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四大原则是指并列句的四种并列关系 ——联合、转折、选择和因果关系。 并列句是由并列连词 and，but，or，for，so 等把两个或两个以上独
1．联合并列句 联合并列句常由并列连词(短语)and，not only ...but also ...等连接。其中 and 可表示平行、顺接、评注、条件等。 (2015· 湖南高考)Since then, maths has become one of my favorite subjects, and I have also made rapid progress in maths. 从那时起，数学成为我特别喜爱的学科之一，而且我在数学上进步很快。
2．转折并列句 转折并列句常由并列连词 but，while，yet，nevertheless 等连接。其中 while 表示的是对比关系，意为“而”。 (2015· 浙江高考)Most of my classmates wanted to go to a park while I had an idea of going to a nicer place. 我的大部分同学都想去公园，而我想去一个更好的地方。 As far as I am concerned, I love wealth, but I value health more. 就我而言，我喜欢财富，但更看重健康。
3．选择并列句 选择并列句常由并列连词(短语)or，or else，otherwise，either ...or ...等连接。 其中 or，or else 表示“或者，不然的话”。 Wear your coat or else you will catch a cold. 穿上外套，否则就会感冒。 You can contact me either by phone or by email if you want to know more about our university. 如果你想更多地了解我们的大学，你可以通过电话或电子邮件联系我。
4．因果并列句 因果并列句常由并列连词 so，for，therefore 等连接。其中 for 解释说明性质 的理由。 (2015· 天津高考)All the classmates are friendly and kind, so you don't need to worry about the difficulty. 所有的同学都非常友好和善良，因此你没必要担心有什么困难。 I'm sorry for I won't be able to pay a visit to Beijing next weekend with you. 很抱歉因为我下周末不能和你一块去北京参观。
【名师点津】 (1)在“祈使句＋and/or＋陈述句”结构中，当前后为顺承关系时，用 and； 当前后为转折关系时，用 or，or else 或 otherwise。 Work hard and believe in yourself and you'll succeed one day. 努力学习、相信你自己， 总有一天你会成功的。 Stop smoking now or your health will be ruined. 别再抽烟了， 否则你会毁了自己的健康。
(2)not only ...but also ...连接的并列句，当 not only 置于句首时，其后的句子 用部分倒装。 Not only can students improve their writing ability in this way but also they can strengthen their selfconfidence. 学生们不仅可以以这种方式提高写作技能，而且还可以增强他们的自信心。 (3)在 sb.was doing sth.when ...，sb.was about to do sth.when ...或 sb.had just
done sth.when ...中，when 为并列连词，意为“就在那时”。 (2014· 福建高考)I was about to give up when my best friend encouraged me to go on. 我正要放弃，这时我最好的朋友鼓励我坚持下去。
(4)并列句有时可不用并列连词连接，而用标点符号分号(；)连接。 There is no such thing as a free lunch in the world; you must work hard. 世上没有免费的午餐；你必须刻苦学习。
Ⅰ.用适当的并列连词填空 1. Start out right away, 2. First, my English is very good I'm getting along well with everyone. 3. I worked hard at English and devoted all my spare time to practicing English, I failed to pass the midterm examination. 4. Half of the girls choose film and TV stars as their idols, the boys favor sports stars. 48% of you'll miss the first train. I'm openminded and warmhearted,
should you share your study experience with them, 4.while
you 5.Not only；
must keep your heart open to them. 【答案】 1.or/or else/otherwise 2.and；so 3.but but (also)
Ⅱ.请用并列连词把下面的两个句子合成一个并列句 1. We must start early. It will take two hours to drive to the airport.
【答案】 We must start early for it will take two hours to drive to the airport. 2. We were about to set off.
It suddenly began to rain.
【答案】 We were about to set off when it suddenly began to rain.
3. He likes pop music. I am fond of folk music.
【答案】 He likes pop music while I am fond of folk music.
4. Jane said she was ill. I saw her in the street just now.
【答案】 Jane said she was ill but/yet I saw her in the street just now.
5. Their car broke down halfway. They had to stay in a small hotel for the night.
【答案】 hotel for the night.
Their car broke down halfway and/so they had to stay in a small
Ⅲ.使用适当的并列连词，翻译下列句子 1. 昨天我生日，很多同学送给我礼物。
【答案】 It was my birthday yesterday, and/so many classmates gave me presents. 2. 他不仅说得更正确，而且更轻松。
【答案】 Not only did he speak more correctly, but also he spoke more easily.
【答案】 I like reading while my brother enjoys watching football matches.
4. 上周一，我正在街上散步，这时突然看到一位老人从自行车上摔了下来。 【答案】 Last Monday, I was walking in the street when I suddenly saw an old man fall off his bicycle. 5. 努力学习，你就会考上重点大学。
【答案】 Work hard, and you will be admitted to a key university.
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