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2013届高考英语定语从句精讲精练课件


2012届高考英语定语从句 精讲精练课件

定语从句
1.Guilin is a beautiful city.(形容词) 2.China is a developing country; America is a developed country.(分词) 3. There are thirty women teachers in our sc

hool. (名词) 4. His rapid progress in English made us surprised. (代词) 5. Our monitor is always the first to enter the classroom.(不定式短语) 6. The teaching plan for next term has been worked out.(动名词) 7. He is reading an article about how to learn English. (介词短语)

? 定语: 用来修饰/限定名 词或代词的成分

张衡是那个在132年制造最早地动 仪的人.

Zhang Heng is the man who/that made the earliest seismograph in 132.

Picture 2
Howard Carter 是那个在 1922年发现图特王墓的人.

Howard Carter is the man who/that found King Tut’s tomb in 1922.

Picture 3

泰坦尼克号是那艘撞上 冰山后沉没的船.

The Titanic is the ship that/which sank after hitting an iceberg.

Picture 4
Temple of Heaven 北京是获得2008年奥运 会举办权的那个城市.

Beijing is the city which/that has got the chance to host the 2008 Olympic Games.

The Attributive Clause

一、基本概念 1.定义: 在复合句中用来用来修饰/限定名词或

代词的从句叫定语从句。 被定语从句所修饰/限定的名词或代 2.先行词: 词叫先行词(antecedent)。
3.关系代词、关系副词: 引导定语从句的词

关系代词: Who, whom, whose, which, that, as等

关系副词: When, where, why等

A:

She looked at Jeff who was waving his arms. Do you know the boy whose parents are on holiday?

关系词 The man whom I met yesterday is my

先行词 professor.

定语从句

1. Before she could move, she heard a loud noise, which grew to a terrible roar. 2. She looked Jeff, who was waving his arms. 3. There she saw a wall of water that was quickly advancing towards her. 4. He was standing, holding on to a tree that grew against the wall. 5. Now, the water, which was cold as ice and flowed faster than a river, was above he knees. 6. Flora, whose beautiful hair and dress were all cold and wet, started crying. 7. Tree after tree went down, cut down by the water, which must have been three meters deep. 8. The garden that was once so beautiful was completely destroyed, swept away by the wild water.

1. The weather turned out to be very good, ______was B more than we could expect. A. what B. which C. that D. it 2. John is the boy to ______ I gave the money. B who B. whom C. that D. which
3. His English, _______ used to be very poor, is now A excellent. A.which B.that C. when D. what

A.

A 5. She has two brothers, ________ are teachers. A. who B. that C. whom D. /

区别
形式 限 非

限定性定从 VS 非限定性定从

The village where I grew up is a beautiful place. 无 “ ,” I spent a whole afternoon with Tom, who was very helpful.



功能 限
非 先行 限 词 关 系 词 非

They’re two girls .意思不完整 I like is kind. The girl that My sister Ellen, who is nice, is a nurse.

不影响表达

The English 通常为单个名词或代词 man that I know is Peter. Mike sold the house, which made his father angry.
① that 不能引导非限定性定从。 Exercise ② whom 在非限定从中不能用who 代替。

既可以是单个名词,也可是整个句子

③ 引导非限定从的关系词,即使作宾语也 不可省略。

1. Zhang Heng is the man who/that made the
earliest seismograph in 132. 2. Howard Carter is the man who/that found King Tut’s tomb in 1922. 3. The Titanic is the ship that/which sank after hitting an iceberg. 4. Beijing is the city which/that has got the chance to host the 2008 Olympic Games.

二、关系代词和关系副词的作用:

二、关系代词和关系副词的作用:
Eg: 1.Those who want to go please sign your names here. 2.This is the house where he was born. 3. Bill, who was here yesterday, asked me a lot of questions.

1、引导作用
2、替代作用

3、在定语从句中担当某个成分的作用

三、关系代词的实质
Join the following sentences: A plane is a machine. The machine can fly.

关系代词的实质
Join the following sentences: A plane is a machine. The machine can fly. A plane is a machine the machine can fly.

关系代词的实质
Join the following sentences: A plane is a machine. The machine can fly. A plane is a machine that /which can fly.

关系代词的实质
Join the following sentences:
The girl is Mary. We saw her yesterday.

关系代词的实质
Join the following sentences:
The girl is Mary. We saw her yesterday.
The girl we saw her yesterday is Mary.

关系代词的实质
Join the following sentences:
The girl is Mary. We saw her yesterday.
her The girl we saw

yesterday is Mary.

关系代词的实质
Join the following sentences:
The girl is Mary. We saw her yesterday.
her The girl we saw

yesterday is Mary.

关系代词的实质
Join the following sentences:
The girl is Mary. We saw her yesterday.
The girl her we saw

yesterday is Mary.

关系代词的实质
Join the following sentences:
The girl is Mary. We saw her yesterday.
her The girl

we saw

yesterday is Mary.

关系代词的实质
Join the following sentences:
The girl is Mary. We saw her yesterday.
The girl her we saw

yesterday is Mary.

关系代词的实质
Join the following sentences:
The girl is Mary. We saw her yesterday.
The girl her is Mary.

we saw

yesterday

关系代词的实质
Join the following sentences:
The girl is Mary. We saw her yesterday.
The girl that/who/whom is Mary.

we saw yesterday

注意避免重复

四、关系代词: who, whom, whose
? The woman got the job.

1.who作主语

The woman can speak Russian.

The woman who can speak Russian got the job.
? The teacher will give us a talk.

The teacher is famous.
The teacher who is famous will give us a talk.

作 宾 语

The woman (whom) we saw on the street got the job.
? The teacher will give us a talk.

The teacher (whom) we met yesterday will give us a talk.

2.

? The man is kind. Everyone likes him.

The man (who) everyone likes is kind.
(宾语)
? The woman got the job.

We saw her on the street.

We met the teacher yesterday.

whose 引导的定语从句 表示所属关系

The river _________ banks ar whose covered with trees flows to the sea

3. Whose 指某人/物的,作从句中的定语。
The man is my boss

His dog was lost last week.
The man is my boss whose dog was lost last week.

I know Lucy. Her mother is our English teacher.
I know Lucy whose mother is our English teacher.

There are in this class 20 students, ______ are different. ? A.whose backgrounds ? B. The backgrounds of whom ? C.of whom the backgrounds ? D.the backgrounds of whose

关系代词的用法

指 代 That Which Who Whom whose

所作成分

是否可省略

人;物 物
人 人 人、物

主语;宾语

作宾语可省

主语;宾语 作宾语可省 主语;宾语 宾语 定语 作宾语可省 可省 不可省

Correct the mistakes

1.Under the big tree are 34 students,many of ——— come from class two. whom them 2. My mother has a good book, which cover looks terrible. whose ——— 3. This is the very pen that you gave it \ to me before. it \ 4. There is an old woman, that is holding —— who a stick.

五、只用that不用which 的情况
(1) 先行词为all, everything, nothing, something, anything, little, much 等不定代词时。 I am sure she has something (that) you can borrow. (2)先行词被all, every, no, some, any, little, much等 修饰时。 I’ve read all the books that are not mine. (3)先行词被序数词或最高级修饰时。 This is the first book (that) he has read. (4)先行词被the only, the very, the same, the last修饰时。 This is the very book that belongs to him.

五、只用that不用which 的情况
? (5) 先行词是who或who引导的主句 Who is the girl that drove the car? Who that broke the window will be punished. ? (6) 主句为There be 句型时 There are 200 people that didn’t know the thing. ? (7)主句当中先行词既有人又有物时 we have 47 students and 47 desks that are new here in our classroom.

六、只用which 不用that的情况
? (1) 关系代词在限制性定语从句中紧跟介词作宾语 (介词提前) Those are many trees under which they can have a rest. ? (2) 在非限制性定语从句中 Football , which is a very popular game, is played all over the world.

Correct the following sentences:
1.This is the best film which I have seen. This is the best film that I have seen. 2.That’s all which want to say.

That’s all that I want to say.

3.Is there anything which you want in this
shop? Is there anything that you want in this shop? 4.He talked about some writers and books which/who were unknown to us all.

He talked about some writers and books that were unknown to us all. 5.The room in that she lives is a large one.

The room in which she lives is a large one.

七、关系副词when, where, why的用法
1.Do you still remember the day when we went to visit the museum together? Do you still remember the day on which we went to visit the museum together?

2.This is the factory where my father once worked.
This is the factory in which my father once worked. 3.This is the reason why he was late.

This is the reason for which he was late.

关系副词的用法

指代

所作成分

是否可省略

When

时间

状语



Where

地点
原因

状语
状语




why

Summarize:

在定语从句中关系副词都等于一个适当的介词加 上which,在从句中作状语

When=in/at/on/…+which;

Where=in/at/on/…+which;
Why=for /…+which

八、关系副词与关系代词的选择
1)I’ll never forget the day _________ we first met in the park. 2)I’ll never forget the time ________________ I spent with you. 3)I’ll never forget the time _____________ was spent with you. 4)This is the museum _______________I visited last year .

when

which\that

which\that

which\that

指时间,地点或原因的先行词在定语从句 中作主语或宾语,用which或that引导定 语从句。

This is the reasonwhy/that ___________ ( = for which ) I didn’t come here. The reason which/that she __________ gave was not true.

Practice:
1.---- I drove to Zhuhai for the air show last week.

A --- Is that the reason_______ you had a few days off?
A.why B. when C. what D. where

A 2.I’m going to visit the school _________ my mother taught physics ten years ago.
A.where B. that C. which D. what

C 3.Do you still remember the day ___________ I first came to Beijing?
A. which B. that C. when D. where

九、 定语从句中的动词的数 He is the only one in his class who _______ has (have) got the teacher’s praise He is one of the students in his class who have _______ (have) got the teacher’s praise 关系词在定语从句中做主语时, 谓语动词的数取决于先行词

指 代

在从句中所作成 分

是否可省略

关 系 词

关 系 代 词

That Which Who Whom whose where

人;物

主语;宾语

作宾语可省


人 人 人、物

主语;宾语 作宾语可省
主语;宾语 宾语 定语 作宾语可省 可省 不可省 不可省 不可省

关 系 when 副 词 why

地点 时间 原因




不可省

Correct the sentences:

1. I’m using the pen which he bought it yesterday. to 2. The man whom I spoke is from ∧ Canada. 3. July 1,1999 is the day when that we’ll never forget.

Correct the sentences: 4. I’m going to work in the hospital where needs me. which 5. Those that haven’t been to the West Lake will gather at the school gate.

who

Correct the sentences:

? 6.This is the last time when I’ve given you lessons. that ? 7. The reason which he explained it sounds reasonable.

why

Correct the sentences: 8. Miss Chen is the only one of the few teachers who give us wonderful English lessons in our school. gives

Correct the sentences: 9. Taiwan, that we know, belongs to China. as

10The bike by which I travelled was his.

on

1. Is this the plane ________ he came to New York?

A. which B. by which C. that

D. in which

2. The newly-built café, the walls of _______ are painted light green, is really a peaceful place for us, especially after hard work. (2010江苏卷) A. that B. it C. what D. which

3.The boss _____________ department Ms King worked ten years ago looks down upon women.
A. in which B. in that C. in whose D. whose

高考高频考点 高频考点一、介词+关系代词 Ⅰ.判断方法: 找先行词,指人,指物?

1.找从句的谓语,看有无固定搭配与习惯用法
2.找从句的形容词,看有无固定搭配与习惯用法

3.看介词与先行词的搭配
最后注意总体意思

1.By nine o’clock, all the Olympic torch bearers had reached the top of Mount Qomolangma, _______ appeared a rare rainbow soon. (2008福建卷) A. of which B. on which

C. from which

D. above which

2. He referred me to some reference books ______

I am not very familiar.
A. of which B. at which

C. from which

D. with which

3. This is the book_____ you asked.

A. in which

B. by which

C. for which

D. that

Ⅱ.介词的位置 1. The man who/whom you speak to was a scientist. 2. The city that/which she lives in is far away. 3. The man to whom you speak was a scientist.

4. The city in which she lives

is far away.
was a is far away.

5. The man to who/whom you speak scientist. 6. The city in that/which she lives

介词后不直接跟who、that作宾语

for This is the book_____ which you asked
looking after The old man whom I am_________ is better .

looking The old man after whom I am______ is better .

注意:动词短语不能拆开,
即介词不 能提前
如:look for ,look after,

look forward to, take care of 等

1.Gun control is a subject ________ Americans have argued for a long time.
A. of which C. about which B. with which D. into which

2. School safety has set off alarm bells in China with frequent reports of serious accidents ______ students got hurt or killed. A. in which B. by which C. for which D. that

高频考点二、whose 引导的定语从句
1. That’s the new machine ______ parts are too small to be seen. (2010山东卷)
A. that B. which C. whose D. What

2. The old temple _______ roof was damaged in a storm is now under repair.

A. where

B. which

C. its

D. whose

表示所属关系

There are 20 students in this class, ______ are different. ? A.whose backgrounds ? B. The backgrounds of whom ? C.of whom the backgrounds ? D.the backgrounds of whose

巩固 1. Children who are not active or _____ diet is high in fat will gain weight quickly. (2010北京卷) A. what B. whose C. which D. that

2. In China, the number of cities is increasing ________development is recognized across the world. (2010重庆卷) A. where B. which C. whose D. that

3. The settlement is home to nearly 1,000 people, many of ____ left their village homes for a better life in the city. (2010浙江卷) A.whom B.which C.them D. those

高频考点三

as 与which的使用

1. After graduating from college, I took some time off to go travelling, _____ turned out to be a wise decision. (2010四川卷) A. that B. which C. when D. where

As we have stressed 2. ______________________(正如我们强调的那 样)many times, “serve the people” is our first policy. (stress) (2010湖北卷,完成句子)
3. _____ is reported in the newspapers, they have beaten all the other teams. A. It B. As C. Which D. What

as, which 引导非限定性定语从句时,as和which 可指代整个主句,相当于and this或and that。其 区别是: 1.定语从句可放在主句之前时

2. 定从为被动时
3. 意为正如时

只用as , 不用which

当从句谓语动词是be announced / expected / known / reported / said / imagined / shown等被 动形式或usually happen, be often the case等表 示主句的习惯性或司空见惯之意时,常用as。

高频考点四

关系副词的特殊情况

1. It’s helpful to put children in a situation _______ they can see themselves differently. (2009福建卷) A. that B. when C. which D. where 2.Today, we’ll discuss a number of cases_______ beginners of English fail to use the language properly. (2007陕西卷) A. which B. where C. why D. as

(1)地点名词抽象化,如:case, point, stage,position,condition,situation, ect.

1. He is standing by the window, ________he can get a good view of the city.

A.by which
C.from where

B. on which
D. by where

2. The book was written in 1949,_______the education systemhas witnessed great changes.
A. when C.since then B. during which D. since when

(2)Where 与when 有时可接在介词后

高频考点五

分隔现象

1. I’ve become good friends with several of the students in my school ____ I met in the English speech contest last year. (2010湖南卷) A. who B. where C. when D. which

定语从句与其他从句的区别

(Ⅰ)定语从句与状语从句
1. She kept everything where she could find it easily. 2. Shanghai is the place where he was born.

3. I will tell him when he comes back. 4. I still remember the days when I worked with the farmers.

(Ⅱ)定语从句与同位语从句
1. The news that our class won the first place at the basketball match makes us all excited.
2. The news that he told me yesterday made me excited.

(Ⅲ)定语从句与强调句
3. It is Shanghai where you were born.

4. It is in Shanghai that you were born.
where that It is in Shanghai ________you were born ______ the EXPO will be held in 2010. (that, where)

? Correct mistakes for the following sentences ? 1. Under the big tree are 34 students, many of them whom come from class two. ? 2. My mother has a good book, which cover looks whose terrible. ? 3. Who are the young girls that are having dinner in the who restaurant? ? 4. She is one of the girls whoare very interested in is maths. likes ? 5. Tom is the only one of the boys who like playing football. 去掉her ? 6. Who is the girl that you talked to her just now? ? 7. This is the very pen that you gave it to me before. 去掉it ? 8. There is an old woman, that is holding a stick. who

回顾定语从句的注意事项: 1. 定语从句一定有先行词

2. 关系代词与关系副词的选择
3. 介词+关系代词结构中介词的选择

4. 关系副词where,when有时可跟在介词后
5. 关系代词who, that不直接跟在介词后

6. 关系词的省略
7.定语从句与其他从句类型的区别 (难点)

8. What不引导定语从句


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