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Part 1. Warming up 1.Now imagine there has been a big earthquake. 现在,假设有一次大地震。 (1)sth. happen to. sb.某事发生在某人身上 Did you hear what happened to David last night? 你听说大卫昨天晚上发生什么事了吗? What will happen to the children if Peter and Alice break up? 如果彼得和爱丽丝离婚孩子们将 怎么办? (2)happen to do sth.碰巧做某事 I happened to see Peter on the way to the bookstore yesterday. 昨天我去书店的路上碰巧遇见了彼得。 (3)It (so) happened that?碰巧...... It so happened that I saw Peter on the way to the bookstore yesterday. 昨天我去书店的路上碰巧遇见了彼得。 I happened to be out when he called. 他来访时,恰巧我出去了。 (= It happened that I was out when he called.) Part 2. Pre-reading, reading and comprehending 1. Imagine your home begins to shake and you must leave it right away. shake(v.) (shook, shaken) 摇动,震动 eg: Shake the bottle before taking the medicine. 服药之前将药瓶摇一摇。 使受震撼;使(信念等)动摇 eg: They were badly shaken by the news of her death. 她死的消息令他们大为震惊。 (指人)打颤,颤抖 eg: She was shaking with cold/laughter/fear/anger. 她冻得/笑得/吓得/气得浑身发抖。 shake(n.) (C 常用单数) 摇动,震动 eg: a shake of the head 摇头 拓展:shake hands with sb. = shake sb. by the hand = shake sb's hand 与某人握手 shake one's head 摇头(表示否定、怀疑、悲伤、不赞成) shake one's fist (at sb.) 向某人挥拳(表示愤怒或恐吓) 2. For three days the water in the village rose and fell, rose and fell. rise(vi.) “升起,升高”,其后不能接宾语,不能用于被动语态。 eg: 1.The sun rose at seven o'clock. 太阳七点种升起。 2.The balloon rose up slowly into the air. 气球冉冉升上天空。 3.Her temperature is still rising. 她的体温还在升高。 rise(vi.) (河水,物价等)上涨;提高;起身 eg: 1.The river is rising after the rain. 雨后河水涨了。 2.Prices have risen steadily during the past decade. 过去十年间物价一直在平稳地上涨。 3.His voice rose in excitement. 他激动得声音提高了。 4.The all rose from their seats to greet us. 他们都站起来迎接我们。 raise(vt.) 抬起,举起 eg: 1.He raised his arms above his head. 他把手臂举过头顶。 2.The box is too heavy, I can't raise it. 这箱子太重了,我举不起来。 3.If you have any question, please raise your hand. 如果有问题,请举手。 raise(vt.) 提高;提出;增加 eg: 1.He raised his voice. 他提高了嗓门。 2.The price of tomatoes has been raised recently. 最近西红柿的价格提高了。

3.He raisd a question at the meeting. 他在会上提出了一个问题。 raise(vt.) 抚养;饲养 eg: 1.She raised a lot of chickens. 她养了许多鸡。 2.The farmers raises cattle and sheep. 农场主饲养牛和羊。 3. In the farmyards, the chickens and even the pigs were too nervous to eat. 农家大院里,鸡甚至 猪都紧张得不想吃食。 too...to 结构一般表示否定含义,意为"太...以致于不能"eg:He is too old to work. 但 too...to 在下列情况下却表示肯定含义: ⑴ “never / not too …to”这一结构意思是“不太……所以能……”。双重否定表示肯定意义。例 如: One is never too old to learn. 活到老,学到老。 It is never too late to mend. 亡羊补牢,犹为未晚。 Tom didn’t get up too late to catch the early train. 汤姆起得早,赶上了早班火车。 eg:English is not too difficult to learn.英语并不太难学. (2) “too…not to …”这一结构表示肯定意义时,意思是“太……不会不……”。例如: She is too kind not to help you. 她这么好,不会不帮助你的 He is too wise not to see that.他很聪明,不会不懂这一点. (3)当 too 后的形容词是某种心理活动、 情绪状态的形容词, anxious, apt 有……的倾向的; 如 ( 易于) ,easy, eager, glad, happy, pleased, ready, willing 等时,too 表示肯定意义,相当于 very, extremely, 意思是“十分;极其”。例如: She is too easy to get angry. 她太易发脾气了。 He is to ready to help others. 他很乐于助人。 John is too eager to see Alice. 约翰极想见艾丽斯。 (4)当 too 前有 only, but, all,just,simple 等词时,“too…to…”结构不再表示否定意义,而是 表示肯定意义。too 相当于 very,意思是“非常;十分”。例如: I am only too glad to become a member of you. 我非常高兴成为你们中的一员。 We are but too eager to receive your invitation. 我们极渴望接到你们的邀请。 I'm only too glad to see you .见到你非常高兴. They are but too pleased to hear the news.他们听到这个消息,非常高兴. (5)与 cannot 连用时.不再表示否定意义,而是表示肯定意义,意思是“越……越好;无论…… 也/都不过分”。例如: You cannot be too careful to cross the street. 你过街时越小心越好。 eg:You cannot be too careful(=You can never be careful enough) to do your homework. 你做作业越仔细越好(=无论怎样仔细也不过分). (6)当不定式在句中作定语或真正的主语时. eg:There are too many problems to be solved.有很多问题有待解决. 4. In the city, the water pipes in some buildings cracked and burst.在市内,有些建筑物里的水 管爆裂开来。 burst(v.) (使)爆炸;胀破,爆破 eg: 1.Water-pipes often burst in cold weather. 水管在寒冷的天气里经常冻裂。 2.The balloon burst. 气球爆炸了。 burst(v.) (仅用于进行时)塞满,几乎要胀破(+with) eg: 1."More pudding?" "No, thanks. I'm bursting!" “再吃点布丁好吗?” “不了,谢谢,我肚子已经撑胀了。”

2.I am bursting with pride. 我自豪极了。 burst(n.) 爆炸,爆破;某事物的突然爆发 eg: A burst of hand-clapping followed the ending of the song.歌声结束之后响起了一阵掌声。 ▲拓展: (1)burst sth. open 突然或猛然打开 eg: The police burst the door open. 警察把门撞开了。 (2)burst in 突然进入(房间) eg: The police burst in and arrested the boy. 警察突然闯进逮捕了那个男孩。 (3)burst into sth. 突然或猛烈地发出或产生出某事物 eg: burst into tears/laughter 突然哭起来/笑起来 burst into anger 勃然大怒 (4)burst out (+ doing) 突然开始做某事 eg: burst out crying/laughing/singing 突然哭起来/笑起来/唱起来

5. But the one million people of the city, who thought little of these events, were asleep as usual
that night. think little of 不放在心上;看扁,轻视 eg: 1.Most people thought little of the 8-year-old boy. In fact, they were wrong. 大多数人小看了这个8岁的男孩。事实上,他们错了。 2.Sometimes, we must notice details. If you think little of one, you will be punished.有 时候,我们必须注意到细节,如果你忽视一个细节,你就会受到惩罚。 拓展:think well / highly of 高度评价/赞扬 think poorly / badly of 认为......很差;对......评价很低 另外:think of ... as ... 把...... 认为是...... eg: I thought of him as my best friend. However, he treated me as an enemy. 我把他看作我最好的朋友,然而,他却把我当敌人。 6. It seemed as if the world was at an end. 世界似乎到了末日。 at an end 结束,终结 = finished,为固定短语,在句中常作表语。 eg: The war was at an end. 战争结束了。 辨析: at the end (of) 在......的尽头;在......的结束,可表时间或空间。 eg: 1.At the end of the street, you'll find a supermarket. 在大街的尽头,你会看见一家超市。 2.At the end of the party, he sang a beautiful song.在聚会结束时,他唱了一首优美的歌曲。 in the end 最后,终于 = at last,不能和of连用。 eg: He tried many times, and in the end he succeeded.他多次努力,最后终于成功了。 by the end of 到......末为止,到......结束时,通常和完成时连用。 eg: 1.How many words had you learned by the end of last term? 到上学期末为止,你们已学习多少个单词了? 2.We'll have finished the work by the end of this month.到本月底我们将完成这项工作。 It seemed + that从句是一个句型,表示“看起来好象”。 eg: It seemed that he didn't notice this. 看起来他好象没注意这件事。 It seemed 后还常跟as if从句。如果与事实相反,则用虚拟语气;如果与事实一致,则保 持正常时态。 eg: 1.There is a lot of cloud. It seems as if it's going to rain. 有这么多乌云,看起来好象要下雨了。 (是事实,不用虚拟)

2.She is so kind to me. It seems as if she were my mother. 她对我非常好,看起来好象她是我的母亲。 (事实上不是,与现在事实相反) sb. 作主语时,seem后常跟adj. 作表语。 eg: He seemed a little angry. 他看起来有点生气。 7. In fifteen terrible seconds a large city lay in ruins. 在可怕的 15 秒钟内, 一座大城市就沦落为 一片废墟之中。 ruin(n.) U 毁坏,毁灭;灭亡 eg: The war brought ruin to the country. 战争给这个国家带来了毁灭。 C 废墟;遗迹 eg: The school is in ruins. 那所学校已成废墟。 注意:ruin表示“废墟;遗迹”常用复数,常构成短语in ruins,意为“严重受损;破败不堪”。 eg: the ruins of ancient Rome 古罗马遗迹 The war left the whole town in ruins. 战争过后,全城到处是颓垣断壁。 His career lies in ruins. 他已事业尽毁。 ruin(v.) 毁坏,毁灭;使破产 有一般“弄坏了”之意,也有比喻的意思。 eg: The fire ruined the books in the library. 大火焚毁了图书馆的藏书。 The storm ruined the crops. 暴风雨毁坏了庄稼。 He ruined his prospects by carelessness. 他因疏忽大意而断送了前途。 I was ruined by that law case. 我被那场官司弄得倾家荡产。 8.Thousands of families were killed and many children were left without parents. (1)thousand of 意为“成千上万的。。”, 。。 指不确切的数量。 如果要表示准确的数量, thousand 前面加数字,不变复数形式,后面不接 of,直接跟复数名词。具有相同用法的还有:million, hundred, dozen, score 等。 (2)dozen 表示“打,十二个”的意思,而 score 表示“二十”的意思。Score 前面不管有没有 数字,习惯上后面都接介词 of. three score of people (3)以上各词与 of 连用(of 不省略)时,可用于人称代词宾格(us, you, them)或指示代 词 (these, those) 修饰的名词前, 表示所属关系。 a dozen of these people, two dozen of them 如: (4)修饰语是 some, many, several 等表示不确定的数量词时,则 dozen, hundred 等常用复数 形式,且要加 of. some dozens of people several hundreds of persons (5)several hundreds/thousands of 中的 hundreds,thousands 也可改为单数,其中 of 也可省 去 several hundred of visitors several hundred visitors 1.________ people in the world are sending information by e-mail every day. A. Several million B. Many millions C. Several millions D. Many million 2.Mr. Smith ________ me to buy several ________eggs for the dinner party. A. asked; dozen B. suggested; dozens of C. had; dozen D. persuaded; dozens 3.Two _____ died of cold last winter. A.hundreds old people B.hundred old people C.hundreds old peoples D.hundred old peoples 4. Several ______ ago, our country was covered by thick forestes.

A.million of year B.million year C.millions years D.millions of years 5.There were seven ______ Negroes working on the farm. A.hundreds B.hundred of C.hundreds of D.hundred 6. _______ were blown down in the storm. A.Score of tree B.Scores of trees C.Score of trees D.Scores of tree 7. He sold _____ of the magazine this afternoon. A.three dozen copy B.three dozens copy C.three dozen copies D.three dozens copies 8.It is reported that the floods have left about people homeless.? A.two thousand B.two-thousands C.two thousands D.two thousands of 9.She went to the bookstore and bought .? A.dozen books ? B.dozens books C.dozen of books ? D.dozens of books 9. Sand now filled the wells instead of water. instead of “代替,而不是” (后接名词,代词,动名词,介词短语等,但不能接句子) eg. Give me the red one instead of the green one. We walked down the stairs instead of taking the lift. He came by train instead of by bus. instead 是副词,在句子单独作状语,置于句首时,意为“相反地” 。 10. People began to wonder how long the disaster would last. 人们开始纳闷,这场灾难还会 持续多久。 (1)wonder(vt. / vi) “感到惊奇,感到好奇”;“不知道,想知道” wonder to do 疑问词 + to do + 宾语从句 at / about 介词短语 eg: 1.I wondered to hear her voice in the next room. 我听到隔壁传出她的声音, 十分惊讶。 2.I was wondering where to spend the weekend. 我不知道到哪儿去度周末。 3.She is always wondering about others' srcrets. 她总是对别人的秘密感到好奇。 4.I wonder who he is, where he comes from and why he comes.我想知道他是谁,从哪 里来,来干什么。 wonder可构成句型: wonder if ...是一种用来委婉客气地提出请求或征求对方许可的表达 I 方式。 eg: I wonder if you could show us how to get to the station.不知您能否告诉我们到车站怎么 走。 wonder(n.) U 惊奇,惊叹,惊异 eg: They were filled with wonder at the sight. 他们见此情景惊叹不已。 C 令人感到惊叹的事物;奇观,奇迹 eg: the seven wonders of the world 世界七大奇迹 拓展: It is a wonder that ... 令人惊奇的是......;莫名其妙的是...... eg: It is a wonder that he remained alive after dropping from the roof of a ten-storey building.他从一幢十层楼的大厦的屋顶上摔下来,但仍然活着,真是奇迹。 No wonder that ... 难怪......;......不足为奇

eg: She has been studying hard. No wonder that she always takes the first place. 她学习一直很刻苦,她总是得第一不足为奇。 (2)last vi. 持续,维持 The Civil War lasted four years.内战持续了四年。 11. All hope was not lost.不是所有的希望都破灭了。该句为部分否定。all, both, everyone, everybody, everything 以及 every+名词都表示全部肯定;但当 not 在它们之前或之后都表示 部分否定。no one, none nobody, nothing, not?any, 以及 no+名词都表示全部否定。如: ① Both of them haven’t read this story.并非他们二人都看过这个故事。 ② All of the boys are clever, but none of them can work out this problem. 这些男孩都很聪明,但没有一个人能解出这道题。 ③ All bamboo doesn’t grow tall.=Not all bamboo grows tall. 并非所有的竹子都长的高

12. The army organized teams to dig out those who were trapped and to bury the dead.
(1) be trapped in 陷入困境 They were trappend in the burning building. (2) bury 埋葬,掩埋 be buried in / bury oneself in 埋头于,专心于 (3)the dead 死者,表示一类人。形容词前加the常用来表示一类人或一类东西。 eg: the rich 富人 the young 年轻人 the old 老年人 the deaf 聋人 the blind 盲人 the injured 受伤的人 the new 新的东西 the ordinary 普普通通的东西 the unusual 不同寻常的东西 注意:"the + 形容词" 作主语时,谓语动词的单复数形式由上下文的意思而定。如表示一类 人,作复数看待;如表示抽象概念或具体的某个人时,谓语动词用单数。 eg: 1.The young respect the old; the old love the young. 尊老爱幼。 2.All the injured have been sent to hospita. 所有受伤的人都已送往医院。 3.The new in our class comes from London. 我们班新来的那个同学来自伦敦。 4.The unknown is always something to be feared. 未知的东西总是令人畏惧的东西。

13. Workers built shelters for survivors whose homes had been destroyed.
shelter(n.) 遮蔽;庇护,常与from搭配使用。 eg: 1.They took shelter from the rain under a big tree. 他们在一棵大树下避雨。 2.The high fence gives us some shelter from the wind.这道高栅栏给我们 挡住了风。 遮蔽物;避难所,收容所 eg: 1.a bus shelter 候车亭 2.Many of the children in the shelter are orphans.收容所里有好多孩子是孤儿。 shelter(vt.) shelter sb/sth from sb/sth 给某人/某物提供庇护处;保护 eg: The wall sheltered us from the wind. 墙壁遮挡着,使我们免遭风吹。 shelter(vi.) 躲避;避难 eg: 1.Where can we shelter from the rain? 我们到哪儿避雨呢? 2.They sheltered from the sun under a tree.他们在树底下乘凉。

14. 表示“许多,大量的”的短语归纳: 只能修饰可数名词的短语 a large/great/good number of a great/good many + 复数名词 a good few/quite a few many a + 单数名词(作主语时,谓语动词用单数) 只能修饰不可数名词的短语 a great/good deal of a large/great amount of large/great amounts of quite a little 既可修饰可数名词也可修饰不可数名词的短语 a lot of/lots of a large/great quantity of large quantites of plenty of

注意:quantity修饰名词时,谓语动词不是根据名词判断,而是看quantity的形式, 如 果 是 a quantity of , 动 词 就 用 第 三 人 称 单 数 ; 如 果 是 quantities of, 动词就用复数的形式。 A large quantity of air-conditioners has been sold since the temperature is high.
Part 3. Learning about Language This frightened boy whose mother was lost in the disaster is looking for her now. frighten vt. 使惊吓;吓唬 vi. 惊吓;害怕 The noise frightened me. You’ll find that I don’t frighten easily. frightened adj. 受惊吓的;受恐吓的 frightening adj. 令人恐惧的 be frightened at 受。。惊吓 。 frighten sb. into/out of doing sth. 恐吓某人使其做/不做某事 Part 4. Using Language 1. congratulation(n.)“祝贺”,一般要用复数形式,常与on连用。 eg: 1.Let's offer our congratulations on her success. 对她的成功表示祝贺。 2.Congratulations on winning the race. 祝贺你比赛获胜。 注意:表示向某人祝贺,接介词to。 eg: 1.Congratulations to you. 祝贺你。 2.Let's send our congratulations to him on winning the Nobel Prize. 让我们祝贺他获得诺贝尔奖。 congratulate(v.) “祝贺,恭喜;道贺,向......致词”,其后只接表示人的名词作宾语,表示祝 贺的原因时用介词on / upon。 eg: 1.I congratulated my girlfriend on her birthday. 我向女友祝贺生日。 2.Let me congratulate you on the birth of your daughter. 我祝贺你喜获千金。 3.We congratulated him on having passed the examination.

我们祝贺他通过了考试。 congratulate(v.) 也常与反身代词连用,再接on / upon或that从句,意为“庆幸(自己)......”。 eg: 1.He congratulated himself that he escaped from the earthquake. 他为自己能从地震中逃脱而感到庆幸。 2.She congratulated herself on having thought of such a good idea. 她为自己能想出这样的好主意而感到高兴。 2. judge(n.) 法官;裁判 eg: 1.a Judge of High Court 高等法院法官 2.Do you know who will be the judge of the speaking competition? 你知道谁是这次演讲比赛的裁判吗? judge(v.) 裁决,判断,评判 eg: 1.A man should be judged by what he did, not what he said. 要评判一个人,应该着眼其所做所为,而不是他所说的。 2.Who will judge next case? 下个案子由谁审判? 拓展:judge常用一个分词短语judging by/from来表达“根据......来判断”。 eg: Judging by his clothes, he must be a commom worker. 从他的衣着判断,他一定是个普通工人。 3. proud(adj.) “骄傲的,自豪的;自尊的,自重的;自负的” 短语:be proud of/take pride in pride(n.) “骄傲,自豪,得意;自尊心” eg: 1.She showed us her new house with great pride. 她非常自豪地让我们看她的新房子。 2.The old man looked with pride at his garden. 老人得意地看着自己的花园。 3.Don't say anything that may hurt his pride. 不要说任何可能伤害他自尊心的话。 4. honour(v.) “使......感到荣幸;尊敬,对......表示尊敬” eg: 1.I'm honoured to be here with you. 和你们在一起我感到很荣幸。 2.They gave a state banquet to honour his visit to China. 他们举行国宴欢迎他的访华。 honour(n.) U 荣誉,光荣,信誉 eg: 1.To lose honour is to lose more than life. 失去信誉甚于失去生命。 2.We should win honour for our country. 我们应该为国争光。 C(多用单数)使感到光荣的事或人;荣幸 eg: 1.It is an honour to meet you. 很荣幸见到你。 2.I consider it an honour to be accepted by that firm. 能被那个公司录用我感到很荣幸。 拓展: do sb. honour / do honour to sb. “对某人表示敬意;给某人带来荣誉” eg: 1.They did honour to the dead. 他们向死者致敬。 2.We attended his birthday party to do him honour. 我们参加了他的生日宴会以表示对他的敬意。 3.His contributions to science do honour to our country. 他在科学上的贡献为祖国增了光。 have the honour of doing sth. / have the honour to do sth. “有幸做某事;荣幸地做某事” eg: 1.That year I had the honour of being admitted by the Party. 那一年我光荣地被接受入党。

2.I have the honour to introduce Mr Jones. 我很荣幸地介绍琼斯先生。 in honour of “为了向......表示敬意;为纪念......,为祝贺......” eg: 1.We had a party in honour of his birthday. 为了祝贺他的生日我们举行了一个宴会。 2.This is a ceremony in honour of those killed in battle. 这是为纪念阵亡战士而举行的仪式。


2015—2016学年度高中英语必修一 Unit4学案 教案 知识...

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