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独立主格结构(Absolute Structure)是由名词或代词加上分词等构成的一种独立结构, 用于修饰整个句子。独立主格结构中的名词或代词与其后的分词等构成逻辑上的主谓关系。 这种结构与主句不发生句法上的联系,它的位置相当灵活,可置于主句前、主句末或主句 中,常由逗号将其与主句分开。需特别注意的是,独立主格结构与主句之间不能使用任何 连接词。 二、独立

主格结构基本构成形式 名词(代词)+现在分词(过去分词;形容词;副词;不定式;名词;介词短语) 1. 名词(代词)+现在分词 Night enshrouding the earth, nobody could make out what the dark mass was from a distance. 黑夜笼罩大地,谁也看不清远处黑压压的一片是什么东西。 There being no bus, we had to walk home. 由于没有公共汽车,我们只好走回家。 2. 名词(代词)+过去分词 The workers worked still harder, their living conditions greatly improved. 由于工人们的生活条件大大提高,他们工作得更起劲了。 He was listening attentively in class, his eyes fixed on the blackboard. 他上课专心听讲,眼睛紧盯着黑板。 3. 名词(代词)+不定式 在“名词/代词+动词不定式”结构中,动词不定式和它前面的名词或代词如果存在着逻辑上 的主谓关系,动词不定式则用主动的形式;如果是动宾关系,则用被动形式。 The four of us agreed on a division of labor, each to translate a quarter of the book. 我们四人同意分工干,每人翻译全书的四分之一。 Many trees, flowers, and grass to be planted, our newly-built school will look even more beautiful. 种上许多的树、花和草后,我们新建的学校看上去将更美。 4. 名词(代词)+形容词 Computers very small, we can use them widely. 电脑虽小,我们却能广泛地利用它们。 5. 名词(代词)+副词 The meeting over, our headmaster soon left the meeting room. 散会了,校长很快就离开了会议室。 The lights off, we could not go on with the work. 灯熄了,我们不能继续工作了。 6. 名词(代词)+名词 His first shot failure,he fired again. 他第一枪没击中,又打了一枪。 Two hundred people died in the accident, many of them children. 两百人死于事故,其中有许多儿童。 7. 名词(代词) +介词短语
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He lay at full length upon his stomach,his head resting upon his left forearm. 他的脊背朝天,四肢伸展,头枕着左臂,直挺挺地趴伏着。 三、with,without 引导的独立主格结构 with ( without)+宾语(名词/代词)+宾语补足语,宾语通常由名词或代词充当,但代词一定 要用宾格。上文的独立主格结构的几种情况都适用于此结构。 The girl hid her box without anyone knowing where it was. 小女孩把盒子藏了起来,没有人知道它在哪里。(without +名词/代词+动词的-ing 形式) Without a word more spoken, she left the meeting room. 她没再说什么话就离开了会议室。(without+名词/代词+动词的-ed 形式) The kid feels excited with so many places of interest to visit. 有这么多的名胜可参观,小孩很激动。(with+名词/代词+动词不定式) The boy was walking, with his father ahead. 父亲在前,小孩在后走着。(with+名词/代词+副词) He stood at the door, with a computer in his hand. 或 He stood at the door, computer in hand. 他站在门口,手里拿着一部电脑。(with+名词/代词+介词短语) With his son so disappointing, the old man felt unhappy. 由于儿子如此令人失望,老人感到很不快乐。(with+名词/代词+形容词) 在 with (without) 的复合结构中,多数情况下 with 能省略,但 without 不能省略。 四、独立主格结构的句法功能 独立主格结构在句中一般作状语,表示时间、条件、原因、伴随状况等,还可以作定语。 1. 作时间状语 The governor pondering the matter,more strikers gathered across his path. 总督思考问题时,更多的罢工工人聚集在他要通过的路上。 2. 作条件状语 Weather permitting,they will go on an outing to the beach tomorrow. 如果天气允许的话,他们将在明天组织一次海滨郊游。 3. 作原因状语 The boy leading the way, we had no trouble finding the strange cave. 由那个男孩带路,我们很容易就找到了那奇怪的洞。 There being no further business to discuss, we all went home. 没有别的事可讨论,我们都回家了。 4. 作伴随状语或补充说明 Ten students entered for the competition, the youngest a boy of 12. 十个学生报名参加了这次竞赛,年纪最小的是个 12 岁的男孩。 5. 作定语,独立主格结构作定语其功能相当于一个定语从句。 He is the person with a lot of questions to be settled. 他就是有许多问题要解决的那个人。
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五、独立主格结构注意事项 1. 独立主格结构多用于书面语,尤其是描述性语言中,在口语和非正式文体中,一般用从 句或两个句子来代替。独立主格结构的逻辑主语与句子的主语不同,它独立存在,名词或代 词与后面的分词等逻辑上是主谓关系,独立主格结构一般有逗号与主句分开。 The president assassinated, the whole country was in deep sorrow. 总统被谋杀了,举国上下沉浸在悲哀之中。 2. 动词不定式表示动作没有发生或即将发生,动词-ed 形式表示动作已经结束,动词-ing 形 式往往表示动作正在进行。 The manager looks worried,many things to settle. 经理看上去很着急, 有这么多的事情要处理。 (事情还没有处理, 而且是由经理本人来处理, 用不定式 to settle,表示将来的时间) The manager looks relaxed, many things settled. 许多事情已经处理好了,经理看上去很轻松。(事情已经处理好了,用过去分词 settled 表 示动作已经结束) 3. 独立主格结构介词使用的问题 当介词是 in 时,其前后的两个名词均不加任何成分(如物主代词或冠词),也不用复数。 但 with 的复合结构不受此限制。 A robber burst into the room, knife in hand. ( hand 前不能加 his) 劫匪手里拿着刀闯进房间。 当表人体部位的词做逻辑主语时,及物动词用现在分词,不及物动词用过去分词。 He lay there, his teeth set, his hands clenched, his eyes looking straight up. 他躺在那儿,牙关紧闭,双拳紧握,两眼直视上方。 4. 独立主格结构与独立成分的异同 有些分词短语可以独立存在,在句子中没有逻辑上的主语,作为习惯用法。这些短语有: Generally speaking ,Frankly speaking,Judging from,Supposing (假设),等等。 Generally speaking, the rule is very easy to understand. 总的说来,这条规则很容易懂。 Judging from what he said, he must be an honest man. 由他所说的来判断,他一定是一个诚实的人。 有些固定短语是带 to 的不定式,表明说话人的立场或态度,在句中作独立成分。这些短语 有:to be honest,to be sure,to tell you the truth,to cut a long story short,to be frank,to make matters / things worse (更糟糕的是),等等。 To tell you the truth, I made a mistake in the word spelling. 说实话,我犯了一个拼写错误。 To make things worse, many of the men have gone off to cities in search of higher pay, leaving women from nearby villages to carry on with the work. 情况更糟的是, 许多男人都去城市找工资较高的工作, 而留下附近村庄的妇女来继续承担修 复工作。

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5. 独立主格结构与分词短语都可以转换为状语从句。 但是独立主格结构转换为状语从句后, 它有自己的逻辑主语,与主句的主语不一致;而分词短语转换为状语从句后,从句的主语 与主句的主语一致。 If time permits, we'd better have a holiday at weekends. 转换为:Time permitting, we'd better have a holiday at weekends. 如果时间允许,我们最好周末去度假。 When we see from the hilltop, we can find the city more beautiful. 转换为:Seeing from the hilltop, we can find the city more beautiful. 从山顶上看,我们发现这个城市更美了。 还必须注意,分词结构的逻辑主语并不总是和主句的主语一致,也可以是主句的其他成分。 Searching for the thief in the city, it had taken the policemen a long time. 在城市里搜查小偷,花费了警察很长一段时间。( Searching 短语的逻辑主语是主句中的 policemen

独立主格结构练习题 1. I have a lot of books, half of ________ novels. A. which B. that C. whom D. them 2. ________ more and more forests destroyed, many animals are facing the danger of dying out. A. because B. as C. With D. Since 3. The bus was crowded with passengers going home from market, most of ________ carrying heavy bags and baskets full of fruit and vegetables they had bought there. A. them B. who C. whom D. which 4. The largest collection ever found in England was one of about 200,000 silver pennies, all of ________ over 600 years old. A. which B. that C. them D. it 5. The cave ________ very dark, he lit some candles ________ light. A. was; given B. was; to give C. being; given D. being; to give 6. The soldier rushed into the cave, his right hand ________ a gun and his face ________ with sweat. A held; covered B. holding; covering C. holding; covered D. held; covering 7. The girl was smiling sweetly, her long hair _________. A. flowed in the breeze B. was flowing in the breeze C. were flowing in the breeze D. flowing in the breeze 8. The children went home from the grammar school, their lessons _________ for the day. A. finishing B. finished C. had finished D. were finished 9. On Sundays there were a lot of children playing in the park, _________ parents seated together joking. A. their B. whose C. which D. that 10. The Smiths are rich and they have three cars, one a Toyota, ________ Land Rover of the latest. A. another B. other C. the other D. the others
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【答案与解析】DCACD CDBAD 1. D。half of them novels 为独立主格结构,相当于 and half of them are novels。 2. C。考查“with + 名词 + 过去分词”结构。 3. A。most of them carrying...为独立主格结构,相当于 and most of them were carrying...,也可改为:most of whom were carrying。注意改动后连词 and 的使用 和动词 were 的使用。 4. C。all of them over 600 years old 为独立主格结构,相当于 and all of them are over 600 years old。 5. D。第一空填 being,构成独立主格结构;第二空填不定式表目的。 6. C。独立主格结构,his right hand 与 hold 有主谓关系,故用 holding,而 his face 与 cover 是动宾关系,故用 covered. 7. D。her long hair 与 flowing 是主动关系,这是“独立主格结构”作状语。 8. B。 因 lessons 与动词 finish 之间为被动关系, 故要用过去分词。 其实, their lessons finished for the day 为独立主格结构。 9. A。此题容易误选 B,认为这是非限制性定语从句。其实,句中的 their parents seated together joking 不是非限制性定语从句,而是一个独立主格结构, 因为空格后的动词 seated 不是谓语, 而是一个过去分词, 因为 seat 作动词用时, 是及物动词。 10. D。易误选 C。后面部分实际上是独立主格结构形式,省略了 being。补 充完整就是:The Smiths are rich and they have three cars, one being a Toyota, the others being Land Rover of the latest. (两个独立主格结构均表伴随状语)

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