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AF447 stalled but crew maintained nose-up attitude 法航477航班失速但机组仍然保持机头上仰姿态

? French investigators have disclosed that thecrew of Air France flight AF447 maintained nose-up inputs to the aircraft even after the Airbus A330 entered a stall. ? The inquiry has also revealed that the pilots set engine thrust variously to go-around power and idle as they battled to rescue the jet.

? 法国调查人员经调查发现 了,法航477航班机组人 员甚至在飞机已经进入失 速之后,仍保持了一个机 头上仰的输入。 ? 调查还揭示为了争取挽救 飞机,飞行员设置调整发 动机推力,从复飞推力到 慢车推力间变化。

? In an update to the loss of the A330 over the South Atlantic two years ago the Bureau d'Enquetes et d'Analyses has detailed the last few minutes of the flight. BEA said the aircraft climbed from its cruise altitude of 35,000ft towards 38,000ft and stalled, but added that the flying pilot "maintained nose-up inputs" to the controls.

? 在两年前南大西洋失事的 A330的更新报告中,欧洲 航空局已经详细的说明了 最后几分钟的飞行。BEA 讲到,飞机从巡航的 35000英尺爬升到了38000 英尺并且失速,但是额外 提到了,操纵飞行员保持 了一个机头向上的飞行操 纵输入。

? BEA confirms that the captain had left the cockpit to rest, about eight minutes before the emergency on 1 June 2009, having discussed with the relief crew possible turbulence ahead of the aircraft.

? BEA确认在2009年6月1日, 在紧急情况大约8分钟之 前机长离开了驾驶舱去休 息室,并且与已经休息的 机组讨论了飞机前方可能 出现的颠簸。

? The pilots altered course slightly, about 12° to the left, and as turbulence increased they opted to reduce speed to Mach 0.8. ? About 2min later the aircraft's autopilot and autothrust disengaged, and remained so for the rest of the flight. This would have put the jet into 'alternate' law, meaning it lost its angle-ofattack protection.

? 飞行员轻微的调整了航迹, 大约向左12度,并且随着 颠簸的增强他们选择将速 度减小到马赫0.8。 ? 过了大约2分钟,飞机的 自动驾驶和自动推力都断 开了,并且在后续的飞行 中一直保持断开。这个动 作将飞机带入备用法则, 意味着飞机失去迎角保护。

? The aircraft began to roll to the right, and as the pilot made a nose-up left input, the A330's stall warning sounded twice - an indication that the aircraft had exceeded a critical angle-ofattack threshold. ? The primary flight display on the captain's side showed a "sharp fall" in speed from 275kt to 60kt, and the aircraft's angle of attack "increased progressively" beyond 10°.

? 飞机开始向右横滚,并且 随着飞行员做了一个抬头 向左的输入,A330的失速 警告响了两次—一个表明 飞机已经超过了临界迎角 迹象。 ? 机长一侧的主飞行显示表 明速度从275节急速下降 到60节,并且飞机的迎角 逐渐增加超过10度。

? While the jet had initially been cruising at 35,000ft, investigators stated that the aircraft climbed, with a vertical speed of 7,000ft/min, heading towards 38,000ft. ? The pilot made nose-down inputs as well as inputs for left and right roll. The vertical speed fell back to 700ft/min, the displayed speed "increased sharply" to 215kt, and the angle of attack reduced to 4°.

? 调查人员陈述说,飞机最 初是在35000英尺巡航, 飞机以每分钟7000英尺的 爬升率,爬向38000英尺。

? 飞行员做了机头向下的操 纵输入,也有向左横滚和 向右横滚的输入。垂直速 度跌回到700英尺每分钟, 显示的速度急剧增加到 215节,并且迎角减小到4 度。

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In its update the BEA said the nonflying pilot "tried several times to call the captain back". There was another stall warning and the BEA said the stall warning sounded again. The thrust levers were positioned for take-off/goaround power but the flying pilot "maintained nose-up inputs". Angle of attack continued to increase, it added, and the trimmable horizontal stabiliser increased from a 3°nose-up position to 13°nose-up - where it stayed for the rest of the flight.

? 在更新中BEA提到不主飞的 飞行员多次尝试了叫机长回 到驾驶舱。 ? 还有一个失速警告,BEA提 到失速警告又响了。油门杆 被加到起飞/复飞推力的位置, 但是主飞的飞行员保持了机 头向上的输入。 ? 迎角继续增加,更近一步的 是,水平安定面配平的角度 从向上3度的位置增加到13 度,并在剩下的飞行中一直 保持。

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The aircraft reached 38,000ft - its maximum altitude - with its angle of attack having increased to 16°. AF447's captain returned to the cockpit - just 90s after the autopilot had disengaged - by which time the aircraft had started its fatal descent. As it passed through 35,000ft the angle of attack increased to more than 40°and the A330 was descending at 10,000ft/min. Its pitch did not exceed 15°, its engine power was close to 100% of N1, and the jet oscillated with rolls of up to 40°.

? 飞机到达38000英尺—她的最大 高度—她的迎角已经增加到16 度。 ? 法航447的机长回到驾驶舱—就 在自动驾驶断开之后的90秒— 就在这个时候飞机已经开始了 她灾难性的下降。 ? 当飞机穿过35000英尺时,迎角 增加到超过40度以上,并且在 以10000英尺每分钟的速率下降 。 她的俯仰并没有超过15度,发 动机推力接近百分之百N1,并 且飞机带着近40度的坡度,横 滚摆动。




"The [flying pilot] made an input on the sidestick to the left and nose-up stops, which lasted about 30s," said the BEA. Just 20s after the captain returned to the cockpit, said the BEA, the thrust levers were set to the 'idle' position, with the engines delivering 55% of N1. Measured angle of attack values, the BEA pointed out, are only considered valid when the measured speed is above 60kt. It said that the angle of attack, when valid, always remained above 35°.

? “操纵的飞行员操纵侧杆,输 入向左和机头向上到停止位, 这个动作持续了大约30秒”, BEA提到。 ? BEA提到,就在机长返回驾驶舱 之后20秒,油门杆被设置到慢 车,发动机输送百分之五十五 的N1。 ? BEA指出,测量到的迎角数值, 只有在测量的速度大于60节时 才被认为是符合逻辑的。它说 记录到飞机的迎角,当符合逻 辑的时候,都是保持在35度以 上。

? AF447's had turned almost a three-quarter circle to the right during the emergency, and having descended for 3min 30s it struck the ocean surface with a ground speed of just 107kt, a nose-up pitch attitude of 16.2°, with a heading of 270°. ? BEA stated that the aircraft stalled but that the inputs from the flying pilot were “mainly nose-up”. It added that the engines “were operating and always responded to crew 。 ?

? 法航447在宣布紧急情况 时已经向右转了几乎四分 之三圈,并且已经持续下 降3分30秒,她以地速只 有107节,机头向上俯仰 16.2度,航向270度撞向海 平面。 ? BEA提到飞机失速了,但 是来自操纵飞行员的输入 主要是“机头向上”。更 进一步指出,发动机“工 作并且对机组操作有正常 反应”。


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