定语从句（Attributive Clauses）在句中做定语，修饰一个名词或代词，被修饰的名词, 词组或代词即先行词。定语从句通常出现在先行词之后，由关系词（关系代词或关系 副词）引出。 关系代词有：who, whom, whose, that, which 等。 关系副词有：when, where, why 等。 一、 关系代词引导的定语从句 关系代词所代替的先行词是人或物的
名词或代词，并 在句中充当主语、宾语、定语等成分。关系代词在定语从句中作主语时，从句谓语动 词的人称和数要和先行词保持一致。 1）who, whom, that 这些词代替的先行词是人的名词或代词，在从句中所起作用如下： Is he the man who/that wants to see you? 他就是你想见的人吗？（who/that 在从句中作主语） He is the man whom/ that I saw yesterday. 他就是我昨天见的那个人。 （whom/that 在从句中作宾语） 2) Whose 用来指人或物，(只用作定语, 若指物，它还可以同 of which 互换）, 例如： They rushed over to help the man whose car had broken down. 那人车坏了， 大家都跑过 去帮忙。 Please pass me the book whose (of which) cover is green. 请递给我那本绿皮的书。 3）which, that 它们所代替的先行词是事物的名词或代词，在从句中可作主语、宾语等，例如： A prosperity which / that had never been seen before appears in the countryside. 农村出现了 前所未有的繁荣。 （which / that 在句中作主语） The package (which / that) you are carrying is about to come unwrapped. 你 拿 的 包 快 散 了。(which / that 在句中作宾语) 二、 关系代词 that, which 的用法 A. 以下情况多用 that. (1) 如果先行词是 all, much, anything, something, nothing, everything, little, none 等不定代 词，关系代词一般只用 that，不用 which。例如： All the people that are present burst into tears. Is there anything that I can do for you?
(2) 当先行词被 all, every, no, some, any, little, much 所修饰时； You can take any seat that is free. I'll read all the books (that) you lend me. (3) 如果先行词被 the only, the very, the same, the last, the best 等词修饰，关系代词常用 that(指人时，可以用 who),例如： This is the very book that I want to find. That is the best film that we have seen. I was the only person in my office that/who was invited. (4) 当先行词被序数词或形容词最高级所修饰时。 It is the first foreign book that I have ever seen. This is the most beautiful flower that I have seen. (5) 在 there be 句型中，常用 that. There is a man that lives in that village. (6) 先行词有两个，一个指人，一个指物，关系代词应该用 that。例如： The boy and the dog that are in the picture are very lovely. (7)句中已经有 who 或 which 时，为了避免重复时 .Who is the man that is making a speech? B. 以下情况用 which. (1) 当关系词前面有介词时，指物常用 which. The prize for which he worked so hard was a new bike. He built a telescope through which he could study the skies. (2) 非限制性定语从句指物时，多用 which. Bamboo is hollow, which makes it light. He wrote an article, which tells us about the computer. (3) 如果先行词本身是 that 时，只用 which. This is that which he bought yesterday. (4) which 还有一种特殊用法，它可以引导从句修饰前面的整个主句，代替主句所表示 的整体概念或部分概念。在这种从句中，which 可以作主语，也可以作宾语或表语，多 数情况下意思是与 and this 相似，例如： He succeeded in the competition, which made his parents very happy.
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