男孩”和“坐”构成主动关系,因此用现在分词作定语,把 sits 改 为 sitting。 谓语为 has been sold out;“去年建的”作“The house”的定语,两者构成被动关系,用过去分词作后臵定语,因 此,把 was 去掉。 are 是句中的谓语部分,“singing over there”作 the girls 的后臵定语,去掉 are。 wanted 是谓语;work hard 作 wanted 的宾语补足语,want 后面通常跟不定式作宾补,因此在 work 前面加 to。 remember 是谓语;remember 用在“记得以前曾经发生的事”时,后面通常跟动名词作宾语,因此,把 saw 改 为 seeing。 10. saw 是谓语,(答疑 qq 329950885) “走进那座建筑”是作 saw 的宾语补足语;看到某人做了某事,常用 see somebody do something, 因此,把 walked 改为 walk。 判断下列句中画线部分是否是宾语补足语。 1. T 2. F 3. T 4. T 5. T

句子成分 在下面句子的主语下面画横线,并说出由什么充当。 During the 1990s, American country music has become more and more popular.(名词) We often speak English in class.(代词) One-third of the students in this class are girls.(数词)

To swim in the river is a great pleasure.(不定式) Smoking does harm to the health.(动名词) The rich should help the poor.(名词化的形容词) When we are going to have an English test has not been decided.(主语从句) It is necessary to master a foreign language.(it 作形式主语,真正的主语为后面的不定式) That he isn’t at home is not true. (主语从句, that 不能省略) 改正下列句中的错误,并说明原因。 在句首加 that;因为引导主语从句的 that 不能省略。(他考试不及格是他辍学的原因。) 把句首的 that 去掉,因为 why 除去作主句的成分之外,还起着连接作用。 把 lie 改为 lies; 介词短语不能作主语,主语是后面的 a small village。 把 is 改为 are;句子的主语是 the days。 Play 改为 Playing;在这里指经常打篮球,要用动名词作主语。 Give 改为 To give;在做决定时,放弃英语不是一个选择。give up 指具体的某一次。 画出下列句中的表语,并说明由什么充当。 Our teacher of English is an American.(名词) Is it yours?(代词) The weather has turned cold.(形容词) The speech is exciting.(分词/形容词,这样的分词已形容词化了) Three times seven is twenty one.(数词) His job is to teach English.(不定式) His hobby(爱好)is playing football.(动名词) The machine must be under repairs.(介词短语) The truth is that he has never been abroad.(从句) 画出下列句中的宾语, 并说明由什么充当。 They planed many trees yesterday.(名词) (How many dictionaries do you have?) I have five.(数词) They helped the old with their housework yesterday.(名词化形容词) I wanted to buy a car.(不定式短语) I enjoy listening to popular music.(动名词短语) I think(that)he is fit for his office.(宾语从句) 用下画线画出下列句中的宾语补足语,并指出是什么词充当。 His father named him Dongming.(名词) They painted their boat white.(形容词) Let the fresh air in.(副词) You mustn’t force him to lend his money to you.(不定式短语) We saw her entering the room.(现在分词) We found everything in the lab in good order.(介词短语) We will soon make our city what your city is now.(从句) I want your homework done on time.(过去分词短语)

高中英语语法通霸 2014 版 口头翻译下列句子,用下画线标出定语部分,留意定语的位臵,并说明定语是由什么词性或结构充当。 The letter on the desk is for Mr. Wu. 桌子上的那封信是给吴先生的。 (介词短语作后臵定语) The woman with a baby in her arms is his mother . 怀里抱婴儿的那个妇女是他的母亲。 (with 的复合结构作后臵定语) We need a place twice larger than this one. 我们需要一个比这个地方大两倍的地方。 (形容词短语作后臵定语) She carried a basket full of eggs. 她提着一个装满鸡蛋的篮子。 (形容词短语作后臵定语) It’s a book worth no more than one dollar. 那是一本仅值一美元的书。 (形容词短语作后臵定语) It’s a city far from the coast. 它是一座距海岸线很远的城市。 (形容词短语作后臵定语) He has money enough to buy a car. 他有足够能买一辆车的钱。 (形容词短语作后臵定语) The man downstairs was trying to sleep. 楼下的那个人正在尽力睡觉。 (副词作后臵定语) There are lots of places of interest needing repairing in our city. 在我们城市有许多需要维修的名胜。 (现在分词短语作后臵定语) Tigers belonging to meat-eating animals feed on meat. 属于食肉动物的老虎以肉为食。 (现在分词短语作后臵定语) A boy calling himself John wanted to see you. 一个自称为 John 的男孩想见你。 (现在分词短语作后臵定语) He picked up a wallet lying on the ground on the way back home. 在回家的路上,他捡起一个躺在路上的钱包。(现在分词短语作后臵定语) There are many clothes to be washed. 有许多(答疑 qq 329950885)要洗的衣服。意译为:有许多衣服要洗。 (动词不定式短语作后臵定语) Most of the singers invited to the party were from America. 大多数被邀请参加派对的歌手都来自美国。 (过去分词短语作后臵定语) Then the great day came when he was to march past the palace in the team. 接着,他要列队游行经过宫殿的那一天到了。(定语从句修饰 the great day) 指出下列画线部分属于什么状语。 1. 时间状语 4. 方式状语 7. 目的状语 2. 地点状语 3. 原因状语 5. 伴随状语 6. 目的状语 8. 程度状语 9. 程度状语

10. 结果状语 11. 让步状语 12. 比较状语 13. 条件状语 14. 时间状语;地点状语 15. 原因状语 选择正确答案,并说出句中那个是同位语。 1. B 2. A 3. C

简单句的五种基本结构 分析下列句子成分,并在后面括号内标明属于五种基本句型中的哪一种。 Dark clouds hung overhead.(SV) Gradually a smile appeared on her face. (SV)

He is smiling all over his face. (SV) I did well in English. (SV) He talked loudly in the classroom yesterday. (SV) 辨别下列斜体动词是系动词还是实义动词。 1.系动词 2. 实义动词;连系动词 3.连系动词 用下画线画出下列句中的系动词。 His advice proved right. The shop stays open till 8 o’clock. The machine went wrong. All these efforts seem in vain. These words sound reasonable. The room soon became crowded. The days are getting longer and longer. He fell ill yesterday. Trees turn green in spring. What you said sounds great. 用下画线画出下列句中的宾语。 People all over the world speak English. Jim cannot dress himself. All of us believe that Jack is an honest boy. He did not know what to say. He just wanted to stay at home. He practices speaking English every day. 分析下列句子成分,口头说出间接宾语和直接宾语。 1. She ordered herself a new dress. 2. She cooked her husband a delicious meal. 3. He brought you a dictionary. 4. He denies her nothing. 5. I showed him my pictures. 6. I gave my car a wash. 7. I told him that the bus was late. 8. He showed me how to run the machine. 分析下列句子并划分成分,在后面的括号内标明是什么充当句子的宾语补足语。 1. They appointed him manager. (名词) 2. They painted the door green. (形容词) 3. He pushed the door open. (形容词) 4. They found the house deserted. (形容词) 5. What makes him think so? (省略 to 的不定式) 6. We saw him out. (副词) 7. He asked me to come back soon. (动词不定式) 8. I saw them getting on the bus. (现在分词 ) 4. 连系动词 5.实义动词

高中英语语法通霸 2014 版 9. We all think it a pity that she didn’t come here.(名词) 10. I’ll have my bike repaired. (过去分词 ) 11. We elected him monitor. (名词 ) 12. Don’t keep the lights burning. (现在分词) 简单句、并列句和复合句 判断下列句子是简单句、并列句还是复合句。 简单句。 复合句, The boy is called Tom 是一个主谓结构,who offered me his seat 也是一个主谓结构,为定语从句, 作前一个主谓结构中主语 the boy 的定语。 简单句,反义疑问句。 简单句,my brother and I 是并列主语,后面 go to school 和 come back 为并列谓语,因此也只有一个主谓 结构。 并列句。 含有时间状语从句的复合句。 并列句。 复合句,what he said 也是一个主谓结构,名词性从句作主语。 简单句,只有一个主谓结构。 简单句,前面为并列主语。 and 连接的并列句。 由 so 连接的并列句。 简单句。 but 连接前后为并列句,但后(答疑 qq 329950885)面又是一个含有定语从句的复合句。 含有让步状语从句的复合句。 说出下列复合句中,where 引导的是什么从句。 地点状语从句 定语从句 宾语从句 主语从句 表语从句 利用英语句子结构规律做下列各题。 1. D 2. D 3. D 4. C 5. B 6. B 7. D 8. D


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