当前位置:首页 >> >> Final exam

Final exam


SE362 Lecture 32: CMMI & Process Improvement
Todd Veldhuizen July 25, 2007 Contents 1 Software process assessment: CMMI and SPICE Final exam ? Aug 8, 12:30-3pm, PAC 7 ? Format will be similar to midterm: – Multiple choice – Short answer, marks given for explanations, not yes/no ? Scope: – ≥ 90% of the exam will be on material June 6 or later – ≤ 20% of questions will be based on readings ? In the longer readings, e.g., Olson and Olson, focus on ‘big ideas’. – Balance of questions drawn from lecture notes 1 – No emphasis on architecture, design, assessment of the software, deployment – Overemphasizes quality by ‘policing’: peer reviews, inspections, traditional QA; neglects ?nding big ?aws in architecture – CMM requires more documents, more checkpoints, more artifacts, more reviews, more plans. ? The thicker the documents, the better – Activity based: if you do these activities, you are mature. (Nothing to characterize if you are doing these activities competently.) – Emphasized process over outcomes CMMI History Source: [3] ? CMMI resulted from a team of 100 people from defense contractors (Boeing, Lockheed, Raytheon, etc.) and SEI ? There were 34 models based on CMM that were integrated to form the CMMI ? The CMMI is a ‘meta-model’ that tries to be general enough to subsume all the CMM variants ? ‘Needless to say, any set of documents created by a hundred people by de?nition must be a compromise solution.’ CMMI History

1 Software process assessment: CMMI and SPICE Software Process Assessment (SPA) Sources: [1, 2] ? SPAs are audits that assess an organization’s software processes. ? CMMI (Capability Maturity Model Integration) – CMM now obsolete; CMMI introduced in 2000 (?), CMM appraisals expire December 31, 2007. – Updates the CMM to be consistent with modern thinking on SE ? ISO/IEC 15504 ‘SPICE’ (Software Process Improvement and Capability dEtermination) CMM Source: [5]

? Introduced in 1990. ? De?nes 5 levels of ‘software maturity’ – Level 1 (initial): immature or unde?ned process – Level 2 (repeatable): requirements management, (Figure—Source: [1]) project planning, tracking, quality assurance, con?gCMMI uration management – Level 3 (de?ned): ‘organizational process focus’, Sources: [5, 1] process de?nition, training program, peer reviews ? Process areas (22): – Level 4 (managed): process measurement and – Causal Analysis and Resolution (CAR) (identify causes analysis, quality management, defect prevention of selected defects, take action to prevent them in the – Level 5 (optimizing): technology innovation, process future) change management – Con?guration Management (CM) ? Most organizations aimed for Level 3. – Requirements Development (RD) ? Criticisms of CMM (by Royce the younger): – Requirements Management (RM) – ... – Activities + artifacts encourage waterfall mentality: – Validation (VAL) requirements spec frozen before design, ‘big design – Veri?cation (VER) up front’, etc. 1

? Generic Practices: apply across the process areas

points for software... Estimate the attributes of the work products and tasks.” – Establish an Organizational Policy (de?ne organizational expectations for a process) – Plan the Process (process description, roles, etc.) – Provide Resources (provide adequate resources for ? CMMI cannot be used as a guide for process development the work) on its own; instead you need to ‘?ll in the blanks’ – Assign Responsibility (for performing the process etc.) – Train People (to perform or support the process) – Manage Con?gurations – Identify and Involve Relevant Stakeholders – Monitor and Control the Process – Objectively Evaluate Adherence – Review Status with Higher Level Management – ... – Ensure Continuous Process Improvement CMMI – Correct Root Causes of Problems – – – – Project Planning Project Monitoring and Control Supplier Agreement Management Integrated Project Management (integration with the organization, e.g., managing stakeholder involvement) – Risk Management – Quantitative Project Management (metrics)

? CMMI addresses six project management areas:

? Also has ?ve maturity levels (in the staged ?avour of CMMI; also available in a ‘continuous’ ?avour) – Level 1 (initial): ad hoc methods and unpredictable results – Level 2 (managed): repeatable project performance. Requirements management, project planning, con?guration management, etc. – Level 3 (de?ned): processes consistent across projects, multi-stakeholder requirements, evolutionary design, veri?cation + validation, risk management, training – Level 4 (quantitatively managed): collecting metrics + exploiting historical results of projects to achieve tradeoffs between cost, quality, and timeliness; statistical quality-control methods – Level 5 (optimized): rapidly recon?gurable + quantitative, continuous process improvement. ? CMMI also focuses on activities, but incorporates many modern best practices, and discourages waterfall mentality (e.g. explicit feedback loop between requirements development and delivery/demo of products to customer) ? Things CMMI encourages that are consistent with iterative methods: – – – – – Attack risks early with an iterative lifecycle Establish a change management environment Enhance change freedom with round-trip engineering Instrument the process for objective quality control Establish a scalable, con?gurable process

(Figure—Basic Project Management Process Areas [1])

CMMI

? CMMI is somewhat vague: it often tells you what to do, but not how to do it. E.g., estimation – part of Project Planning (PP) – Develop a Work Breakdown Structure (WBS), identify work packages in enough detail to allow estimation – “Use appropriate methods to determine the attributes of the work products and tasks that will be used to estimate the resource requirements... Examples of current methods include... Lines of code or function

2 (Figure—Advanced Project Management Process Areas [1])

CMMI

? Five categories of processes: – Customer-Supplier (CUS) – Engineering (ENG) – Project process category (PRO) – Support process category (SUP) – Organizational process category (ORG) ? Also has ?ve capability levels: – Level 1: Performed – Level 2: Managed – Level 3: Established (process de?nition & deployment) – Level 4: Predictable (process measurement & control) – Level 5: Optimising (innovation & optimization) ? Very high-level, e.g., ENG.3.1 Develop software architectural design. Transform the software requirements into a software architecture that describes the top-level structure and identi?es its major (Figure—Engineering Process Areas [1]) components. CMMI vs. Agile Methods ? Hence, numerous approaches can be made compatible Source: [6] with 15504. ? Comparison of CMMI to agile methods, by experts in ? Appears to be ‘big design up front’, with some allowances agile methods and CMMI at USC workshop for staged release ? Classi?ed the 40 components of CMMI as con?ict- ? Emphasis on documentation and traceability. ing/supporting/neutral of agile methods. ? SEI is working to improve the compatability of CMMI ? Found 17/40 components con?icted with ISO/IEC 15504. ? Found 22/40 components supportive or neutral Bibliography ? Philosophical differences identi?ed by survey: References – What provides customer trust? [1] CMMI Product Team. CMMI for Development, Version 1.2. ? CMMI: Process infrastructure Technical Report CMU/SEI-2006-TR-008, Carnegie Mellon ? Agile: Working software, participation Software Engineering Institute, August 2006. bib pdf – Scope of approach: [2] Robert T. Futrell, Donald F. Shafer, and Linda I. Shafer. ? CMMI: Broad, inclusive, organizational Quality Software Project Management. Prentice-Hall, 2002. ? Agile: Small, focused bib – Where knowledge created during projects resides: [3] Donald J. Reifer. The CMMI: it’s formidable. Journal of ? CMMI: Process assets Systems and Software, 50(2):97–98, 2000. bib pdf ? Agile: People [4] Terence P. Rout. ISO/IEC 15504—Evolution to an international standard. Software Process Improvement and Practice, – Perceived mindset of practitioners: 8:27–40, 2003. bib pdf ? CMMI: Disciplined, follow rules, risk averse [5] Walker Royce. CMM vs. CMMI: From conventional to modern ? Agile: Informal, creative, risk taking software management. Technical report, Rational Software – Scaling challenges: Corporation, February 2002. bib pdf ? CMMI: Scaling down: doable, but dif?cult [6] Richard Turner and Apurva Jain. Agile meets CMMI: Culture ? Agile: Scaling up: unde?ned clash or common cause? In Don Wells and Laurie A. Williams, – Goals of the approach: editors, Extreme Programming and Agile Methods - XP/Agile Universe 2002, Second XP Universe and First Agile Universe ? CMMI: Predictability, stability Conference Chicago, IL, USA, August 4-7, 2002, Proceedings, ? Agile: Performance, speed SPICE Source: [4] ? Software Process Improvement and Capability dEtermination (SPICE) aka ISO/IEC 15504 ? ISO/IEC standard for software process assessment ? Inspired by CMM and ISO 9001, but tries to harmonize numerous models ? Conducted trials of the draft standard: – Companies implemented the draft standard and providing feedback ? http://www.sqi.gu.edu.au/spice/
volume 2418 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 153–165. Springer, 2002. bib pdf

3


赞助商链接
更多相关文档:

CCNA_第二学期期末考试_Final_Exam

CCNA_第二学期期末考试_Final_Exam_教育学_高等教育_教育专区 暂无评价|0人阅读|0次下载|举报文档 CCNA_第二学期期末考试_Final_Exam_教育学_高等教育_教育专区...

ITEFinal-Exam期末考试(中文)(答案突显版)

ITEFinal-Exam期末考试(中文)(答案突显版)_学科竞赛_小学教育_教育专区。有趣实用 1) ? ? ? ? ? 下列哪个电源标准会影响计算机中安装的内置驱动器数量? +5 ...

ITEFinal Exam期末考试(中文)

ITEFinal Exam期末考试(中文)_教育学_高等教育_教育专区。分享一些题 1) ? ? ? ? ? 下列哪个电源标准会影响计算机中安装的内置驱动器数量? +5 伏直流输出 +...

Final Exam 1

Final Exam 1 - Final Exam 1 (总分:100 分 答卷时间:40 分钟) 听力部分(34 分) 一、听录音,选出你所听到的内容。 (8 分) ( )1. A. tige...

Final exam

Final exam_英语学习_外语学习_教育专区。Bank risk management Spring 2016 Final exam (Total score: 50) Name ___ Student ID __ Bank risk management Sprin...

Cisco第一学期ENetwork Final Exam答案

ENetwork Final Exam Ci... 30页 免费 思科_ENetwork_Final_Ex... 25页 免费 思科_ENetwork_Final_Ex... 25页 2下载券 思科_ENetwork_Final_Ex... 25...

Final_Exam_Marketing

Final_Exam_Marketing_英语考试_外语学习_教育专区。Marketing! Final Exam 33/40 Question 1 Professor Kahn demonstrated the use of a Value Map. According to...

final exam paper (regional anatomy)

final exam paper (regional anatomy)_英语考试_外语学习_教育专区。Examination Paper of Regional Anatomy for Pakistani Students Ⅰ Mark ⅡⅢⅣⅤⅥ Score I. ...

阅读练习题:关于期末考试final exam

阅读练习题:关于期末考试final exam_英语_高中教育_教育专区。优尼全能英语提供最丰富的英语学习资料,更多英语学习资讯请登录优尼全能英语官网查看。优尼...

Final Exam of Macroeconomics

Final Exam of Macroeconomics_英语学习_外语学习_教育专区。Final Exam The Power of Macroeconomics: Economic Principles in the Real World coursera ...

更多相关标签:
网站地图

文档资料共享网 nexoncn.com copyright ©right 2010-2020。
文档资料共享网内容来自网络,如有侵犯请联系客服。email:zhit325@126.com