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语法复习1 定语从句


语法复习 1 定语从句 I、重点难点解析 定语从句是英语语法中的重点。除了在语法填空中会考到,在基础写作和任务 型写作中正确恰当地运用定语从句是作文得高分的关键。另外,在阅读理解中正确 理解定语从句也至关重要。 常见考点: 1.指物时只用 that 或 which 的情况 2.介词+关系代词 3.Whose 用法及转换形式 4.as 与 which 的区别 5.指人时 that

与 who 的区别 6.如何判断用关系副词还是关系代词 7.定语从句中的主谓一致问题 一、定语从句的概念 在复合句中,修饰某一名词或代词从句叫定语从句,在句中起定语的作用. 被定语从句修饰的词叫做先行词。引导定语从句的词叫关系代词或关系副词。如: The man who lives next to us is a policeman. 先行词 关系代词 定语从句 二、关系代词和关系副词的用法: 关系代词和关系副词又称关系词,用来引导定语从句、代替先行词并在从句中担 当一个成分。其用法见下表: 定语从句的关系词: 词例 先行词 充当成分 例句 who whom that 关 系 代 词 which 人 人 人&物 物 主语 宾语 主语、宾语 主语、宾语 This is the doctor who saved my life . She is the new student (whom) I want to tell to you . (指人相当于 who 或 whom, 指物相当 于 which) 1.Please pass me the book which is lying on the table. 2.The novel (which) Tom bought is very interesting. The earth ,as is known to all ,is round. The professor whose daughter teaches you English is Dr. Williams We’ll never forget the day when the People’s Republic of China was founded. This is the house where he lived. I know the reason why she works so well.
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关 系 副 词

as whose=of whom\of which when=at\in\o n\during which where=at\in\t o which why=for which

物 人&物

主语、宾语 定语

时间

状语

地点 原因

状语 状语

三、限制性定语从句与非限制性定语从句的区别 限制性定语从句 非限制性定语从句 从 句 与 先 从句是先行词不可缺少的定语,如果 从句只是对先行词的附加说明, 如 行 词 的 关 省去,主句的意思就会不完整或不明 果省去,主句的意思仍然清楚或完 系 确。 整 标 点 从句和主句之间不用逗号分开 从句和主句之间通常用逗号分开 指人 who (that) whom 指人 who(作主语)whom(做宾 语) 关系 指物 which (that) 指物 which 代词 人和物的 whose 人和物的 whose 关系代词在从句中作宾语时可以省去 关系代词一般不可省 修饰 翻译 从句只修饰一个名词或代词 定语从句译在被修饰词的前面 可以修饰一个词也可修饰整个主 句 定语从句通常被译成另一个独立 的句子

四、关系词的选用 1 只能用 that 做关系代词的情况: 只能用 that 做关系代词的情况 1 当先行词是 all, everything, anything, nothing, much, little, none, one 等 不 定 代 词 时 (something 除外) 2 当先行词被 All, every, no, some, any, little, much 等修饰时 3 当先行词被序数词或形容词最高级修饰时 4 如果出现两个或两个以上的先行词,并同时 兼指人和物时 当先行词被 the only, the last, the way, the same 等等修饰时 .在疑问词 who, which, what 开头的特殊疑问 句中,为了避免重复只用 that 当定语从句为 there be 句型时,关系代词只 能用 that,也可以省略 当指人或物的关系代词在定语从句中做表语 时,关系代词只能用 that,也可以省略

例句 Pay attention to everything that I do. He has little time that he can spare. This is the best novel (that) have read. They were talking about the person and things that they remembered in school. This is the last time that I I want to see you. Which of the students that knows something about history. This is the fastest train (that) there is to Beijing. China is not the country (that) it was.

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2 指物只能用 which 不用 that 的情况: 只能用 which 不用 that 例句 的情况: 1 在非限制性定语从句中 St Petersburg, which was once called Leningrad, is a very beautiful city. 2 在介词后面 This is the room in which we lived last year.
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3 指人时只能用 who 不用 that 的情况: 只能用 who 不用 that 的情况 例句 1 先 行 词 为 one, ones , those , Those who break the law must be punished. anyone,he 时 4 as 与 which as 与 which 均可引导非限制性定语从句,有时可以互换,但下列情况多用 as: 多用 as 的情况: 例句 1 与 such 或 the same 连用时,一般 Such books as you read are interesting 用 as Such money as he earned was spent on books. 2 as 引导的从句可以放在句首 , as As we all know, the earth is round. 表“正如…..正象…”之意 五、定语从句中的主谓一致 定语从句中的动词在人称和数方面应该与它的先行词保持一致: 1.I am not one who is afraid of difficulty. 2.Don’t choose me, who am not fit for this job. II、实战演练 第一波: 用恰当的关系代词或关系副词填空: 1. Because of my poor memory, all ____ you told me has been forgotten. 2. Do you remember those days ____ we spent along the seashore very happily? 3. Those ____ want to go please sign their names here. 4. Who is the woman ____ is sweeping the floor over there? 5. The man ____ you are going to make friends is my father’s neighbour. 6. Finally, the thief handed over everything ____ he had stolen to the police. 7. This is the very letter ____came last night. 8. This is the factory ____ we worked a year ago. 9. Jack is pleased with what you have given him and all ____ you have told him. 10. Do you work near the building ____ colour is yellow? 11. Alice received an invitation from her boss, ____ came as a surprise. 12. I live in the house ____ windows face south.. 13. They stayed with me three weeks, ____ they drank all the wine I had. 14. The room ____ Mr White lives is not very large. 15. I’ve finished writing the novel, ____ is to be published next month. 16. He returned home safe and sound after a fierce battle, ____ was unexpected. 17. The old man had three sons, all of ____ died during World War Ⅱ. 18. I have bought two pens, both of ____ write well. 19. Do you know the reason ____ she has changed her mind? 20. He failed in the exam, ____ proves that he wasn’t working hard enough. 21. ____ was expected, he succeeded in the exam. 22. We should read such books ____ will make us better and wiser. 23. He is absent, ____ is often the case. 24. I shall never forget those years ____ I lived in the country with the farmers, ____ has a
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great effect on my life. 25. This is the only book ____ I can find. 26. This is the only one of the students ____ handwriting is the best. 27. You must show my wife the same respect ____ you show me. 28. This is the professor ____ taught me chemistry in 1980. 实战演练 第二波: 用恰当的关系代词或关系副词填空: 1. The weather was very sunny the following day, ______ was what we hadn’t expected. 2. The man about _______ you told me the other day turned out to be a thief. 3. I have finished reading all the books ______ were borrowed from the school library. 4. I have bought three ballpoint pens, none of ________ writes smoothly. 5. Is this the second time _______ you have been to Guangzhou 6. I cannot forget the time _______ I stayed in the country with those farmers. 7. _______is reported in the newspaper, the war between the two countries has come to a stop. 8. Lu Xun, _______ real name is Zhou Shuren, wrote lots of novels and essays. 9. Can you think of another example _______ this phrase can be used? 10 This is the store ______ my father runs. 11. The train on ________ he is traveling is late. 12. I visited Hong Kong last month, ______ live my uncles and aunts. 13. Do you still remember the happy days _______ we spent together in Beijing? 14. Don't talk about such things _____ you are not sure about. 15. I have bought the same skirt _______ she is wearing. 16. He came out top in the exam, ______ made his family very happy. 17. Is this the reason ______ he is late again? 18. I don't think the reason ______ he explained at the meeting was reasonable. 19. Her parents wouldn't let her marry anyone _____ family was very poor. 20. Can you think of other ways _______ we can solve this problem? 21. I, ______ am your best friend, will help you out. 22. I attended the meeting last month, _______ lots of people talked about that topic. 23. The day will come ________ the people all over the world will win liberation. 24. On my birthday I got a watch from my uncle, _______ was made in Japan. 25. The students are talking about the strange people and stories _______ they met in the adventure. 26. This is Mr. Smith, ______ I think has something interesting to tell you. 27. He is the very man in ________ pocket I found my lost money. 28. _______was usual, he arrived at school just before class began. 29. I have a picture by a famous painter _______ is sent to me for my birthday. 30. Shenzhen is not the city _______ it used to be twenty years ago.

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语法复习 1 定语从句
II、实战演练 第一波: 用恰当的关系代词或关系副词填空: 1. that 2. which/that 3. who 4. that 5. with whom 6. that 7. that 8. where 9. that 10. whose 11. which 12. whose 13. during which 14. where 15. which 16. which 17. whom 18. which 19. why 20. which 21. As22. as 23. as 24. when, which 25. that 26.whose 27. as 28.who / that 实战演练 第二波: 用恰当的关系代词或关系副词填空: 1 which 2 whom 3 that 4 which 5 that 6 when 7 As 8 whose 9 where 10 that/which 11 which 12 where 13 that/which 14 as 15 as 16 which 17 why 18 that/which 19 whose 20 in which/that 21 who 22 where 23 when 24 which 25 that 26 who 27 whose 28 As 29 that/which 30 that

语法复习 1 定语从句
II、实战演练 第一波: 用恰当的关系代词或关系副词填空: 1. that 2. which/that 3. who 4. that 5. with whom 6. that 7. that 8. where 9. that 10. whose 11. which 12. whose 13. during which 14. where 15. which 16. which 17. whom 18. which 19. why 20. which 21. As22. as 23. as 24. when, which 25. that 26.whose 27. as 28.who / that 实战演练 第二波: 用恰当的关系代词或关系副词填空: 1 which 2 whom 3 that 4 which 5 that 6 when 7 As 8 whose 9 where 10 that/which 11 which 12 where 13 that/which 14 as 15 as 16 which 17 why 18 that/which 19 whose 20 in which/that 21 who 22 where 23 when 24 which 25 that 26 who 27 whose 28 As 29 that/which 30 that

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