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高中英语语法状语从句


状语从句
状语从句和名词性从句、定语从句一样是高考的高频考点。通过对近年高考题的分析, 可以预测 2012 年对状语从句的考查仍将集中在对引导几大状语从句的连词的考查上。 状语从句是一种作状语用的从句,修饰主句中的动词、形容词、副词或修饰全句,补充 说明时间、地点、原因、条件、方式、程度、状态等。状语从句的关键是要掌握引导不同状 语从句的常用连接词和特殊的连接词即考点。

九种状语从句及常见的引导词 1、 【时间状语从句】 : when, while, as, before, after, since (自从…以来) , till (until), as soon as(刚 一…马上就…), once(一旦), whenever 等。特殊引导词:the minute, the moment, the second, every time, the day , the instant=instantly , immediately , directly, no sooner … than, hardly …when, scarcely … when (1) while 引导的时间从句的谓语必须是延续性动词,常用进行时态。 如果 while 表示“然而” 的时候,就不是时间状语从句;表示“虽然”的时候,是让步状语从句,这是必须放句首且 不能倒装。 (2) when 除了表示“当??时” (两个短暂性动作同时发生) ,还可以表示“就在那时” ,在 前一个动作刚结束时就发生的新动作。如 I just locked my door when the postman arrived. (3) as 和 when 一样, 表示两个短暂性动作同时发生, 还可表示 “一边??一边??” “随着?” (4) 党表示“一??就??”的连接词时,可以用到 no sooner … than, hardly …when, scarcely … when,但是当 hardly, scarcely, no sooner 放于句首时,主句必须部分倒装;主句时 态用过去完成时,从句用一般过去式。如:No sooner had he sat down than the bell rang. Hardly had I arrived there when it began to rain. (5) before 是高考常考的连接词,表示“在做成某事前,需要多久”,常用过去时和将来时中。 (6) not…until,在强调句中,要用到 It is(was) not until…that…;而 not until 置于句首时,需 要部分倒装。 (7) since 常用的句型是:It is (has been) + 时间 since + 过去时从句。表示从过去的某时开始 持续到现在的影响。如果主句用过去时,从句则一般使用过去完成时。 (8) 在时间状语从句中,如果主句是一般将来时,那么从句需要用一般现在时(主将从现) 。 (9) whenever 引导时间状语从句,如 Give us a call whenever you need our service. 虽然此处可以等于 no matter when, 意义一致,但 no matter when 只能引导让步状语从句,意 为“不管什么时候” 。 (10) 时间状语从句也可用分词来表示。如 Thinking of him, she couldn’t help weeping. 此时 thinking of him= when she thought of him. (2011· 四川卷)6.As it reported, it is 100 years ____ Tsinghua University was founded. A.when B.before C.after D.since 【D】 2、 【地点状语从句】 :where 和 wherever。 (1) where 引导的状语从句常放谓语动词之后,没有先行词!(有了先行词就是定语从句了, 所以状语从句中的 where 不能和 in which 等互换) (2)wherever 表示“无论什么地方” ,既可引导地点状语从句,也可做让步状语从句=no matter where…,引导地点状语时,它总是放主句的谓语动词后,做让步状语从句时,它总是放主 句前。 Where there is a will,there is a way. Generally, air will be heavily polluted where there are factories. Wherever you go, you should work hard.
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what I like most is that you can use English wherever you go in the world. 3、 【原因状语从句】 : because, as, for, since, now that. (1) 回答 why 的疑问句,只能用 because 回答;并且强调句中,对原因状语强调时,只能用 because 引导,如 It was because I got up late that I was late for class. (2) as 语气比 because 弱 (3) since= now that,表“既然”,表明显的原因或事实,总是位于主句前。Now that 具有时间 概念,所引导的谓语动词多为现在时态。 (4) for 引导的从句只能放在主句之后,且常常用逗号隔开。还可表示把结果为原因,倒果为 因的用法。如:It is morning now, for the birds are singing.再如:It must have rained last night for the ground is wet this morning. (两句中 for 都表结果,倒果为因) 特殊引导词:seeing that, in that, considering that, given that。(1) in that 是复合连词,表示“在 于,在?方面”;(2) considering that = seeing that 意为“既然; ” “考虑到” ,如:considering that I can't afford another test fee, I must pass it this time. (3) 所有引导原因状语的单词,都不能和 so 连用。 (2010 辽宁)29.The old man asked Lucy to move to another chair _______ he wanted to sit next to his wife. A.although B.unless C.because D.if 【C】 4、 【目的状语从句】 : so that(以便), in order that(以便) ,lest, in case, for fear that…, in the hope that, for the purpose that, to the end that 等。 (1) lest, in case, for fear that…意为“以防万一” ,引导的目的状语从句经常要使用虚拟语气; (2) so that 从句常放主句后,in order that…放在主句前或后都可以。 (3) so that 既可做目的状语从句,也可作结果状语从句。关键看是否有情态动词。当从句谓 语动词有情态动词时,为目的状语从句,如 Just tell me what subject you’d like me to talk on so that I could get some notes ready. 若从句谓语不用情态动词,而多用过去时,则该句是结果状 语 从 句 。 如 : I took an early bus so that I got there in time. We cleaned off the fallen leaves, so that the garden looked tidier. (2011· 山东卷)28.He had his camera ready ____ he saw something that would make a good picture. A.even if B.if only C.in case D.so that 【C】 5、 【结果状语从句】 : so that, so…that, such…that (1) so that 做目的状语从句和结果状语从句的区别,上面已经讲到了。 (2) so + 形容词(副词) + that….; such + (形容词)+ 名词 +that; (3) 遇到 many, much, few, little 表数量的形容词时, 不管后面有没有名词, 前面都要用 so。 注 意例外:such a little boy (此处 little 是“小”的意思) (4) so…that 或 such…that 置于句首时, 则要部分倒装。 He got up so early that he caught the first bus. It’s such a good chance that we must not miss it. Such a cold day was that Sunday that we had to stay at home. So much did they eat that they could not move for the next hour. 6、 【条件状语从句】 : if, unless, if only, as(so) long as, supposing that, on condition that, given that 都可引导条件状语从句。 (1) unless 意为“除非,如果不”=if not (2) if only 必须用虚拟语气。
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providing that,

(3) as (so) long as 意为“只要” ,没区别,但除非表示“与??一样长”的时候,这时 so long as 则常用于否定句。 (4) supposing that = suppose that 表假设 (5) providing that= provided that,意为“如果,只要” 。 (6) on condition that…表示“以?为条件” 。 (7) given that…意为“倘若考虑到?” 。 (8) if 条件句有时可以用祈使句或分词来替换, 如: Think hard, you’ll come up with a good idea. Not giving up, you will be able to succeed. (8) 条件状语从句的主句是将来时的时候, 从句一般 使用一般现在时。 (主将从现) (2010 上海)39. our manage objects to Tom's joining the club, we shall accept him as a member. A. Until B. Unless C. If D. After 【B】 7、 【方式状语从句】 : as, as if/though, the way…。 (1) as if = as though, 意为“好想,仿佛” ,用法相同,从句即可用陈述语气,也可用虚拟语 气(非真实假设)。 (2) as 意为“像??,犹如??,正如??” 。 (3) the way 意为“??的样子” ,相当于“the way (that/ in which)…”引导的定语从句。 When in Rome, do as the Roman do. She behaved as if she were the boss. Sometimes we teach our children the way our parents have taught us (2011· 湖南卷)33 Jack wasn’t saying anything but the teacher smiled at him ____ he had done something very clever. A. as if B. in case C. while D. though 【A】 8、 【比较状语从句】 : 这个状语从句和形容词、副词的比较级关系很大,常见的关系词有: as…as, not so/as …as, than 等引导。在这种状语从句中如果谓语动词与主句一致时,或省略, 或用替代词 do, does, did 特殊引导词: the more … the more … ; just as …, so…; A is to B what /as X is to Y; no … more than; not A so much as B 表示倍数的表示法: (1) A is twice/ three times… bigger/ longer….than B; (2) A is twice/ three times as big/ long…as B (3) A is twice/ three times… the size/ length/ height/ age… of B. 翻译:She is as bad-tempered as her mother. The house is three times as big as ours. The more you exercise, the healthier you will be. Food is to men what oil is to machine. (2010 全国Ⅰ)26. I have seldom seen my mother _______ pleased with my progress as she is now . A. so B. very C. too D. rather 【A】 9、 【让步状语从句】 : though, although, even if, even though, despite the fact that, whoever, whatever, whichever, whenever, wherever, however, no matter who/what/which/when/where/how, whether 都可以引导让步状语从句。 (1) as 用在让步状语从句中必须要倒装,常倒装表语,没有表语倒装状语,没有状语,倒装 部分谓语。如果表语是名词,倒装时不能加任何冠词,如 Teacher as he is, he can’t instruct his own child well.再如:Much as I respect him, I can’t agree to his proposal. (状语提前) (2) while= although,从句只能用在句首,而且不能倒装。
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(3) even if = even though,意为“即使” 。如:The old man always enjoys swimming even though the weather is rough. (4) although 引导的让步状语从句常放句首,不能倒装。 (5) though 引导的让步状语从句可倒装,也可以不倒装,句前句后都可以。 (6) despite the fact that…= in spite of the fact that…意为“不管??” 。 (7) whether…or not 意为“无论(是否) ” ,如: Whether you believe it or not, it is true. (8) however+形容词/副词 = no matter how+形容词/ 副词….意为“无论多么??” ,如:No matter how hard he tried, she could not change her mind. (9) wh—ever 等一系列连词, 都可以等于 no matter wh--, 但是 wh—ever 既可引导让步状语从 句,也可引导名词性从句。而 no matter wh—只能引导让步状语从句,绝不能引导名词性从 句。如:No matter what happened, he would not mind.=Whatever happened, he would not mind. 再如: (错)No matter what you say is of no use now. (对)Whatever you say is of no use now. (Whatever you say 是主语从句) ; 再看: (错)Prisoners have to eat no matter what they're given, (对)Prisoners have to eat whatever they're given. (10)让步状语从句都不能和 but 连用,但有时可与 yet 连用。 (2011· 天津卷) 5. regular exercise is very important. It’s never a good idea to exercise too close to bedtime. A.It B.As C.Although D.Unless 【C】 【状语从句·高考真题练习】 1. (2011· 江西卷)29.Please call my secretary to arrange a meeting this afternoon, or _____ it is convenient to you. A. whenever B. however C. whichever D. wherever 答案【A】考查状语从句。句中 this afternoon 指时间,所以 or _____ it is convenient to you.也 指时间。故选择 A。 2. (2011· 辽宁卷)25.No matter how , it is not necessarily lifeless. A.a desert may be dry B.dry a desert may be C.may a desert be dry D.dry may a desert be 答案【D】考查状语从句。No matter how 修饰形容词,并且从句倒装,所以选择 D。 3. (2011· 全国新课标卷)22.Try she might, Sue couldn’t get the door open. A.if B.when C.since D.as 答案【D】考查状语从句。As 引导让步状语从句倒装,所以选择 D。 4. (2011· 福建卷) 33. It was April 29,2011 Prince William and Kate Middleton walked into the palace hall of the wedding ceremony . A . that B . when C . since D.before 答案【B】考查状语从句。主句 It was April 29,2011 后是时间状语从句。所以选择 B。 5. (10 福建)26. The girl had hardly rung the bell the door was opened suddenly, and her friend rushed out to greet her. A. before B. until C. as D. since 答案:A 6. (10 上海) 39. our manage objects to Tom's joining the club, we shall accept him as a member. A. Until B. Unless C. If D. After 7. (10 安徽)29. The engineers are so busy that they have zero time for outdoor sports activities, ________they have the interest. A. wherever B. whenever C. even if D. as if 8. . Just use this room for the time being, and we’ll offer you a larger one _______it becomes available A. as soon as B. unless C. as far as D. until
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9.(10 江西)22 — Our holiday cost a lot of money. — Did it? Well, that doesn’t matter______ you enjoyed yourselves. A. as long as B. unless C. as soon as D. though 10.(10 全国Ⅰ)25. Mary made coffee ________ her guests were finishing their meal . A. so that B. although C. while D. as if 11. The little boy won’t go to sleep ______ his mother tells him a story. A. or B. unless C. but D. whether 12.(10 辽宁)29.The old man asked Lucy to move to another chair _______ he wanted to sit next to his wife. A.although B.unless C.because D.if 13.(10 辽宁)34.—It’s no use having ideas only . —Don’t worry. Peter can show you ________to turn an idea into an act. A. how B. who C. what D. where 14. (10 北京) they decide which college to go to, students should research the admission procedures. A. As B. While C. Until D. Once 15. (2011· 天津卷) regular exercise is very important. It’s never a good idea to exercise too close to bedtime. A.It B.As C.Although D.Unless 16.(2011· 江西卷)29.Please call my secretary to arrange a meeting this afternoon, or _____ it is convenient to you A.whenever B.however C.whichever D.wherever 17.(2011· 四川卷)4.Frank insisted that he was not asleep I had great difficulty in waking him up. A.whether B.although C.for D.so 18.(2011· 北京卷) volleyball is her main focus, she’s also great at basketball. A.Since B.Once C.Unless D.While 19.(2011· 四川卷)As it reported, it is 100 years _______ Tsinghua University was founded. A.when B.before C.after D.since 20.(2011· 全国 II)It was a nice meal,______ a little expensive. A.though B.whether C.as D.since 21.(2011· 陕西卷)________all of them are strong candidates, only one will be chosen for the post. A.Since B.While C.If D.As 22.(2011· 辽宁卷)25.No matter how , it is not necessarily lifeless. A. a desert may be dry B. dry a desert may be C. may a desert be dry D. dry may a desert be 23. (2011· 辽宁卷) 29. He had no sooner finished his speech the students started cheering. A. since B. as C. when D. than 24.(2011· 全国新课标卷)22.Try she might, Sue couldn’t get the door open. A. if B. when C. since D. as 25.(2011· 浙江卷) One Friday, we were packing to leave for a weekend away __ my daughter beard cries for help A.after B.while C.since D.when 26. (2011· 湖南卷) 33 Jack wasn’t saying anything but the teacher smiled at him ____ he had done something very clever.
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A.as if B.in case C.while D.though 27. (2011· 山东卷) 28. He had his camera ready ______he saw something that would make a good picture. A.even if B.if only C.in case D.so that 28. (2011· 重庆卷) 30. To show our respect, we usually have to take our gloves off we are to shake hands with. A.whichever B.whenever C.whoever D.wherever

BCAAC BCADC ABDDA BDDDD ACC

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