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高考英语高中英语语法之【非谓语动词】


第四章 非谓语动词
第一节 基本知识与基本概念 【什么是非谓语动词?】 用最庸俗的方式说,动词在使用中一般有六种形式:原形,单数第三人称形式,过去式形 式,不定式形式,-ing 形式,-ed 形式。其中,前三种形式可以单独作谓语,而后三种则没 有这个能力。如: I do the housework every morning. My wife never does an

ything at home. But she did it when we first got married. 以上三个句子就是很正确的英语。但是,如果把其中的谓语换成 to do, doing, done 就不成 立了。这就是上面说的它们三个没有能力独立作谓语。其中, “独立”二字非常重要,因为, 如果有其他词的帮助,就可以了。如: The Whites are planning to buy a third car. They have sold their house. 综上所述,所谓的非谓语动词指的就是动词的不定式形式,-ing 形式,-ed 形式等三种 形式。与非谓语动词相关的考点也都将围绕着这三种形式展开。 【非谓语动词形式的基本特征】 一、不定式形式,-ing 形式,-ed 形式均没有“时”的标记。但不定式形式和-ing 形式有 “体”和“态”的特征。既前面二者有一般进行体、完成体和完成进行体之分;有主动态和 被动态之分。-ed 形式比较特殊,它既没有“时”的标记,也没有“体”和“态”的特征。 二、非谓语动词也有及物不及物之分;如果是及物动词又有单宾、双宾和复合宾语及物 动词之分。因此,非谓语动词后面同样可以有补足成分。如: 跟补语: to feel thirsty getting cold 跟宾语: to do one’s work drinking wine 跟状语: to fly high eating carelessly 三、非谓语动词也有否定形式,即把否定词 not 直接置于其前。如: to do --- not to do doing --- not doing having done --- not having done 四、非谓语动词词组中的不定式和-ing 形式在句子中可以起名词词组的作用。如: To teach is to learn twice. Drinking will not help you out of the trouble. He was accused of polluting the lake. 以上诸例中的 to teach, to learn, drinking, polluting 这些结构既有动词的意义,有起 到了名词词组的作用。这样的功能在谓语动词形式(do, does, did)来说,是绝对没有的。 这也是同学们经常在写作中犯的错误之一。-ed 形式也没有这个功能。 五、非谓语动词形式可以起形容词的作用。如: drinking water smiling faces a frozen pond boiled eggs 【什么是逻辑主语和逻辑宾语】 逻辑主语和逻辑宾语是老师讲解非谓语动词相关知识经常提及的两个概念。 它们是针对语 法主语和语法宾语提出来的。 从语法上讲, 只有句子的谓语动词才有资格有自己的语法上的 主语和语法上的宾语,就是我们平时所说的主语和宾语。如果该动词作的不是谓语动词,那

么,它的施动者和受动者就不能被称为主语和宾语,只能被称为逻辑主语和逻辑宾语。 【关系---解决非谓语动词题目的金钥匙】 由于考查非谓语动词的题目形式变化多样,思路无常。所以,我们做起题来有不少困难。 但是, 有一个思路是非常可靠的, 那就是从分析非谓语动词与其逻辑主语或逻辑宾语之间的 关系入手,这样做可能不能解决所有的问题,但绝对是一个正确的开始。称的上是打开非谓 语动词题目大门的一把金钥匙。 【高考在非谓语动词范畴内的四个出题层面】 如果总结一下近几年高考在非谓语动词方面的考题,可以看出,题目均出自以下四个不 同的层面: 层面一、谓语动词和非谓语动词之辨 这个层面也是介入非谓语动词知识领域的第一个层面,属于最表层的出题点。这个 考点考查的是考生的最基本的能力, 既能否根据题干所给的信息判断空白处是否是非谓语动 词形式的能力。如: _____ some of the juice--- perhaps you’ll like it. (2000 年春) A. Trying B. Try C. To try D. Have tried 答案:B. 解析:这个题中,题干中的破折号起着至关重要的作用。它表示前后两个分句 之间是并列关系,即谁都不是谁的句子成分。所以如果选择了 A, C, D 三个选项,就意味着 把前面的分句处理成了一个状语,不成立。只有 B 选项是动词原形,这样前面是个祈使句。 ______ his reply, so I decided to write to him again. A. Not having received B. Having not received C. Because I didn’t receive D. I didn’t receive 答案:D. 解析:这个题目也是考查考生的注意力和对句子结构的基本概念的掌握。中间 有个并列连词 so。这就意味着前面必须是个独立的句子,而不是非谓语动词结构作状语。 层面二、to do, doing, done 之辨 这个出题层就已经进入了非谓语动词知识领域的内部。 这三种非谓语动词的基本形式在 具体的使用中有着种种不同, 要求考生根据自己的掌握一一应对。 本书将在本章第二节中进 行详细阐述。典型例题如下: _______ their service, the workers of the hotel are active in learning English. A. Improving B. To improve C. Improve D. Having improved 答案: B。 解析: 根据题干的意思表达需要, 前面的状语最好处理成目的状语。 而 to do, doing, done 三者中能作目的状语的只有不定式短语。所以只能选 B。 The purpose of new technologies is to make life easier, _____ it more difficult. (NMET1999) A. not make B. not to make C. not making D. made 答案:B。解析:题干的意思是“新技术的目的是为了使生活更轻松而不是更困难。 ”这个 题干属于没有连词的不定式的并列结构,这时,不定式符号 to 不能被省略。因此,能使题 干完整的选项只有 B。 层面三、各非谓语动词形式内部的“体” 、 “态”之辨 这个层面与前两个相比更加地深入到知识的内部。 利用更加细致的题干设计更加具体 地考查考生对三种非谓语动词形式内部的一般进行体、 完成体和完成进行体; 主动态和被动 态的掌握和运用能力。 这个层面的考题都要求考生对题干中的几个动作之间的先后顺序, 主 语与动词之间,逻辑主语和非谓语动词之间的关系有比较清醒地认识。如: The boy pretended _____ when his father came in. A. to read B. to be reading C. to have read D. to have been read

答案:B. 解析:一般的学生都知道 pretend 后面只能跟不定式,不能跟-ing 形式。因此,如 果设计这个题目时还停留在第二层,那么,-ing 形式和-ed 形式的选项的干扰性就太小了。 因此,必须进入更细致的第三层来设计题目。即四个选项均为不定式,但“体”和“态”不 同,要求考生根据对题干的解读来作出正确的选择。根据题干的意思表达的需要,处理成进 行体,表示“正在读书”还是很合适的。所以,选 B 项。 The boy is said _____ abroad, but I don’t know which country he studied in. A. to be studying B. to have been studying C. to have studied D. to study 答案:C。解析:somebody is said/reported/thought/believed + to do 结构也是众所周知的。A 选项表示的是正在发生;B 选项表示的是一直在发生;C 选项表示的是以前发生过;D 表示 一般的现在,即一种固有的习惯。根据题干后面动词 studied 的提示,应该选 C。 层面四、综合层面 以上三个层面可谓泾渭分明,层次清晰可辨。可想而知,如果所有的非谓语动词题目 都这样出的话, 何难之有?可现实却恰恰不是这样简单。 出题人常常把这三个层次或其中的 两个层次混合在一起来考查我们的能力。 这样一来, 才露出了非谓语动词题目的狰狞的面孔。 如: Most of the artists ____ to the party were from South Africa. (MET1990) A. invited B. to invite C. being invited D. had been invited 答案:A。解析:如果考生能看出后面的 were 是本句话的谓语部分,从而排除 D,这是第一 层的能力。如果根据时间关系看出 B 表示的是将来,C 表示的是正在进行二排除掉这两个选 项,这是第二层的能力;如果看出 B 还因为没有被动而不对,这是第三层的能力。 上面这个例子充分地展示了综合层面的威力。 不好的消息是, 我们所能见到的非谓语动 词题目大都属于这一层面,大都需要我们费力地去思考。欲作对这些题目,三个层面的能力 缺一不可。谨慎对待之! 第二节 考点分类解析 与非谓语动词相关的考点可谓层出不穷,本书择其要领,在这里讲几个大的考点。 【考点一、不定式作宾语与动词的-ing 形式作宾语的问题】 英语中能以非谓语动词形式作宾语的动词有很多。 但它们的脾性并不相同。 简单分类如下: (1) 、经常跟不定式作宾语的动词: afford, agree, ask, decide, desire, expect, fail, hope, manage, promise, pretend, plan, intend, refuse, wish 等。 (2) 、不定式作介词 but, except(除了)的宾语。 (can’t choose but, can’t help but..) The soldiers could do nothing but wait for the order. The soldier had no other choice but to wait for the order. The scientist cannot help but wonder, “ Are humans dying out like other animals?” 一般的介词后面的宾语都是-ing 形式或名词。但这两个除外。它们两个后面用不定 式作宾语。一般的考点都集中在它们后面的不定式带 to 还是不带的问题上。一般 看的是前面有没有 do 的任何形式或 can’t,有则不带 to,没有则带 to。 (3) 、以下动词或动词词组后面只接动名词作宾语: admit, appreciate, avoid, consider(考虑), delay, dislike, enjoy, escape, excuse, finish, imagine, keep, mind, miss(错过), practice, risk, resist, suggest 等动词。 be used to(习惯于), can’t help(禁不住), can’t stand, give up, feel like, keep on, insist on, look forward to, devote… to, stick to, object to,

thank you for, be busy, get down to, set about, have difficulty in, have a good time in 等词组。如: The boys admitted having broken my car window while playing football. I really appreciate your replying so soon. You’d better avoid seeing your boss today. He is like a bull in a china shop. Can you imagine living alone on the moon? Jill couldn’t resist making jokes about my baldness. The experienced worker suggested making a hole the other side. I just can’t stand being bossed around by a woman. Are you really used to drinking wines three meals a day? We are looking forward to seeing you in New York. When the weather turns fine, I have get down to repairing my house. They set about treating the baby immediately they arrived. 注意: ①consider 只有在作“考虑”解时才以-ing 形式作宾语。如: Tom is considered to be the best driver in the team. (认为) Tom is considering borrowing some money from the bank. (考虑) ② can’t help 只有作“禁不住”解时才以-ing 形式作宾语。如: Sorry, I’m busy preparing for the exam and can’t help clean the room (不能帮忙) Sorry, I can’t help laughing when I heard the news. (禁不住) ③ be used to 只有作“习惯于” 解时才以-ing 形式作宾语。如: The knife is used to cut off the skin of the trees. (被用来做) The students are used to getting up early in the morning. (习惯于) (4) 、下列动词或词组既可以跟动名词作宾语,也可以跟不定式作宾语,但意义上有区 别。 forget, remember, regret, stop, try, mean, go on, can’t help 如: You forgot to turn off the lights last night. (表示 “没有关灯”) I forgot borrowing your money last month. (表示 “借过钱,但是忘记了”) Don’t scold him. He regretted writing in your book. (表示 “后悔做了某事”) I regret to inform you that Tom was fired yesterday. (表示 “遗憾”) If nobody answers the phone at home, try calling me at work. (表示 “尝试”) However difficult it seems to be, you should try to do it. (表示 “努力”) I meant to tell you this yesterday, but you were not in your office. (表示 “原打算”) Signing your name here means selling yourself to this company. (表示 “意味着”) 注意: He regretted taking your book without your permission. He regretted having taken your book without your permission. 由于 regret 作 “后悔”解时,后面加 doing 或 having done 均表示 “后悔以前做过的事情, 因此,二者没有什么区别。有类似用法的还有 admit。例如: He admitted setting fire to the woods = He admitted having set fire to the woods. 但是,在其它动词后面,doing 一般表示同时进行,而 having done 一般表示以前做的事

情。 (5) 、allow, advise, forbid, permit +doing sth. / + sb. to do sth. 这是一个学生出错率挺高的考点。因为,大家都知道如 allow sb. to do sth. 这样 的结构,并且烂熟于心。所以在见到 Allow 等后面直接跟宾语的时候,大家的第一 反应就是选择 to do,这样就中了出题人的陷阱。例如: My parents don’t allow me to go their by plane for the sake of safety. They don’t allow smoking in this area of the campus. Jill’s teacher advised him to take the job in the less famous company. Jill’s teacher advised taking the job in the less famous company. The manager forbids anyone to enter his office without permission. Smoking is forbidden in this office. (6) 、need, require, want +doing = + to be done be worth +n. / + doing /// be worthy + to be done = + of being done 这个考点主要涉及到主动形式表被动意义的问题。 这一点其实挺容易理解和记忆。 Your desk needs cleaning. Your desk needs to be cleaned. The flowers requires watering every day. The flowers requires to be watered every day. He wants reminding of the meeting tomorrow. He is always forgetful. He wants to be reminded of the meeting tomorrow. He is always forgetful. The play is worth seeing a second time The play is worthy of being seen a second time. The play is worthy to be seen a second time. 以上几组只是在主动或被动的形式上有所差别。意义相同。 【考点二、不定式作宾补 vs 分词作宾补的区别问题】 需要指出的是,这里的“分词”包括现在分词和过去分词两种。 如果非谓语动词结构在句子中作的是宾语补足语,那么,根据本章的解题金钥匙,我 们首先需要分析的是该动词与语法宾语之间的逻辑关系。 因为这里的语法宾语就是 该非谓语动词结构的逻辑主语或逻辑宾语。 如果二者之间是主动关系, 则选择不定 式或现在分词;如果是被动关系,则选择过去分词。当然,这只是普通的思路,在 一些具体的语境中, 可能会有一些例外。 本书试图通过以下几个典型例子来加以阐 述。 首先, 习惯后面有宾补的动词大致有两大类: 感官动词 see, watch, observe, look at, hear, listen to, notice 等和使役动词 have, make, let, get,order, request, require 等。它们后 面的宾补有三种形式,即:do, / doing, /和 done. I often hear the girl sing in the next room. (表示“听到姑娘唱歌的整个过程”) Listen, can you hear the girl singing in the next room? (表示“听到姑娘正在唱歌”) I heard the girl scolded in the next room last night. (表示“姑娘被批评”) I watched him repair the woman’s bicycle. (表示“看着他修自行车”) I noticed him crossing the street just a few minutes ago. (表示“我注意到他时,他正在 过马路”) I saw him knocked down by a car. (表示“他被撞倒”)

The teacher had his students clean his office every week. (表示“让某人做某事” ,强调 使役性) The teacher had the naughty students standing outside the classroom. (表示 “让某人/某物 出处于某种延续的状态之中) The teacher never had his students talking in class. (表示“容许” ,常用于否定句中) The teacher had his leg broken last week in an accident. (表示“遭遇” ,并不是常见 的“请别人帮忙” 。 ) The teacher had the car driver punished by the police. (表示“被动” ) 【考点三、不定式作状语和分词作状语的区别问题】 不定式、现在分词和过去分词都可以作状语,表示时间、原因、目的、结果等。之所 这个知识点经常被考查,是因为这里的分支考点比较多。 首先,三者在作状语时,当然有其共同遵循的东西,即某些基本的原则。 (1) 、非谓语动词形式作状语的基本原则: a. 非谓语动词形式作状语时,其逻辑主语必须与主句的语法主语保持一致; 例如: Preparing dinner, I heard the doorbell ring. *Preparing dinner, the doorbell rang. *Preparing dinner, someone rang the doorbell. 上面带星号的两个句子就是不成立的。因为,主句的语法主语 the doorbell, someone 均不能作为 preparing 的逻辑主语。第一个句子,就满足了这个要求。 b. 非谓语动词形式作状语必须和主句的主语有逻辑上的主谓关系或动宾关系; 这一条原则正是我们做题时思考问题的“钥匙孔” 。没有了这一条,许多非谓 语动词题目就没有解题的依靠了。例如: Walking in the street, I witnessed an accident. (I 和 walk 有逻辑上的主谓关系,因此用现在分词作状语。) Fined in the street, I felt very angry. (I 和 fine(罚款)有逻辑上的动宾关系,因此用过去分词作状语。) 以上只是两个比较简单的例子。 但是, 他们却能向我们传达某种思路性的东西 。 很多非谓语动词题目都可以炮制这样的思路。 (2) 、不定式作状语时,和其逻辑主语之间既有可能是主动关系,也有可能是被动关系。我 们可以用不定式的主、被动形式来进行调节。从意义上说,一般表示目的或结果。例 如: He sat down to have a drink. 表目的 To improve his spoken English, he goes to an English Corner every Sunday. To leave a better impression on the employers, he borrowed a suit. Jack was so foolish as to believe in such a swindler(骗子). 表结果 He woke up only to find everybody else gone without him. He hurried to the airport only to be told that his flight had taken off. 另外,某些表示喜、怒、哀、乐的形容词作表语时,后面经常跟不定式表示原因。 All the experts were very surprised to see me at the conference. The king got excited to hear what the two men said. I am too happy to be here with you.

(3) 、现在分词和过去分词作状语的句法功能: 它们两个绝对不可能表示目的。一般表示的是时间、原因、结果、条件、让步、行 为方式、伴随状况等。例如: Window-shopping along the street, Mary met an old friend. (伴随动作) Having finished his work, Jill went to a bar for a beer. (时间) Given more water, the tree will survive.(条件) The boy dropped the ancient vase onto the ground, breaking it. (结果) Left behind by the bus, Tony had to walk the fifty miles to the city. (原因) Badly damaged in the accident, the car is worth almost nothing. (原因) Designed for high temperatures, the machine doesn’t work in the north in winter. (原因) 这里有两个需要说明的问题。 1、现在分词的一般式和完成式作状语时的区别问题: 总体说来, 现在分词的一般式作状语, 表示的动作和主句的谓语动词是同时发生 的或者谓语动词发生在状语动词发生的过程中。例如: Drinking his wine, Mr. Li heard his name called. Trying to make a fire, Larry saw something moving in the firewood. Wandering in the street, Shane saw some policemen walking toward him. 相比之下, 现在分词的完成式作状语时, 多表示状语的动作先于主句谓语动词发生, 并刻意强调这种先后顺序。例如: Having settled down, I sent my wife a massage. Not having received his reply, she decided to write him another letter. Having been separated from the other parts of the world, Australia has many unique animals and plants. 考试中, 在主被动关系明确的前提下, 我们需要认真考虑状语和主句谓语之间有没 有或是否需要强调这种先后顺序。没有或不需强调,选一般式,有或需要强调,选 完成式。 例如: __________ his telephone number, we had to call his father first. A. Not knowing B. Not having known C. Knowing not D. Having not known 答案:A。 解析:这个题目涉及两个考点:一般式和完成式之辨、not 的位置之辨。 根据本章第一节所讲解的内容,not 应该前置。因此,C、D 两个选项就可以 排除了。A、B 之间的区别在于:A 不强调 know 和 had to call 之间有什么先 后,而B强调有之。根据具体的语境, “不知道他的电话号码”不是一个可以 在 “给他父亲打电话” 之前就能结束的动作。 它更多地是一种心理状态。 所以, 没有办法强调二者之间有什么先后顺序。故选A。 2、现在分词作结果状语与不定式作结果状语的区别问题: 从本考点(2)所讲举的例子,我们不难看出,不定式作结果状语时,表示的多 是“意想不到的”或“令人无法接受的”结果。且在时间上没有必然的同步性。而 现在分词作结果状语就不同了,它表示的多是“自然的;必然的;正常的”结果。 且从时间上看,多是同时发生或几乎同时发生。例如: His father passed away, leaving him lots of debts. The fish can eat a person in a few minutes, leaving only the bones. They quarreled a lot , making the matter worse. A new kind of virus attacked my computer, destroying all my files.

例如: European football is played in more than eighty countries, ______ it the most popular sport in the world. A. to make B. making C. having made D. made 答案:B。解析:由于前面说的这种现象和 make 之间肯定是主动关系,因此,D选 项首先被排除。 其次被排除的是C, 因为, 状语先于谓语发生在这里是不可想象的。 A、B都可以表示结果,但A多表示“意想不到的”或“令人无法接受的”结果, 不符合这里的题意。所以答案是B。表示“正常的”结果。 (4) 、 本考点在(1)中列举了非谓语动词形式作状语的两个基本原则,不能满足这两 个原则的句子就是错误的。正是这两个原则维持着整个考点的运转。但是,具体使 用中,我们还会遇到一些特殊情况。这里举两种。 1、 “独立主格”现象 所谓“独立主格”现象,指的是某些作状语的非谓语动词形式的逻辑主语明显不 是主句的主语,它们有自己独立的逻辑主语的现象。例如: Her mother being ill, Mary had to stay in to look after her. Class (being) over, the children rushed out for lunch. Time permitting, we’ll drop in on our old teacher. Heart broken, the boy burnt all the girl’s photos. With everything settled, I went to bed early that night. 以上各个例句中的 being, permitting, broken, settled 的逻辑主语都不是后面主句的主 语 Mary, the children, we, the boy, I,而是自己独立的逻辑主语:Her mother, Class, Time, Heart, everything。作这种题目时,我们需要分析的不再是其和主句主语之间 的关系,而是,它和自己的逻辑主语之间的关系。 2、 “悬垂”现象所谓“悬垂”现象,是指某些作状语的非谓语动词形式的逻辑主语明 显不是主句的主语,且没有带自己的独立的逻辑主语的现象。例如: Generally speaking, Tom is fit for his job. Judging from what you said, Tom is fit for his job. Considering everything, Tom is fit for his job. To tell you the truth, you are wrong. 以上例句中的 speaking, judging, considering, tell 的逻辑主语明显不是后面主句的主 语 Tom 和 you。而是被隐含了的“我”或“我们” 。这种现象数量教少,且形式相 对固定,属于比较偏的考点。近几年的高考题鲜有涉及。 【考点四、不定式、现在分词和过去分词的被动式作定语的区别问题】 不定式、现在分词和过去分词的被动式均可以作定语修饰名词性成分,且都和被修 饰语有被动关系。但三者的意思不同。不定式表示是将来,现在分词表示的是正在 进行,而过去分词表示的则是已经完成。例如: Have you read the novel written by Jack London? (既完成,也被动) The novel being talked about in the conference was written by Jack London. (正在被讨论) The novel to be published was written by Jack London. (将要被出版) 因此,在具体作题时,我们需要根据题目所提供的已知因素推断这种时间关系,才 能最后做出正确的选择。例如: The bridge _______ costs more than 100 million dollars and it will be completed next month.

A. being built B. built C. to be built D. having been built 答案: A。解析:题干中告诉我们大桥将于下个月竣工,据此,我们可以得出结 论,大桥肯定正在建设中。所以,选A。另外,值得说明的是,本题中的D选 项,即现在分词的完成式形式,无论有无被动,都不作定语使用。 【考点五、不定式的主动式和被动式作定语的区别问题】 不定式作定语时,如果被修饰词和该不定式之间有逻辑上的动宾关系,一般用主动形式。 例如: I can’t make it because I have mountains of work to do. They only had a small cold house to live in. (这个吊尾介词不能被省略) They are lucky enough to have such a person to depend on. 但是,如果表示的是另外一种概念,根据需要,我们必须得用不定式的被动式。例如: Do you have anything to do? 你有没有事情做?(you 和 to do 有主谓关系) Do you have anything to be done? 你有没有事情要我帮你做?(you 和 to do 没有主谓关系) 同理: Do you have any to buy? (你自己买) Do you have anything to be bought? (要我帮你买) Do you have anything to type? (你自己打字) Do you have anything to be typed? (要我帮你打字) 【考点六、动名词的复合结构作宾语时的代词转化问题】 动名词在句子中发挥名词的作用,作主语、宾语等成分。例如: His coming back late made all of us angry. My mother ’s being ill sent all of us into great anxiety. We’ll appreciate your calling back soon. Do you mind your students’ using mobiles in school? Can you imagine our passing the test on our first attempt? 值得注意的是, 在动名词的复合结构作宾语时, 其中的形容词性物主代词可以转化为宾 格形式的人称代词。 (作主语时不能这样转化)例如: We’ll appreciate you calling back soon. (your→you) Do you mind your students using mobiles in school? (your students’→your students) Can you imagine us passing the test on our first attempt? (our→us) 【考点七、带 to 不定式和不带 to 不定式的问题】 关于不定式是否带 to 的问题,通常的考题中有下面几种特殊情况: 1、在 help(或 help+宾语)之后即可以用带 to 不定式也可以用不带 to 不定式。例如: I’m afraid I can’t help you (to) clean the house today. Can you help (to) carry these books to my office? 2、 would rather/ would sooner/ would just as soon/ might(just) as well 用不带 to 不定式。 例 如: I’d rather/sooner(宁愿) stop now. I’d rather not wait. I’d just as soon (宁可) come at five o’clock. We might just as well (还是…的好) walk.

3、rather than 置于句首时,其后用不带 to 不定式。在句中其他位置时,其后的不定式 可以带 to,也可以不带 to。例如: Rather than make a living by selling socks, Mike preferred to work in a coal mine. Rather than have a car of his own, he prefers to rent a car. Mary decided to write a letter rather than (to) make a call. 4、 在介词 except/but (除了)后面, 是否带 to, 要看介词前面有没有 do 的任何形式或 can’t。 如果有,不带 to;如果没有,带 to。例如: In that case, we had nothing to do except wait for help. In that case, we couldn’t choose but wait for help. In that case, we had no other choice but to wait for help. 值得说明的是,介词的宾语一般是名词或动名词。能以介词作宾语的也只有这两个。 【考点八、不定式符号的单独使用问题】 为了避免重复, 可以省略不定式符号之后的主动词及其补足成分。 这种现象常见于口语 当中。例如: ---- Would your friends like to see our new house? --- They would love to. Michael said he would divorce his wife but I doubt he really wanted to. 但是,如果不定式是 be 或 have,通常保留 be 或 have。例如: --- Are you a teacher? --- No. But I used to be. --- He hasn’t finished yet. --- Well, he ought to have.


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