一、听力测试的目的和要求 二、命题原则和要求 三、听力测试的题型 四、听力试题的考点 五、试卷分析及答题技巧试卷分析及答题技巧 六、听力训练策略 七、听力试题的命制 八、听力课的备课及探讨 九、English 测试中有关听力测试的内容 十、掌握其他听力试题题型，进行有效梯度训练。
2、我省已决定在2001年高考英语科考试中增 加听力理解的考试。这有助于高校选拔具有更 强交际能力的学生。
3、加试听力反映了高考命题重视交际的倾向， 集中体现了英语语言的学习实质是交际的正确 论断。因此必须认真研究广东和全国加试听力 的英语试题，探索切实可行的复习备课策略， 提高英语教学的效果和成绩。
二、命题原则和要求 NMET听力理解题要求考生听懂有关日常生活、文化教育、 风土人情、传说、时事、人物、科普等的简短对话或独白；掌 握所听材料的主旨和大意，以及用以说明主旨和大意的事实和 细节；能理解具体事实和表面意思，也能初步理解深层的含义， 并能根据所听材料进行简单的推理，如推测对话或讲话的时间、 地点，讲话人的身份、关系及态度等等。
（1）领略要义的能力 （2）获取详细的事实性信息的能力 （3）对谈话背景进行推断的能力 （4）理解说话者意图的能力
1999年和2000年的试题都分两节，第一节是五个较 短的对话，每个对话只有几句，只听一道，考生要 在10秒时间内回答5题和阅读完下一个题目。第二节 的对话与独白播放两次，每小题有5秒钟时间让考生 阅读问题，听后有5秒钟时间做题。 听力的主要题型： 1．选择式听力题 2．复述式听力题 3．论述式听力题 4．判断式听力题 5．问答式听力题
例二中的有些关键词可以帮助我们找到问题的答案，比如： food，restaurant,enjoy等。在例三中也是同样道理：通过对 关键词的判断，我们可以比较容易地辨别出说话者的身份或 说话者所在的语境。此外，说话者的语气也往往是我们作出 正确判断的根据。明确了考题出现的形式可以使我们做到有 的放矢，找到解题的方法。
四、听力试题的考点 按NMET听力理解命题的原则和要求，考题可以考查谈话 本身的内容，也可以问及谈话能力推断的情况以及谈话 的情景和语境。以下举例说明。 1.问谈话本身的考题例一 听力试题主要有以下四类考点：
2．考查对特殊细节的理解 3．考查对主旨和大意的理解 4．考查对说话者的思想倾向和感情等隐含内容的理解
例一： (录音)M：Could you tell me where the cinema is? w：Sure．It’s not far．Just beside the King's restaurant over there. (问题)Where is the cinema? A．Far away from the place.
B．Near the King's restaurant.
C．Close to the bus stop.． 答案是B。 上面的例子表明，考查谈话本身的内容，既可以考查对话 (或讲话)的某一细节，也可以考查对谈话中心的理解。
例二： 2．考查从谈话中推断情况的考题 (录音)w：How do you think of the food in our retaurant? M：Oh，wonderful.It's quite a long time since I enjoyed myself so much. W：I'm very happy that you enjoyed it. (问题)What is the relation between the two speakers? A．Doctor and patient． B．teacher and student． C．waitress and customer． 答案是C(语气判断人物角色关系)。
(录音)W：I don't feel well.
M;What's the trouble? W:I've got a pain in my stomach and a terrible headache. M:Any enough? W:No.
M:Now,let me take your temperature.
(问题)1.Where probably are the two speakers? A.In a classroom. B.In a waiting room. C.At the doctor's
1 When did Tom leave the park?
How long had the man been in Australia? (时间段)
How ofen does Sue go co che cinema? Where do they want to go next week? (频 率) (地 点)
where did the conversation take place? (场 所) Who lost the recorder? (人 物)
What might be the relationship between them.(人物关系)
Why did the boy not want to eat anything?(原 因) How will the man go there? Whose is this shirt? (方式手段) (所 属)
How many students have passed the test? (数 量)
How much did the man pay for his car? (价 格)
要求考生能听懂录音中的某个特殊细节。比 如：发生了什么事?如何发生的?发生了什么变化? 怎么变化的?这类问题的选项往往不是单词，而是 句子，需要考生对由句子构成的选项作出判断。 例如： Is Mr zhang in the classroom now? What does the woman want her to boy to do?
How will Jack solve this problem?
What can we learn from the speakers?
要求考生听懂录音的主要内容或主旨大 意。比如：录音谈的是哪方面的事?大概情 况是什么?这类听力试题不要求考生精确理 解具体细节，而是要求考生对听到的内容有 一个整体的把握和全面的领会。例如： What are the two speakers talking about?
Does Rose agree with the man?
What does the girl think about the teacher? What does the woman mean?
1．带着问题去听。 2. 注意暗示重点的信号词（亦称承接词）。 3．做好笔记,提高记忆效果。 4．按部就班，控制好答题节奏。
在做听力题时，应试者应在听到每题的录音之前，快速浏览 题目，确定听音的重点，抓住问题的中心，在听的时候做到 有的放矢。例如 Woman:I like these glasses, but they look like they would be quite expensive.
Man:There are $15 a piece, or $180 a dozen.
Question:How much does one glass cost? Written:A.$180 B:$150 C:$50 D:$15
如and, so, but,as a result, however,or, othervise, while,since, finally, next,in conclusion等。这些信号词表示说话人的思路、 时间和空间、举例和例证、对照和比较、引申和分析、推论 和总结等逻辑关系。
特别要记下对话和短文中的地址、年月日、年龄、价格、 数字等。可以容记词首字母或打一个记号的方式来记，也 可按照时间顺序、意思的主次、选文的篇章结构来加强记 忆材料的内容。
既要保证完成答案，又要留出一点间浏 览一下下一道题的问题。如果考生某一题没 听清楚，一下子确定不了答案，应该马上放 弃上一题，集中精力应对下一题。这需要加 强考前训练，逐步控制好答题时间
一）以精听为主，加强准确性训练 二）适当加强课后泛听训练 1．注重材料的真实性、时代性、趣味性 2．注重听力材料与教材的衔接与呼应，避免偏颇性。 3．分析听力测试难度的五大因素，适当提高泛听材 料的难度
听力试题的命制包括两个步骤：一是听力录音材料的 选定；二是问题和选项的编制。 1．题目的重心应是考查考生理解和捕捉信息的能力，而不 是语法或词汇的掌握情况。 2．避免出现考生在末听懂录音内容的情况下，根据自然规律、 科学知识、生活常识或人之常情就能正确作答的题目。 3. 考查点应具有多样性和全面性。 4．问题涉及的内容在听力录音里的分布应均匀。 5．各个题目之间要彼此独立，互不相关，互不提示。 6．要避免命制过分依靠其它学科的知识或技能才能正确作答的 题目。 7．题干和选项应尽可能简短。 8．题干宜采用提问的形式而不应采用填空的形式。 9．各个选项间应具有相似性。 10．每个干扰项都应有迷惑性和非正确性。 11．正确项应具有正确性和唯一性。
目前，英语教师面临的重要课题是如何专门备好 一堂听力课，以加大对学生听力训练的力度，从而进 一步达到大纲对学生学习英语的教学和考试的基本要 求。教师要按大纲的各项基本要求结合具体内容和教 学对象的实际，不断钻研，改革和创新教学方法，更 好地提高听力课质量。备课充分则事半功倍，学生变 厌听为乐听；反之，教学将变为“听音+对答案”的 乏味过程。 一）备学生 二）备教材 三）备方法 四）备设备
1．教材的每一单元都有其主题，练习也分别有重单一技能和 综合技能的训练。单一技能包含在数字、基本句型，选择录 音中所谈论的subjects等。语篇水平上的综合技能训练包括听 关键词，听要点，求主题，作判断，进行推理，做笔记等。 2．对录音资料中语调、重音、哭声、咳嗽以及背景噪音等要 仔细倾听，领会暗示，启发学生作出正确判断。 3．教师对本校本班学生的听力状况要有准确的估量。如果统 编教材本单元的听力材料语速太快，难度较大，绝大多数学 生听起吃力，不妨使用其他更适合的同步材料。 4. 除听力课外，教师在平时的英语课堂上也要尽可能地进行 听力口语训练，如：听课文录音，听写句子和短文等。
一）总论 二）语音辨别测试 类型1（a） （b） 类型3（a） （b） 三）重读和语调测试 类型1 类型2 类型2 （c）
五）通过看图测试听力理解水平 类型3 类型8 类型4 类型9 类型5
类型1 类型6 类型2 类型7
1._______ A 录音：1.A.pin
B.pen C.pair 2.A.shark B.sock C.sack 3.A.thin B.tin C.fin
D.pain D.shock D.din
1.pain – pain
2.sock - sock
1.A.There is a bend in the middle of the road. B. There is a bend in the middle of the road. C. There is a band in the middle of the road.
2.A.Is that sheet over there clean? B.Is that seat over there clean? C.Is that seat over there clean? 3.A.I’ve just locked the car in the garage. B. I’ve just knocked the car in the garage. C. I’ve just locked the car in the garage.
1.I’ll thread it for you. 2.Did John manage to catch the train?
3.Put the pan in some hot water.
在答卷上提供的A、B、C、D四个单词的解释、 定义中，考生标出所听单词的注释选项。 1. air 1.A.made something throw the
B.not false C.some but not many D.made a picture or diagram on paper
录音：threw – threw
重读和语调测试T2 在答卷上提供的一句话的下面，有A、B、C 三个不同的语气选项，根据录音中的语调或 语气，作出选择。 Spoken: You will send a couple of tickets.
Written: You will send a couple of tickets. A.a request B.a command C.an expression of disbelief
在答卷上提供的A、B、C、D四个不同的解释、 说明、信息理解中，根据录音提供的句子，作出选择。 Spoken:It took Alan a long time to find he couldn’t mend the bike.
A.After a long time,Alan realized he was unable to √ mend my bike. B.Alan spend a long time mending my bike but he was at last successful. C.Alan was a long time before he found my bike. D.In spite of searching for a long time, Alan couldn’t find my bike and, therefore,couldn’t mend it.
在答卷上提供的A、B、C、D四个不同的应答中，根据 录音提供的问句(含有yes-no question或者Wh-question)， 选出合适的应答选项。 Spoken:Does Alison mind you playing the piano? Written:A.Yes, she is always thinking about it. B.No, she rather likes it. √
C.No. she doesn’t play the piano.
D.Yes, she must be careful.
1.The lorry’s on the left of the motor bike. 2.A little girl running after her mother. 3.Her mother is carrying a bag. 4.There are a lot of cars in the street.
1. Both doors are open. 2. It’s daylight but the headlights are
BCDE (Only A shows one door open) 1.____________________________________ 2.____________________________________ BDE ( Only C shows the headlamps off)
1.The car’s going to crash the tree.
2.Danny can’t run as fast as Claire.
3. Tom wishes his sister could play tennis with him. 4.The switch is so high that Katie can’t reach it.
1.A:Look!What’s that inside the square? B:It’s a white circle.
2.It the thick line had been only a millimeter longer, it would have been the longest of the three lines
地图方位：在考卷上提供一幅街道地图，⑴要求考生根据录音 中说明或对话内容，写出建筑物的名称。（２）要求考生根据 对话内容，在地图上标出某个事件发生的地点。 Spoken: You come out of school into Central Road and walk in the direction of Green Lane.However, you take the left turning just before you reach the Green Lane.At the end of the street you turn right and continue until you come to the second turning right. You cross this road and you will see on your right ……(Which building will you see?)
画图计算：根据录音中提供的要求画出一幅图画或图形， 然后作相应的计算。 1.Draw a straight line AB three 2.Continue the line AB to point C centimeters long. so that AC is twice as long as AB 3.Draw a perpendicular (直角) 4.Measure an angle 45℃ to be called DAC from point B. 5.Now draw the line AD until it meets the perpendicular at point D. Question1:How long is AD? 6.Now join DC Question2:What does angle ADC measures?
在考卷所给的残缺图画上，根据录音要求，画出一些简单的图画 Look at the drawing and listen to the sentences. You will see Mr Peanut sitting at a table.Do what I tell you and complete the picture.It doesn’t matter if you can’t draw very well. Are you ready?Now begin.
1.Mrs Peanut is sitting on a chair opposite Mr Peanut. PUT HER IN 2.The door is behind Mr Peanut’s back. PUT IT IN 3.Mr Peanut can see Mrs Peanut but he can’t see Charlie because
Charlie’s standing behind him. PUT HIM IN
观察答卷上的图形，根据录音识别图形的信息和类别。 In this part you will hear a talk about drawings made by chimpanzees development and children. You will hear information twice.Then you should Identify the nine sentences, from A to K below, which are about the development of a child.Number them in the order they occur.write the numbers 1-9 in the boxes. F.regular patterns □ A.shapes inside circles □ G.unconnected lines □ B.single lines □ H.everyday objects □ C.human figures □ I.rows of shapes □ D.single shapes □ J.Masses connected lines □ K.human faces □ E.overlapping shapes □
(Spoken) Print your name in the top left-hand corner of your paper:draw a one-inch line six inches under it.Draw a small circle on the line and on the right of it draw a square roughly the same size as the circle. Now take the top right-hand corner and the bottom left-hand corner and fold your paper so that the drawing appears on the outside.
在答卷所给 的Ａ、Ｂ、 Written:Only one of the following statements about the talk you have just heard is correct. Put a circle round the letter next to the correct statement. A. Modern technology is now making towns in developing countries free of loud noise. B. The increase in noise is a problem which cannot yet be solved by modern technology. C. Gradual noise over a long period may have just as harmful an effect as loud or sudden noise. D. There is no real solution to the problem of increasing noise in modern life.
表述中，根 据录音内容 ，标出正确 的选项
Spoken: There's a marked tendency for most developed countries to
grow steadily noisier each year. This continually incraasing amount of noise is uncomfonable and, what is more imponant, can aneH our health. The noiae of machines, heavy tranic and aeroplanes constitutes
perhaps the most serious threat to public health. Such noise can
intefere with our ability to eonverse, it can disturb our sleep, and it can quickly make us become neNous wrecks. A loud blast or an explosion may even cause damage to our hearing. But there's another dangerlust as great. This is the 9radual damage which may be caused if we're continually exposed to noise over several years. Such exposure to noist can undarmine our health - as well as our performance and effieiency.
Fortunately, technology is progressing at a very rapid rate. Some
manufacturers are now designing new silencing mechanisms in their products, and planning expens are even beginning to plan cities
according to sound zones.
谈论和讲演听力理解T2 考生根据所听文章，写出答卷上该文综括段落中可以替换序号 的单词。
Written: The following passage is a written summary of the short talk
you have just heard. Give the correct word which can be used in place of
each number. In future (1) will do many jobs, particularly those which are (2) by
nature. It is generally doubted if they could do (3) work and in the home
they would probably not do things like (4). Robots will do nothing more (5) than they have been (6) to do by human beings. A robot would be a kind of (7), freeing human beings so that they could do whatever they
wanted. Although robots would be used in factories, human beings
would probably (8) the machinery. On farms, robots would probably drive (9). The robots would look (10) human beings because they would
be (11) in design. It would even be possible for a robot to have an eye in
its hand or a (12) in one of its feet.
Spoken: Would you like a robot in your house? It's now generally accepted that in tha future robots will take over many of our task, . especially jobs of a repetitive nature. But it's highly doubtful if robots will ever be able to do any of the more creative types of work- or indeed if people would want them to. In the home, robots would probably be used to do the cleaning, table-laying, scrubbing and washing-up, but it's considered unlikely so far that they'II be used to do the cooking - at least. not in the near future. According to engineer, robots will do nothing more original or sophisticated than they have been programmed to do by human bein9s. And so robots in the home might not be creative enough to do the cooking, plan the meals, and so on. They would be used as slaves, thereby freeing people to do more of the things they wanted. In factories, mobile robots would carry out all the distribution and assembly tasks while human beings carried out research and drew up plans for new products. Human beings would still be responsible for diagnosing faults and for repairing and maintaining machinery. On the farm, robots would probably drive tractors: they'd be programmed to keep their eyes on the ground in front to guide the tractor along a straight line or between rows of vegetables. The robots themselves would probably not look at all like human beings because their design would be chiefly functional. For instance, it would not be at all surprising to find a robot with an eye in the palm of its hand and a brain in one of its feet!
You have just heard a talk about Charles Edward Blackwell, a writer of children's books. You are being tested on your ability to listen and understand. You now have 15 minutes to answer the questions which follow. The 25 questions follow the order of the talk and you should complete each statement with the best answer. Write 'A', 'B', 'C', or 'D’ on the line provided at the side of each question. DO NOT WRITE OUT THE FULL ANSWER. Here is an example: EX. C This talk is about A. writers of children's books. B. children's reading. C. Charles Edward Blackwell. D. Leeds University. 1. Blackwell enjoys 1.___________ A. writing books for children. B. giving lectures for writers. C. reading books to children. D. talking about himself. 2. When Blackwell was born. his father was 2.___________ A. a cricketer. B. an inn-keeper. C. a writer. D. a factory worker.
You are going to hear a talk about Charles Edward Blackwell, a writer of
children's book. You are being tested on your ability to listen and understand. After the talk you will be asked 25 questions about Charles Edward Blackwell.
This sheet of paper is for any notes which you wish to take while
you are listening to the talk. The notes will not be marked in any way by the examiner. The questions you will be asked after the talk will be about the points listed below. A space has been left to enable you to write notes for each point. 1. What Blackwell enjoys doing
2. Blackwell's birth
3. His age at the time of the economic depression 4. The book Blackwell read
The testees may take notes during the lecture. They will later receive
the following answer sheet.
Yes, the No, the ? we have no statement statement information about it is false is true
They had a problem taking off because they were carrying so much fuel They started on June 15th, 1919 It was foggy when they took off They had a problem when something fell off the plane during the flight
They had difficulty finding their way
4、《英语辅导报》 5、人教社《同步听力》 6、历年高考试题 7、四级、六级、托福考试试题
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