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作文模式(new)


作文模式
一、议论文 高考议论文基本上分为以下几种类型:原因型,理由型,比较型,分析型,评论型和批 驳型作文。 1. 原因型作文。 (a。现象或问题 b。分析并说明其原因 ) Structure P1 S(1)phenomenon or problem (general) S(2)phenomenon or problem (specific)/ S(2)thesis

(the writer‘s opinion) P2 S(3)thesis S(4)reason 1 S(5)detail 1 S(6)detail 2 S(7)reason 2 S(8)detail 1 S(9)detail 2 P3 S(10)conclusion + solution ① 第一段:1.a. Nowadays / When it comes to … b. With the development of … c. The past several years have witnessed a phenomenon that … d. There exists a rather strange phenomenon in Shanghai that ... e. In the past/last few years, …..has become more and more popular among the young students/the young people in high school. f. In the past/last few years, ……has been an increasingly common phenomenon among…/in… g. In the past few years, it has become quite a common problem that ……. 2. In my opinion / From my point of view/As far as I am concerned…/I am convinced that…/Personally,…. 3. a. The reasons are as follows. b. There are generally several reasons for this problem/phenomenon. c. Several/a number of/a variety of factors/reasons might lead to/result in/cause this phenomenon. ② 第二段:First of all / To begin with / For one thing Second / After this / And then / For another Finally / What’s more / Last but not least / In addition ③ 第三段:In a word / All in all / To sum up/For these reasons mentioned above, it is obvious/apparent that……./Taking all these factors into consideration/account. It is no surprise that……/For all these reasons, it comes as no surprise that……. 2. 理由型作文(表达一分为二的观点) Structure P1 S(1) topic S(2) thesis (my attitude towards…..) P2 S(3) transition
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S(4)reason 1 S(5)detail 1 S(6)detail 2 S(7)reason 2 S(8)detail 1 S(9)detail 2 P3 S(10)transition S(11)negative reason 2 S(12)detail 1 S(13)detail 2 P4S(14) conclusion ① 第一段:a. Nowadays, more and more people … b. … plays an important part in … c. When it comes to…,many people believe/think/argue that … while others don’t think so. In my opinion,…. d. When asked about …,many people hold the opinion that …while others think that …… In my opinion,…From my point of view,….. Like everything else, … has/have both favorable and unfavorable aspects / advantages and disadvantages./Generally, the favorable aspects can be listed as follows. 第二段:First, Second, In addition / What’s more 第三段:Every coin has two sides. The negative aspects / disadvantages are also obvious. To begin with, To make matters worse, Worst of all 第四段:Through above analysis / All things considered, we can see that the positive aspects outweigh the negative ones. Therefore, … 比较型作文(表达两者选一的观点) P1 S(1)topic(the subjects to be compared) S(2)thesis (my preference for B over A) P2 S(3)transition S(4)B’s advantage 1 S(5)B’s advantage 2 S(6)B’s advantage 3 S(7)concede A’s advantage S(8)A’s disadvantage 1 S(9)A’s disadvantage 2 P3 S(10) conclusion 第一段:a. When it comes to the comparison between A and B, different people hold different views. Some people argue that A is superior to B in many ways. Others, however, believe that B is much better. Personally, I would prefer A because I think A has more advantages. b. To most people, A and B are two common/basic ways to ….While many/a vast majority of/a large proportion of people believe that A is better than B in many ways, I prefer B to A. c. When it comes to A and B, two common means to ….., many people believe that
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② ③ ④ 3.



A is superior to B while others don’t think so, As for me, I agree with the former/latter. ② 第二段:a. There are many reasons why I prefer A. The main reason is that … Another reason is that … b. There are many/a number/a variety of reasons why I prefer A to B. and here I would like explain a few of the important/significant ones as follows. The main reason is that …… (A’s advantage) Another reason why I like A is that …. (A’s advantage) Furthermore, another advantage of A that attracts me is that ….(A’s advantage) ② 第三段: a. Of course, choosing B also has advantages to some extent.列出 1-2 个 B 的优势。 b. Admittedly, B also has its advantages, for example…. c. However, A also has more notorious disadvantages that are hardly avoidable, First,………Second,……….. ③ 第四段: a. But if all these factors are considered, A is much better than B. From what has been discussed above, we may finally draw the conclusion that … b. From the discussion above, it obvious that B has more advantages than A, and therefore it is small wonder that I prefer A to B. c. From what has been discussed above, it is quite apparent that the advantage of A outweigh those of B and that is why I think B is more suitable for me. d. From all that has been discussed above, it is clear that A’s advantages carry more weight than those of B and therefore I like A better. 二、记叙文 1. 开头:① Once I spent a period of time living in my grandma’s, a village beside a sea. I enjoyed myself very much during the time. The following is just one of the interesting experiences. ② Everyone in the world has met with a lot of lessons, from which they have learnt a lot. Among these lessons, some are bitter and some are sweet. I’m not an exception. 2. 主体:① 时间,地点,人物,事件的起因 ② 事件的经过(要有高潮) ③ 事件的结果 3. 结尾:感想。I will never forget that day! From then on, I became more and more … 三、图表作文(三分之一篇幅描述,三分之二篇幅议论) 1.第一段:… is known as one of the most serious problems in today’s world. As is shown in the graph/table/chart, it can be easily concluded that the past twenty years have witnessed some ups and downs in China’s growth rate whereas there has been a steady increase in the amount of GDP. According to the statistics published by the State Bureau of Statistics, in 1978, China’s GDP was 362.4 billion in RMB, and it grew to be 7477.2 billion in 1997, almost 27 times higher. From the graph, it can also be predicted that China’s GDP will continue to increase in the future while its growth rate remains steady. (列举数据时以列举两端、最高、最低数据为宜) 2.第二段:There are chiefly three reasons for the rise/decrease. / This tendency of GDP increase may be attributed to the following reasons. First of all, … What’s more, … Last but not least, … 3.第三段:Based on the above reasons, I firmly believe that …
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常用句式: The table/chart/diagram/graph shows that … As is shown in the … As can be seen from the … The figures/statistics show that … We can see from the … It is apparent from the table/chart/diagram/graph/figures that … 常用词汇: 总计:add up to, total 上升:rise, increase, climb, improve, reach a peak 下降:fall, decrease, decline, go down, drop, slip back 平稳:remain stable 回升:recover 波动:fluctuate 其他:slowly, gradually, slightly, sharply, dramatically, steadily, suddenly 注:table 指表格,graph 指曲线图,chart 可以指一般的图表。 四、漫画作文(三分之一篇幅描述,三分之二篇幅议论) 1.第一段: a. As can be easily observed from the cartoon, …(概括现象) b. Just take a look at the man in the picture. … From the picture, it is obvious that …(得出结论) c. In the picture, we can see clearly that ………./This reflects that ……../It indicates/reveals/shows that… 2. 第二段: This problem may arise from the following factors. To begin with, … and then, … Last but not least, … 3. 第三段: The current situation calls for an immediate solution indeed. In my opinion, both A and B should play their role. On one hand, … On the other hand, … Only through these cooperative efforts, I believe, will the problem be efficiently resolved. 五、谚语作文 1.第一段:As a famous saying goes, … This is an accumulated experience we inherit from our forefathers, and now it is still widely applied to our daily life. / The English proverb … is almost known to anyone learning English. I realize from my experience that there is some truth in it. / It is well known that … 解释谚语。That is how I understand “proverb”. 2.第二段:To illustrate the point, let me cite a case of … / let me take one of my experiences as an example / let me take … for example. 3.第三段:A lesson that we can draw from this example is quite obvious. … The proverb will always inspire me to go forward. 六、应用文 1. 书信 英文书信的构成可分为 7 个部分: (Heading, Date, Inside Name and Address, Salutation, Body of the letter, Complimentary close, Signature)
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No. 2 Middle School Jinshan, 200540 Shanghai, China (写信人地址) June 1, 2005

Dear Professor Wang,

正文

Waiting for your good news, (With best regards, We are waiting for your good news.)

Yours sincerely/truly, Zhou Yuqing

2.日记 Wednesday, November 4 正文 常用天气词汇:sunny/fine, cloudy, rainy, windy, snowy 3.书面通知 Notice

Fine

May 5, 2000 Boys and girls, attention! 正文 The Students’ Union 4.口头通知 Attention please, everyone! 正文 That’s all. Thank you!

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七、组句成段。 表示时间的过渡词语: At first First of all Firstly At last As 表示举例过渡词语: Recently In a short time At the same time From then on For example Take …as an example Such as 表示原因过渡词语: Because Due to For the reason Owing to 表示条件过渡词语: If In case 表示结果过渡词语: As a result Thus 表示递进过渡词语: Also Moreover 表示转折,让步过渡词语: On the other hand Nevertheless On the contrary 表示强调过渡词语: Most importantly In fact Even so 表示对比的过渡词语: In comparison Unlike On the other hand

In the first place To begin with Next Later At present Lately By and by Finally Up to now For instance Namely In other words Since As Because of

after that To start with Meantime Soon Presently The moment Before long Afterwards So far Like That is That is to say On account of For Thanks to

As long as On condition that Therefore Accordingly In addition Furthermore However After all In spite of Above all As a matter of fact

So long as Once So In this way Besides What ’s more Yet Even if

Indeed To tell you the truth

In contrast Otherwise

On the contrary Rather than

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