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高中英语定语从句详解


高中英语定语从句详解
◆英语谚语欣赏 1. He who knows nothing but pretends to know everything is indeed a good-for –nothing. 不懂装懂,一事无成. 2. It’s the first step that costs.千里之行,始于足下 3. He that makes himself a sheep shall be eaten by the wolf. 甘当小绵羊,迟早要喂狼. Ⅰ. 概念: (1) 定语从句:在主从复合句中用作定语的从句叫定语从句。定语从句一般紧接在先行词 (antecedent)后面。 (2) 先行词:被定语从句修饰的成份。先行词可以为一个词,短语,或整个主句。 (3) 引导定语从句的词叫关系词,分为关系代词和关系副词。 关系词的作用: 1) 引导定语从句,连接主句和从句,相当于一个连词; 2) 必在从句中作某个句子成份(可以做主语,宾语,表语,定语,状语) 常用的关系代词: that、 which、 who、whom、whose、as 常用的关系副词(在从句中只作状语): when、why、 where The student who answered the question was John. I know the reason why he was so angry. The boy (whom) you are talking to is my brother. I'd like a room whose window looks out over the sea. 定语从句三步: 第一找出先行词; 第二看先行词在定语从句中的语法功能(做主语、宾语或状语) ; 第三选择合适的关系词。 Ⅱ. 几个关系代词的基本用法: ●that: 可指人或物;在定语从句中作主语,宾语,表语。(指人时,相当于 who 或 whom; 指物时,相当于 which)(一般不用于非限制性定语从句; 不可置于介词后作宾语) 如: 1. A letter that/which is written in pencil is difficult to read. (主语) 2. Do you know the gentleman that/who spoke just now? 3. You can take anything ( that) you like. (宾语) 4. What is the question (that/which) they are talking about? 5. Here is the man ( who/whom/that ) you want to see. 6. She's no longer the girl ( that) she used to be before.(表语) 7. Our hometown is no longer the one (that) it used to be. = Our hometown is not the same as it used to be. = Our hometown is different from what it used to be。 = Our hometown is not what it used to be. ●which: 指物;在定语从句中作主语,宾语,表语,定语。如: 1. The book which/that was on the desk was bought by my father.(主语) 2. The book (which/that) I bought yesterday is very interesting.(宾语) 3. The factory in which his father works is far from here. 4. He was proud, which his brother never was. (表语) 5. Tom spent four years in college, during which time he learned French.(定语)

6. He may be late, in which case we ought to wait for him. ●who, whom, whose: who: 主格, 在从句中作主语,在口语或非正式用法中作宾语; 只可指人 whom: 宾格,在从句中作宾语; 只可指人 whose: 属格,在从句中作定语,可指人也可指物。 I like the students who/that work hard. (主语) All who heard the story were amazed. (代词如 he, they, any, those, all, one 等后多用 who.) Chaplin, for whom life had once been very hard, was a success as an actor. (宾语) He's a man from whom we should learn. = He's a man (whom/who/that) we should learn from. A child whose parents are dead is called an orphan.(指人) I'd like a room whose window faces south. (指物) =I'd like a room of which the window faces south. =I'd like a room the window of which faces south. There is a teapot shaped like a Chinese duck, out of whose mouth tea is supposed to come 1. 关系代词 whose, 引导定语从句时, 既可指人, 又可指物, 在从句中只能作定语; of whom 只能指人;of which 只能指物,有时 whose 可以与 of whom 和 of which 互换使用。如: The girl whose hair is golden is from England. 头发金色的那个女孩是英国人。 The house whose doors are green is an office building. 门是绿色的那座房子是办公楼。 2. “介词 + whose +名词” 引导定语从句。如: I love my motherland, for whose good future I will work hard. 我爱我的祖国,为了她美好的未 来我要努力工作。 3. 在下列情况下,一般只用 of whom 和 of which。 (1) 定语从句的主语是 few, little, some, most, many, much 等时,一般只用 of whom 和 of which。 In the room are lots of people, many of whom I don’t know. 房间里有很多人, 很多人我不认识。 He has a lot of story-books, a few of which I have never read. 他有很多故事书,有几本故事书 我还从未看过。 (2) 定语从句的主语是数词、形容词的最高级时,一般只用 of whom 和 of which。如: The old man has three children, two of whom are college students and one of whom is a manager. 那个老人有三个小孩,其中两个是大学生,另一个是经理。 (3) 定语从句的主语是 all, none, both, neither, each 等不定代词时,一般只用 of whom 和 of which。如: There are fifty students in our class, all of whom are working hard. 我们班有五十个学生,所有 这五十个学生学习都刻苦。 He planted two trees last year, both of which are growing well. 去年他栽了两棵树,这两棵树都 长得好。 (4) 在定语从句中作表语的定语时,一般只用 of whom 和 of which。如: He has three brothers, of whom Li Lei is the youngest one. 它有三兄弟, 李蕾是他们中最小的一 个。 There are many countries in Asia, of which China is the largest one. 亚洲有很多国家,中国是最 大的一个。 关系代词作介词宾语: 关系代词在定语从句中用作介词宾语时, 介词可放于从句之首, 也可放于从句之末. 但以放

于句首较为正式.(介词前置,必须注意不影响动词词组的含义。关系代词 who 和 that 用 作介词宾语时, 介词必须放在句末.) 关系代词前介词选择三原则:一先,二动,三意义(重中之重) 1.一先,即根据定语从句中介词与先行词的搭配关系选择。 I never forget the day on which I came to this school. (on the day) 2. 二动,即根据定语从句中谓语动词与介词的搭配关系选择。 This is the iPad on which I spent 3000 yuan. (spend money on sth.) 3. 三意义,即根据定语从句的意义来确定介词。 This is my pair of glasses, without which I cannot see clearly. This is the book for which you asked. =This is the book (that/which) you asked for. Do you know the person with whom I shook hands?= Do you know the person (whom/who/that) I shook hands with? The beginning of agriculture was a big step in human progress with which nothing could compare until our information age. In the dark street, there wasn't a single person to whom she could turn for help. Is this the factory to which you paid a visit last week? Is this factory the one to which you paid a visit last week? This is the girl whom they are looking after. (介词 after 与 look 构成固定词组,不可前置。look at, look for, look after, take care of, hear of\about\from, care for, look forward, pay attention to, listen to 等) ●as 的用法:(as 引导定语从句, 在定语从句中作主语、宾语、表语) ①如为限制性的,多用于 the same …as ; the same as;such …as …; as many/much as;so … as 等结构中。如: ※I have the same book as you (have). 我有一本和你的一样的书。 Her attitude to him was quite the same as it had always been. (关系代词 as 和指示代词 same 连 用, 在从句中用作表语, 先行词是 same.) .---Why didn't you mention that in face of the police just now? --- I thought it was such a minor detail as was hardly worth mentioning. We will only discuss such problems as have something to do with our own interests. Don't do such things as you are not sure about. There is no such place as you dream of in all this world. 比较:I live in the same house that he used to live in. I'm wearing the same shirt as you wore yesterday. 比较:Here is so big a stone as no one can lift. (定语从句) Here is so big a stone that no one can lift it.(结果状语从句) ②如为非限制性的,多单独引导一个定语从句,这种定语从句可置于句首,句中或句尾,译 为"正如,这一点"。 (动词常为 know, see, expect, point out, etc.) As we all know, smoking is harmful to one's health . (as 作宾语) =As is known to all, smoking is harmful to one's health . (as 作主语) =It's known to all that smoking is harmful to one's health . =Smoking is harmful to one's health , as we all know .(as 作宾语) =Smoking, as we all know, is harmful to one' health.

He was a foreigner, as I knew from his accent. (宾语, 先行词是前面整个句子) Ⅲ. 关系副词引导的定语从句: ●When 指时间, 在定语从句中作时间状语。 其先行词是表时间的名词 (如: time, day, week, tear, month, etc.) He came last night when I was out. We will put off the picnic until next week, when the weather would be better. 注意:先行词为"时间名词",可用 when 引导定语从句,when 在定语从句中作状语;还可以 用 which 或 that 引导,which 或 that 在从句中作主语或宾语。 比较: I still remember the day when /on which my brother joined the army.(作状语) Next month, when you will be in your hometown, is just around the corner. I still remember the days which/that we spent together. (作宾语) Next winter which/that you'll spend in Harbin, I'm sure, will be exciting. I shall never forget the day when Shen Zhou Ⅴ was launched, which has a great effect on my life. There are occasions when joking is not permissible. ●Where 指地点, 在定语从句中作地点状语。 其先行词是表示地点的名词, 如: place, school, factory, room, etc. This is the place where I was born. I live in the room where /in which he used to live. 注意: 先行词是"地点名词", 定语从句可用 where 引导, 还可用 which 或 that 引导, which/that 在从句中作主语或宾语。 比较: ※This is the factory where /in which he worked last year. (作状语) 在高中的英语学习中,我们都知道,where 在定语从句中用作关系副词,作状语,先行词一 般指地点。例如: This is the farm where we worked when we were young. 这就是我们年轻时候在此干活的农场。 He met his wife in the park where they fell in love with each other.他是在这个公园遇到他 的妻子,就是在那里,他们相爱了。 当然,在实际的英语学习中,where 在定语从句中的用法远不是这么简单,相反,要复 杂得多, 为了让学生对 where 在定语从句中的用法有更好的了解, 下面我就对学生在学习过 程中的重难点问题谈一谈它的用法。 一 、 某 些 在 从 句 中 充 当 地 点 状 语 的 “ 介 词 + 关 系 词 ” 结 构 可 以 与 where 互 换 , where=in/at/on/...which 例如:This is the house in which I lived two years ago.这是我两年前住过的房子。 This is the house where I lived two years ago. 在英语学习中,并不是单纯地让学生知道 where 的这种用法就可以了, 很多时候学生要 掌握 where 和其他词的用法的区别,才能更好地把握定语从句的用法。例如: This is the factory where/in which you worked last year. This is the factory that/which/you visited last year. 在第一句中,关系词在定语从句中作状语,所以用关系副词 where 或者 in which,因为 定语从句中 worked 是个不及物动词;而在第二句中,关系词在定语从句中做宾语,因此用 that 或 which,还可以省略,visited 是个及物动词。学生有时还会碰到更复杂的情况。例如: Is this factory the one that/which/\ you visited last year? Is this factory the one where/in which you lived last year?

Is this the factory where/in which you lived last year? 这几个句子比前面的两个句子又复杂, 除了要区别关系词在定语句子作什么成分, 还要 注意到前两个句子缺成分,所以要补充 the one。 二、where 定语从句修饰抽象名词 where 引导的定语从句的先行词大多数情况下是表示地点的名词,但也有特殊情况。如 果定语从句修饰 point,situation,part,condition 和 case 等表示抽象意义的词,关系词在定 语从句中充当状语时,常用 where 引导,意思是“到了某种地步,在某种境况中” 。为了帮 助同学们熟悉这一语言现象, 正确掌握这一知识点, 对 where 定语从句修饰抽象名词的用法 作一归纳。 1) where 定语从句修饰抽象名词 point You reach a point where medicine can’t help. 你已到了药物无法治疗的地步。 We have reached a point where a change is needed.我们到了必须改一改的地步。 注:有时 point 也可以是具体的地点: The accident happened at the point where the A15 joins the M1. 事故发生在 A15 与 M1 交 叉的十字路口。 2) where 定语从句修饰抽象名词 case There are cases where the word “mighty” is used as an adverb. 在一些情况下,mighty 一词 可用作副词。 3) where 定语从句修饰抽象名词 activity Those successful deaf dancers think that dancing is an activity where sight matters more than hearing.那些失聪的成功舞蹈演员们认为,舞蹈是一种让人看胜过让人听的活动。 4) where 定语从句修饰抽象名词 situation He got into a situation where it is hard to decide what is right and wrong. 他陷入一种难以 分辨是非的局面。 5) where 定语从句修饰抽象名词 position It’s put me in a position where I can’t afford to take the job. 这使我陷入一种不能接受此工 作的境地。 6) where 定语从句修饰抽象名词 job She wants a job where her management skills can be put to good use. 她想找一份能将她的 管理技能派上用场的工作。 当然了,我们碰到这些词作为先行词时并不一定都用 where,我们也要具体情况具体分 析,他们只有在定语从句中作状语时才用 where。 例如:We are trying to reach a point ____ both sides will sit down together and talk. A. which B. that C. where D. when ---Do you have anything to say for yourself? ---Yes, there’s one point ____ we must insist on. A. why B. where C. how D. / 上面两个句子虽然先行词相同,都是 point,但是由于他们在定语从句中充当的成分不 同,所以我们在选择关系词时就要区别对待。第一个句子中关系词在句中作状语,所以选择 where 关系副词;第二个句子中关系词在定语从句中做宾语,所以选择关系代词 that,which 或者不填,这样第一题选择 C,第二题选择 D。 The treatment will continue until the patient reaches the point where he can walk correctly and safely. I think you have got to the point where a change is needed, or you would fail.

Government reports, legal papers and most business letters are the main situations where English is used. He's got himself into a dangerous situation where he's likely to lose control of the plane. The small mountain village where we spent our holiday last month lies in what /the place which is now part of Hubei. This is the park which/that they visited last year. (作宾语) Not having been there before, he simply had no idea about the place, which everyone says is worth visiting. ●Why 指原因,在定语从句中作原因状语。先行词为 reason 时,可用 for which 指代;当 关系词在从句中作主语或宾语时,则用 which 或 that 引导。如: The reason why / for which / (that) he didn't attend the meeting was that he was ill. I don't believe the reason (that/which) he gave me. (作宾语) Have you asked him the reason that may explain his success? (作主语) Ex.) He was late .That's because he got up late. .He got up late. That's why he was late.(表语从句) (the reason) why/for which he was late. (定语从句) 当先行词为 way 时,定语从句常用 that, in which,或不用引导。way 后的定语从句 的引导词 不用时较多。但如果关系词在句中作主语或宾语时,则用 which 或 that 引导。如: This is the way (that) /in which I do such things. 比较: Please do the experiment in the way(that/which)I have shown you. Ⅳ. 限制性定语从句与非限制性定语从句的区别: 1. 形式上,非限制性定语从句往往用逗号隔开。 2. 语法上,非限制性定语从句一般不用 that. 3. 语义上,限制性定语从句与先行词关系紧密,起限定作用,如果去掉了这个定语从句, 整个句子就不完整或者会改变意思; 而非限制性定语从句与先行词关系不是很紧密, 对先行 词起补充说明或描述的作用。 This is the book I like best. 这就是我最喜欢的那本书。 Beijing, which has been China's capital for more than 800 years , is rich in cultural and historic relics. 北京是中国八百年之久的古都,它有着丰富的文化和历史遗产。 4. 翻译时,限制性定语从句可译为一句(较短的一般译为"的"字结构) ;而非限制性定语从 句可译为两句。 (见上句翻译) 比较: He has a sister, who is a musician. He has a sister who is a musician. 引导非限制性定语从句的关系代词,指人时用 who, whom, whose , 指物时用 which , whose; 关系副词 when,where, why, etc. 1. He studied hard at school when he was young, which leads to his success in his later life. 2. Tom's father, who arrived just now, is a famous scientist. 3. They set up a separate state of their own, where they would be free to keep Negroes as slaves. 4. He was proud, which his brother never was. Ⅴ. 几个易混淆的关系代词的比较: ●that & which: 在定语从句中,which 和 that 在指代事物时,一般可以互换使用,但并非在任何情况下都 是这样,这里介绍宜用 that, 而不宜用 which 的情况. ①先行词为不定代词,all,much,something,everything,anything,nothing,none,the one 等,

1.We should do all that is useful to the people . 2.There's nothing that can be said about it . 3.Do you mean the one that was bought yesterday? ②先行词被 only, any, few, little, no, just, very, one of 等词修饰时。 1.The only thing that we could do was to wait. 2.That's the very word that is wrongly used. The last place (that) we visited was the chemical works. You can take any (=whichever) seat that is free. I hope the little that I can will be of some help to them. 比较 *This is one of the best novels that were published last year. *This is the only one of the best novels that was published last year. ③先行词是序数词时或被序数词修饰时。 1.When we talk about Wuxi, the first that comes into mind is Tai Lake. 2.This is the third film that has been shown in our school this term. ④先行词是最高级或被最高级修饰时。 1.This is the best that can be done now. 2.The most important thing that should be done right now is how to stop him from going on. ⑤先行词既有人又有物,用 which 和 who 都不适合,这时宜用 that. 如: 1.The writer and his novel that you have just talked about is really well known . 2.The rider and his bike that had run over an old woman were held up by the police. ⑥被修饰词为数词时. 1.Yesterday I caught two fish and put them in a basin of water .Now you can see the two that are still alive . ⑦如果有两个从句,其中一个关系代词已用 which ,另一个关系代词宜用 that, 以避免语言的 单调或重复。 Edison built up a factory which produced things that had never been seen before. ⑧疑问词是 who 或 which,关系代词宜用 that,以避免重复。 1. Which is the book that you like best? 2. Who is the man that is standing at the gate? ⑨主句是 There be 结构,修饰其主句的定语从句宜用 that 作关系代词. 如: 1. There is still a seat in the corner that is still free. ⑩被修饰成分为表语时,或者关系代词本身是定语从句的表语时,该关系代词宜用 that . 1. That's a good book that will help you a lot. 2. My home village is no longer the place ( that ) it used to be . 定语从句中宜用 which 而不宜用 that 的情况: ①当关系代词的前面有介词时. 1.A zoo is a park in which many kinds of animals are kept for exhibition. 2.Is this the room in which Mr. White lives? ②在非限制性定语从句中. 1.Crusoe's dog, which was are now very old, became ill and died . 2.More and more people are beginning to learn English, which is becoming very popular in our country. (which 指代主句) ③在一个句子中有两个定语从句,其中一个定语从句的关系代词用了 that, 另一个宜用

which . 1. Let me show you the novel,that I borrowed from the library which was newly open to us. 2. At the station I bought some magazines that might help me to pass the time on the train and which I could pass on to others when I finished them. ④当关系代词后面带有插入语时. 1. Here's the English grammar which, as I have told you, will help improve your English. ⑤先行词本身是 that, 宜用 which . What's that which she is looking at? ⑥先行词是 those+复数名词. A shop should keep a stock of those goods which sell best. (B) who & that: who 和 that 指代人时,有些情况宜用 who, 而不宜用 that ①先行词为 anyone, anybody, those, all, one, ones, they, he, people 时. 如: 1.The person I want to learn from is the one who studies hard and works well. 2.Anyone who (=Whoever) failed to come to the meeting yesterday must give his reason . 3.Those who are not fit for their work should leave office at once 4.I don't like the ones (= those ) who talk big. 5.Persons who are quarrelsome are despised. ②在 There be 结构中,修饰主语的定语从句宜用关系代词 who 指代人. 如: 1.There is a gentleman who wants to see you . 2.There are several students in our class who are still not sure about the use of attributive clauses. ③当先行词有较长的后置定语时. 如: 1. I met a foreigner in the park yesterday afternoon who could speak Chinese very well. ④一个句子中带有两个定语从句,其中一个定语从句的关系代词是 that ,另一个则宜用 who, 以免重复. 如: 1. The student that was praised at yesterday's meeting is the monitor who is very modest and works very hard . which 与 as 引导非限制性定语从句的异同 一、相同点 两者引导非限制性定语从句时,可指代主句中的部分或整个句子的内容,在从句中做主语, 宾语或表语,位于主句之后有时可互换。 The meeting was put off, as /which was exactly what we wanted. He was a doctor, as/which I knew from his manner. 二、不同点 1. as 可以放在主句前后, 也可插入主句之中; 而 which 引导的非限制性从句只能位于主句之 后。 As is known to all, fish can’t live without water. Air, as we know, is gas. 2.在非限制性从句中,which 后的 be 动词不可省;as 而后的 be 动词可以省略。 She told me she won the match, which was a lie. The material is elastic, as (was) shown in the figure. 3. which 在非限制性定语从句做主语时可用各类动词做谓语; 而 as 做主语时, 谓语常用系动 词,如 be, seem, become 等,一般不用其他行为动词。 He saw the girl, which delighted him.

He didn’t say anything at the meeting , as/which seemed very strange. 4. as 常用“正如”含义,常用的结构有 as we know(众所周知) ;as often happens(正如常发 生的那样) ;as is often the case(情况常常如此); as we all can see(正如我们看到的); be announced/expected/known/imagined/mentioned/said/shown/ reported 等。这些结构常放句首,偶尔也可以放句中或句末。 As is known to all, China is a developing country. Kate was late for school, as often happened. 5. 在非限制性定语从句中 which 指代主句中某一个单词时,as 不可以。 My brother enjoyed playing basketball, which he really plays well. Beijing, which he was born in, is our capital. 6. “介词+关系代词(介宾代物)”中关系代词只能用 which。 The Travel Agency, with which our company has been dealing for several years, has opened for new branches. Air is a mixture of gases, of which oxygen forms 21 percent. 7. 从句中的谓语动词是否定形式时,常用 which。 He can write a letter in English, which I can not. Metal will bear beating with a hammer, which a stone will not 8.在非限制性定语从句关系代词代表前面主句中的宾语从句时,常用 which He said he had passed the exam, which was untrue. 定语从句中关系代词省略与保留 我们知道,关系代词在定语从句中作宾语时可以省略,但也有几种特殊情况,关系代词不用 作宾语也可以省略,同学们学习和使用时请注意。 在下列情况下,引导宾语从句的关联词可以省略。 一、that 在定语从句中作表语时。例如: She is all (that) a teacher should be. 她具备一个老师应该具备的所有条件。 二、that 在从句中作补语时。例如: I'm not the fool(that) you thought me. 我不是你以前所认为的那个傻子了。 He is the nicest teacher (that) the students consider him in their school. 他就是学生认为学 校中最好的那个老师。 三、作状语时的省略。 1. 当先行词是 reason,且在定语从句中作原因状语时,可以用关系副词 why 或关系代词 that,也可以省略。例如: The reason (why/that) he failed was his laziness. 他失败的原因是因为他懒惰。 That is the reason I did it. 那就是我做那件事的原因。 2. 当先行词是 way,且在定语从句中作方式状语时,关联词可用 in which 或 that,也可以省 略。例如: The way(in which/ that) these comrades look at problems is wrong.这些同志看待问题的方 式是错误的。 That was the way(in which / that) she worked the problem out. 她就是用那种办法解决问 题的。 3. 当先行词是 time 时,关联词可用 when, that 或省略。例如: The second time (that) I saw him was in 2000. 我第二次见到他是在 2000 年。 I don't know the exact time (when/ that) the sports meeting will take place. 我不知道运动会 举办的确切时间。

4.当先行词是 place 时,关联词可用 where,that 或省略。例如: The place(where/ that) we will have our picnic is not decided yet. 我们举行野餐的地点还 没定下来。 This is the right place he was born.这儿就是他的出生地。(注意:句末不可用介词 in) 同学们往往认为关系代词作宾语时就一定可以省略 ,其实不然.在下列四种情况下 ,关系 代词虽作宾语,却不能省略。 一、在介词+whom /which 结构中, whom, which 不能省略。例如: Do you know any shops nearby in which I can buy flowers? 你知道附近有可以买到花的商 店吗? That is the headmaster with whom my father was talking just now.刚才和我爸爸交谈的那 个人是校长。 二、在非限制性定语从句中,作宾语的关系代词也不能省略。例如: Mr Green, whom you know, is the tallest in our school. 格林先生是我们学校里最高的,你 也认识他。 The elephant is like a spear, as anyone can see. 大象像长矛,任何人都知道。 三、在 the same ... as, such ... as, as ... as, the same... that 结构中, as, that 即使作宾语,也不 能省略。例如: I have bought the same bike as you (have). (指同类用 as)我买了一辆和你的一样的自行车。 This is the same book that I read the day before yesterday. 这就是我前天读过的那本书。 (关系代词 that 如要换成 as, 则指与我读的书一样,而不是同一本。) 四、当 and, but, or 等连词连接两个或两个以上的定语从句修饰一个先行词时,关系代词 第一个可省略,第二、第三个等不可省略。例如: This is the book (which) I read yesterday and which I found very interesting. 这就是我昨天 读的那本书,它很有趣。 You have many people around you (whom) you always turn to and whom you will never forget.你身边有很多人,你经常向他们求助,你永远不要忘记他们。


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