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一、常见的设问形式 1.Which of the following is NOT included/mentioned in the passage? 2.Which of the following (sentences/statements) is NOT true according to the passage? 3.According to the passage,a

ll of the following are TRUE except/but________. 4.The author mentions all of the following EXCEPT________. 5.In the passage,the author states that ________. 6.According to the passage,when (where,why,how,who,etc.)... 二、常见题型 1.描写类细节题。 2.数据计算题。 3.排序题。 4.信息寻找、广告阅读题。 5.图文转换题。 6.表格理解题。

三、选项设题方式 1.语意转换。细节理解题设题时为了避免出现原文中所用的词汇,常常 使用一些同义词、近义词或反义词(双重否定)。因而在解题时要注意语意 转换。 2.设题顺序。一般来说,题序与其相关信息在文中的顺序一致,如某题 的答案信息往往会在下一小题的答案信息之前。 3.设题干扰项。 (1)正误并存:部分正确,部分错误。 (2)扩大或缩小范围:是原文信息,但不是题干要求。 (3)偷换概念:符合常识,但不是文章的内容。 (4)以偏概全:与原句的内容极其相似,但在程度、态度、褒贬色彩上有变 动。 (5)无中生有:明显不是文章的信息,与文章事实不符或相反。

四、解题步骤 1.迅速定位,缩小范围。通过寻读法(scanning),用题干中的关键词在文 中搜索,迅速确定相关词句或信息点所在的位置,缩小阅读范围。 2.理解其意,对照选项。在找到关键词句后,要仔细阅读,准确理解, 对照选项,看哪个选项的意思与之最接近。 3.排除干扰,选出答案。在作出选择的过程中,要善于辨别真伪,排除 干扰,不断缩小范围,选出正确答案。 注意:解题时要留意否定词,如果题干中含有否定意义的词,如NOT, EXCEPT等,应特别留心。在解答排序题时,可采用“首尾定位法”,即 先找到第一个动作和最后一个动作,缩小范围以便能迅速选出正确答案。

典例精析 例1 Tuition Fees(学费) Tuition fees are different from department to department,generally from $5,000 to $6,000 a year.For further information: tui@waikato.ac.nz. Accommodation(住宿) You can have a room in a 4bedroom flat,which will cost about $100 a month with other regular living costs of about $150 a month for one person.For further information:acc@waikato.ac.nz. B year if you study at the University of Q: You have to pay at least ___a Waikato. Choices: A.$5,250 B.$8,000 C.$9,000 D.$11,000 解析: $5,000(学费)+$100(住宿费)×12(months)+$150(生活 费)×12(months)=$8,000。

例2 People can use a home computer to make their shopping lists.Once at the store,a shopper can use a preferred customer card to start a system(系 统)that will organize the trip around the store.If you're looking for toothpicks,you type in the word or pick it from a list,and a map will appear on the screen showing where you are and where you can find them. The devices also keeps a record of what you buy.When you've finished,the device figures out your bill.Then you go to the checker or place your card into a selfcheckout stand and pay. Q: Which of the following is the correct order of shopping with the B computerized shopping card?________ a.Start the system. b.Make a shopping list. c.Find the things you want. d.Go to a selfcheckout stand. Choices" A.abdc B.bacd C.acbd D.bcad 解析:排序题。 由第一段第一句话可知第一件事是make a shopping list。 去到商店后“start the system”,根据指引“you can find them”,最后 去结账,故顺序为bacd。本题也可采用排除法,c和d是相邻且为先后的顺 序,故排除A、C、D。本题还可结合自己的购物常识进行快速判断。

例3 In the animal kingdom, weakness can bring about aggression in other animal. This sometimes happens with humans also. But I have found that my weakness brings out the kindness in people.I see it every day when people hold doors for me, pour cream into my coffee, or help me to put on my coat. And I have discovered that it makes them happy. A Q: The author has discovered that people will feel happy when ________ . A.they offer their help B.they receive others' help C.they feel others' kindness D.they show their weakness 解析: 事实细节题。关键是理清该句中的it,它指的是前文中的“the kindness in people”,其具体行为是“people hold doors for me,pour cream into my coffee,or help me to put on my coat”,人们的这些行为概 括起来,就是they offer their help,故选A。文中信息与选项表述的关系是 具体与概括的关系。排除干扰项C.

? 即学即练 (一 ) Mothers,doctors and nurses alike have no idea of where a baby's blood sugar level lies. All we know is that a low level is harmful to brain development and makes a baby easily annoyed. In this state, the baby is difficult to calm down and sleep is impossible. The baby asks for attention by crying and searching for food with its mouth. Q: According to the Paragraph,one reason why a baby cries is that it feels D ________ . A.sick B.upset C.sleepy D.hungry 解析:事实细节题。由该段最后一句“The baby asks for attention by crying and searching for food with its mouth.”可知。hungry是searching for food的近义替换。



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