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* 第十一篇 Climate Change Poses Major Risks for Unprepared Cities A new examination of urban policies has been ___1___ recently by Patricia Romero Lankao. She is a sociologist specializing in. cl

imate change and ___2___ development. She warns that many of the world's fast-growing urban areas, especially in developing countries, will likely1 suffer from the impacts of changing climate. Her work also concludes that most cities are failing to, ___3___ emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse ___4 ___. These gases are known to affect the atmosphere "Climate change is a deeply local issue and poses profound threats to the growing cities of the world," says Romero Lankao. "But too few cities are developing effective strategies to___5___their residents." Cities are ___6___sources of greenhouse gases. And urban populations are likely to2 be among those most severely affected by future climate change. Lankao's findings3 highlight ways in which city-residents are particularly vulnerable, and suggest policy interventions that could offer immediate and longer-term___7___ The locations and dense construction patterns of cities often place their populations at greater risk for natural disasters Potential ___8___associated with climate include storm surges4 and prolonged hot weather .Storm surges can flood coastal areas and prolonged hot weather can heal ___9___paved cities5 more than surrounding areas The impacts of such natural events can be more serious in an urban environment. For example, a prolonged heat wave can increase existing levels of air pollution, causing widespread health problems. Poorer neighborhoods that may ___10___basic facilities such as drinking water or a dependable network of roads , are especially vulnerable to natural disasters. Many residents in poorer countries live in substandard housing___11___access to reliable drinking water, roads and basic services Local governmenis___12___ should take measures to protect their residents "Unfortunately, they tend to move towards rhetoric___13___meaninoful responses7 " Romero Lankao writes "They don't impose construction standards that could reduce heating and air conditioning needs They don't emphasize mass transit and reduce___14___usc In fact. Many local governments are taking a hands-off approach8." Thus, she urges them to change their___15___policies and to take strong steps to prevent the harmful effects of climate change on cities. 词汇: Vulnerable adj.易受伤害的 infrastructure n.基础设施

sociologist n.社会学家 substandard dioxide floodplain 注释: l likely:很可能,或许。在本句中用作副词。 2 be likely to:很可能。likely 在本句中是形容词,用作表语。 3 findings:调查结果 4.storm surges;风暴潮 5.paved cities;铺上沥青路面的城市 6.spring;涌现 7.rhetoric …responses;言辞反应。这个词的意思是: (地方政府)话讲的很漂亮, 但内容空洞。 8. a hands-off approach;一种不插手的政策 练习 1. A carry along 2. A economic 3. A reduce 4. A crops 5. A educate 6. A doubtful 7. A uses 8. A threats 9. A locally 10. A provide 11. A without 12. A moreover 13. A other than 14. A train 15. A idle 答案与题解 1.C 本题的答案是 carried out (执行,完成) 。A new examination of urban policies has been carried out 意思上配的上。 carried along (携带) 。 Carried back (运回)与下文的意思搭配不上。 B carried away B industrial B increase B gases B evaluate B possible B chances B interests B heavily B improve B with B therefore B more than B automobile B smart C carried out C rural C study C fruits C protect C repeatable C cures C functions C suddenly C lack C in C however C less than C bus C busy D carried bank D urban D measure D plants D identify D major D benefits D differences D mildly D update D on D though D rather than D bile D secure adj.标准以下的 n.二氧化物 n.泛滥平原


通篇文章讨论 的是气候变 化对城市的影响及其应 对措施,并没有涉及

economic(经济的),industrial(工业的)和 rural(农村的)的话题。所以,这三个选项不 可能是答案,urban 才是答案。 3.A 前面一句谈到,发展中国家的飞速成长的城市备受气候变化的折磨。本句接 上一句的意思,大多数城市吗,没有做到减少二氧化碳的排放量。四个选项中要选 reduce 4.B 减少的不仅是二氧化碳,还有 greenhouse gases (温室气体)。Gases 是答 案。 5.C 城市应该采取有效的措施应对气候变化。采取措施的目的当然是为了保护城 市居民。可是 Lankao 发现这样做的城市太少了。本题选 protect 最合适。 6.D 前面说到大多数城市没有做到减少或控制二氧化碳的排放量。这说明 Cities are major sources of greenhouse gases( 城市是温室气候的主要来源 ) ,不会是 repeatable sources (不断重复的来源) 7.D 城市居民最易受到气候变化的伤害,所以 Lankao 建议地方政府要进行政策 介入以降低居民气候变化受到的伤害,为这会带来立即的和长期的益处。因此,uses, chances 和 cures 可以排除,benefits(益处)才是答案。 8.A 由 climate change 引发的 storm surges 和 prolonged hot weather 造成 的伤害挂不上号,不会是答案。storm surges 和 prolonged hot weather 对城市居民 会构成威胁。因此,threats 才是答案、 9.B 为什么 prolonged hot weather 对城市居民造成的伤害超过对其周边居民

造成的伤害?因为城市道路是大量铺设沥青的道路,heavily 是答案。其中三个选项不 符合上述意思。 10.C 贫穷社区更容易受到伤害, 句子给出有关基础设施的各个方面。 贫穷社区的 基础设施一定是不尽如人意的,所以选 lack。 11.A 贫穷国家许多人住在不符合标准的房子里。下面提到 reliable drinking

water , roads 和 basic services 这些基础设施,从上下文判断贫苦居民不会享有这些 基础设施。所以,选 without 比较合理。 12.B 本题的答案是 therefore。上文说的是气候变化给城镇居民带来的种种问

题。下文说的市地方政府应该采取相应的对策以保护城镇居民。两部分的叙述是一种因 果关系,所以要选 therefore。 13.D rhetoric responses( 言辞反应,即用言语搪塞的反应 ) 和 meaningful


随句子,特别是 a hand-off approach ,说明地方政府做出的是 rhetoric responses, 而不是 meaningful responses。所以本题要选 rather than(而不是) 。 14.B 剧中的?emphasize mass transit?提示,要减少的运输工具不会是大众交

通工具,因此选项中的 train 和 bus 便可排除。bike 是人力驱动,不会释放二氧化碳 也可以排除。 答案是 automobile 。 私人汽车排放大量的二氧化碳是城市主要污染源之 一。 15.A “...many local government are taking a hand-off approach ”中的 a

hands-off approach 提示,Lankao 督促地方政府改变的一定是他们无所作为(idle) 的政策 idle 是正确的选择



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