主旨题（3） ——2017高考 英语阅读题集训
Warm up How many differences？
要求考生能读懂书、报、杂志中关于一般 性话题的简短文段以及公告、说明、广告等， 并能从中获取相关信息。考生应能： （1）理解主旨和要义 （2）
理解文中具体信息 （3）根据上下文推断生词的词义 （4）作出判断和推理 （5）理解文章的基本结构 （6）理解作者的意图、观点和态度
任何一篇文章都会有一个主旨要义。有 时从文章的第一个段落，甚至第一个句子即可 得出文章的主旨要义，从这一段或这个句子读 者会知道文章描述的是谁或什么（即文章的主 题），亦会了解作者希望读者了解主题方面的 哪些内容。有时，文章的主旨要义则需从文章 的字里行间进行推断。【难度大一些】这类试 题主要考査考生略读文章、领会大意的能力， 它对考生的归纳、概括能力有一定的要求。
命 题 类
主 旨 大 意 型 事 实 细 节 型
词 义 猜 测 型 推 理 判 断 型
1) 主题类 ? The main idea of the passage is … ? The passage is mainly about … ? What is the passage mainly about? ? Which of the following statements is the main idea of the passage? 2) 目的类 ? The passage is meant/intended to … ? The purpose of this article is to … 3) 标题类 ? The best title of the passage is …
Lung cancer is the worst cancer killer in ________________________________________ America _______ . About 160,440 Americans die each year from it. More than 87 percent of lung cancers are smoking related, according to the Lung Cancer Organization.
1、段首——开门见山，点出主题。 语篇结构为：点出主题 —— 围绕主题 展开陈述、论证或说明
Sample 2 Some students prefer a strict teacher who tells them exactly what to do. Others prefer to be left to work on their own. Still others like a democratic(民主的) discussion type of class. _____________________________________ No one teaching method can be designed to ________________________________ satisfy all students at the same time. （2）段尾——详细论证，总结陈词。 语篇结构为：表述细节——概括主题 （归纳要点、得出结论、提出建议）
Nothing is as useful as a flashlight on a dark night if a tire goes flat. Few inventions are so helpful to a child who is afraid of the dark. _____________________________________ In fact, the modern flashlight brings light to many dark situations. Finding _____________________________ something in the back of a closet is easy with a flashlight in hand . A camper also needs one after the light of the campfire has been out. （3）段中——引题过渡，导出主题。 语篇结构为:“引题——主题思想——解释” 或“提问——-回答——解释”。
语篇结构为:提出主题—— 展开论述或说明 ——进一步引申或发展主题 Smoking cigarettes is harmful to your ———————————————————— health. Experiments show that cigarette ———— smoking can cause cancer. Besides the most serious and terrible disease illness, cancer, cigarette smoking also can cause other health problems. For example, it can give one a “smoker’s cough”. Finally, studies have shown it is easy for cigarette smokers to catch colds. Whether you get an unimportant cold or terrible killer, cancer, smoking is harmful. Is it worth it? ——————————
1、段(文)首——开门见山，点出主题； 2、段(文)尾——详细论证，总结陈词； 3、段(文)中——引题过渡，导出主题; 4、段(文)首尾—首尾呼应，烘托主题；
以该主题句中的“话题”为核心， 把解释性的词按一定的语法浓缩为 概括主题句句意或中心思想的词组 或短句。
某一文章的主题句为： An advertising slogan is to a brand what eyes are to a person. 该主题句的话题是：slogan 解释性的词： is to a brand what eyes are to a person 由此拟定标题为： Slogan And Brand.
【Practice 1】 The topic sentence of a passage： Coffee is a universal drink that is served in different ways around the world. ● The best title for the passage should be ____. A. Ways of making coffee B. Coffee around the world C. Advice on buying coffee D. Benefits of drinking coffee 解题分析： Coffee 该主题句的话题是： is a universal drink that is served in 解释性的词： different ways around the world. 标题：
(山东卷) Are you lazy about brushing your teeth? Never fear: An inventor is on the case. An electric toothbrush (invented by Serval) senses how long and how well you brush… Serval says he was inspired by his experience as a _______________________________________ father. ____ He would come home from work and ask his kids if they had brushed their teeth. They said “yes,” but Serval would find their toothbrush heads dry. He decided he needed a brush that really told him how well his children brushed. ●What is Paragraph 2 mainly about? A. How Serval found out his kids lied to him. B. What’s the most important invention . C. How Serval taught his kids to brush their teeth. D. What inspired Serval to invent the toothbrush
【Practice3】 On the satellite designed by Dana, there is a radar system that would scan for and find a piece of space junk. Then, thrusters(推进器) would change the satellite’s orbit so that it could chase down the object. As the satellite got close to the junk, cameras would keep it on target. At the last minute, a door that leads to a bulletproof (防弹的) container would open, and then get the junk swallowed. Finally, when the trash container was full, it would be lowered toward Earth on a kilometers-long cable and its contents released into the upper atmosphere, where the space junk would harmlessly burn up.
●What is this paragraph mainly about?
A. How space trash could be used. B. How Dana designed her satellite. C. How the satellite would work. D. How the satellite would be created.
学习任务四： 主旨大意题选项的特点 干扰项的特点 1.画蛇添足:即文中根本没有提到，把自己的观点 强加给作者以充当主题，或在文中找不到语言 依据的信息。
正确选项的特点：不出现细节信息，不含过分肯 定或绝对意义的词; 概括全文, 内容全面,含义 深刻, 贴切准确。
【Practice 4】 Smoking cigarettes is harmful to your health. 帽子太大 Experiments show that cigarette smoking can cause 画蛇添足 cancer. Besides the most serious and terrible disease (illness), cancer, cigarette smoking also can cause other health problems. For example, it can give one a “smoker’s cough”. Finally, studies have shown it is easy for cigarette smokers to catch colds. Whether you get an unimportant cold or terrible killer, 以偏概全 cancer, smoking is harmful. Is it worth it?
● What is the passage mainly about ? A. Ways of experimenting on smoking. B. Information about smoking C. Smoking resulting in cancer. D. Side effects of smoking.
一、主旨大意题的设题方式 1.主题类 2.目的类 3.标题类 二、定位主题句的方法
1.段(文)首 2.段(文)尾 3.段(文)中 4.段(文)首尾
三、提炼主题句的方法 以该主题句中的“话题”为核心，把解释 性的词按一定的语法浓缩为概括主题句句意或 中心思想的词组或短句。 四、归纳无主题段或主题句的材料的方法 读懂各段落、各句主要讲了那几方面的内 容，这些内容在逻辑上有什么联系，然后加以 分析、归纳、推理，形成主题。
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