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高中英语 动词时态语态总复习


动词时态语态总复习
一、 动词的时态

时态动词是谓语动所表示的动作或情况发生时间的各种形式。英语动词有 16 种时态,但是 常用的只有 9 种:一般现在时、一般过去时、一般将来时、现在进行时、过去进行时、现 在完成时、过去完成时、过去将来时、现在完成进行时。下面分别介绍。

1、 一般现在时的用法 (do/does)

1) 表示经常性、习惯性的动作;表示现在的状态、特征和真理。句中常用 often, usually, every day, sometimes, every week/year, twice aweek 等时间状语。例如: a. He goes to school every day. b. He is very happy. c.The earth moves around the sun. 2) 在时间状语从句和条件状语从句中,用一般现在时表示将来。例如: a. If you come this afternoon, we’ll have a meeting. b. When I graduate, I’ll go to countryside. 3) 有时这个时态表示按计划、规定, 按时间表要发生的动作(句中都带有时间状语),但 限于少数动词,如:begin, come, leave, go ,arrive, start , stop, return, open, close 等。例如: a. the meeting begins at seven. b. the rain starts at nine in the morning. 4) 表示状态和感觉的动词(be, like, hate, think, remember, find, sound 等)常用一般现在进 行时。 a. i like english very much. b. the story sound very interesting. 5) 书报的标题、小说等情节介绍常用一般现在时。 6) 动词的第三人称词尾变化: 当主语是第三人称单数时,谓语动词需加-s 或-es: 规则 一般在词尾加-s 以字母 s, x, ch, sh, o 结尾的词加 -es, 读∕iz∕,如果动词原形词尾已有 e,则只加-s。 动词原形 play pass fix teach wish 以辅音字母加 y 结尾的词,先变 y 为 i, 再加-es,读∕z∕。 study carry 第三人称单数 plays passes fixes teaches wishes studies carries

2.一般过去时的用法(did)
1) 表示过去某时间发生的事、存在的状态或过反复发生的动作。常与 yesterday,the other
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day, ….ago, in the past, in +过去时间(1998)。 a. he saw mr. wang yesterday. b. he worked in a factory in 1986. 2)表示过去经常发生的动作 也可用 “used to “ 和“would + 动词原形”。 I used to smoke. During the vacation i would swim in the sea. 注: ‖used to ― 表示过去常发生而现在不再发生的动作或存在的状态。 “would + 动词原形” 没有 “现在不再……‖含义。 3) 动词过去式的规则变化 构成规则 动词原形 动词过去式 一般在动词原形末尾加-ed, look play work 结尾是 e 的动词在末尾加-d 词尾只有一个辅音字母的重读 闭音节,此辅音字母,再加-ed 词尾是―辅音字母+ y‖的动词, 先变―y‖为―i‖再加-ed like live plan stop study worry looked played worked liked lived planned stopped Studied Worried

3.一般将来时的用法(shall/will do)
一般将来时表示将来的动作或状态。其表达形式除了 “ will 或 shall + 动词原形 ”表示即 将发生的或最近打算进行的事。 It is going to rain. We are going to have a meeting today. 2)“be to + 动词原形” 表示按计划进行或征求对方意见。 The boy is to go to school tomorrow. Are we to go on with this work? 3) “be about to + 动词原形” 表示即将发生的动作,意为 be ready to do sth. 后面一般 不跟时间状语。 we are about to leave. 4) go , come , start, move, sail, leave, arrive ,stay 等可用进行时态表示按计划即将发生的动 作。I’m leaving for beijing. 5) 某些动词(如 come, go ,leave, arrive, start, get , stay 等)的一般现在时也可表示将来。 The meeting starts at five o’clock. He gets off at the next stop.

4. 过去将来时的用法(would do)
过去将来时表示从过去的某个时间看来将要发生的动作或存在的状态。 They were sure that they would succeed.

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5.现在进行时的用法(am/is/ are doing)
1) 现在进行时表示现在正在进行的动作 What are you doing? 2)表示某种感情色彩“总是” eg. You are always watching TV. 3)现在分词变化规则 规则 原形 -ing 形式 一般在动词原形末尾加-ing 以不发音字母 e 结尾的动词,先去 掉 e,再加-ing 以重读闭音节结尾的动词,如果末 尾只有一个辅音字母,应先双写这 个辅音字母,再加-ing 以 ie 为重读音节结尾的动词,先去 掉 e,把 i 改为 y,再加-ing 以 er 结尾的动词,如是重读音节结 尾,先双写 r,再加-ing;反之,则 直接加-ing listen spend have prepare sit begin run lie die prefer water listening spending having preparing sitting beginning running lying dying preferring watering

6.过去进行时的用法(was/were doing)
1) 过去进行时过去某一时刻、某一阶段正进行的动作, In 1980 he was studying in a university. He was reading a novel when I came in. He was watvign Tv at this time yesterday.

7. 将来进行时(will be doing)
表将来某一时刻,某一段时间正在进行的动作。 Eg. I will be sleeping at this time tomorrow.

8. 现在完成时(have/has done):
1) 现在完成时所表示的动作在说话之前已完成,但对现在有影响。句中没有具体时间状 语。 He has gone to fuzhou. He has been to fuzhou. 2) 现在完成时所表示的动作开始于过去, 持续到现在, 也许还会持续下去常用 for 和 since 表示一段时间的状语或 so far , now, today, this week (month, year ,), in the past 3 years 等表 示包括现在内的状语。 He has studied english for 5 years. He has studied english since 1985. Now I have finished the work..
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注意:表示短暂时间动作的词(如 come, go , die, marry, buy 等)的完成时不能与 for, since 等连用。 3)现在完成进行时还可用时间和条件状语从句中,表示将来某时完成的动作。 I’ll go o your home when I have finished my homework. If it has stopped snowing in the morning, we’ll go to the park.

9.过去完成时的用法(had done)
1) 过去完成时由“had + 过去分词”构成。过去完成时的动作表示过去某一时刻或某一 时刻或某一动作之前完成的动作或状态。句中常用 by, before, until, when 等词引导的时间 状语。 By the end of last year we had built five new houses. I had learnt 5000 words before i entered the university. 2) 过去完成时的动词还可表示过去某一时刻之前发生的动作或状态持续到过去某个时间或 持续下去。 Before he slept, he had worked for 12 hours.

10.现在完成进行时 ( have (has)+ been +(doing))
表示现在以前一直进行的动作。有些动词(work, study, live, teach 等) 用现在完成时意思差不多。 I have worked here for three years. I have been working here for three years. 但多数动词在这两种时态表示不同意思 I have been writing a letter. 用现在完成时与

二、动词语态
1. 当句子的主语是动作的执行者时, 谓语的形式叫主动语态。句子的主语是动作承受者 时,谓语的形式叫被动作语态。被动语态由助动词 be + 过去分词构成,时态通过 be 表现 出来。 1) 一般现在时:am/is/are done 2) 一般过去时:were/was done 3) 一般将来时:will/shall be done 4) 现在进行时:am/is/are being done 5) 过去进行时:was/were being done 6) 现在完成时:has/have been done 7) 过去完成时:had been done 8) 过去将来时:would be done 9) 将来完成时: will have been done 2. 一些特殊的被动结构 1) 带情态动词的被动结构(情态动词 be done): the problem must be solved soon. 2) 带不定式的被动结构: the room is going to be painted. the homework needs to be done with care. 特殊句式:
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1.it/this is the first/second time that ….2. it is (high/about) time that …… 3.it is/has been 段时间 since 过去式/should do 4.it is/will be 段时间 before 一般现在时 5.it was 段时间 before 一般过去式 6.sb was/were about to do when 一般过去式 sb was/ wer doing sth…………..

Translation: 1. A lot of books are kept in our school library.
2. A thief was caught last night. 3. The watch is being repaired. 4.The door was being painted at that time. 5.The class meeting will be held next Saturday afternoon. 6.They said the work would be finished the next day. 7.My bag has been stolen. 8.She said this airport had never been used. 9.The question needn’t be discussed. 10.A new hotel is going to be built near the station.

11.His bike has been stolen. 12. The plan has already been made. 13. Have you moved into the new house? —Not yet. The rooms are being painted. 14.The volleyball match will be put off if it rains. . 15. Mary was making a dress when she cut her finger. 16.The students were writing busily when Miss Brown went to get a book she had left in the office. 17.Whe and where to build the new factory hasn’t been decided yet. 18.When Jack arrived, he learned Mary had been away for almost an hour. 19.In come parts of the world, tea is served with milk and sugar. 20、That dinner was the most expensive meal we had had. Consolildation: 1) —Have you known Dr. Jackson for a long time?—Yes, since she ______ the Chinese Society. A. has joined B. joins C. had joined D. joined 2) I like these English songs and they ________many times on the radio. A. taught B. have taught C. are taught D. have been taught 3) I called Hannah many times yesterday evening, but I couldn’t get through. Her brother _____ on the phone all the time! A. was talking B. has been talking C. has talked D. talked 4) —I’m sure Andrew will win the first prize in the final. —I think so. He ______ for it for months. A. is preparing B. was preparing C. had been preparing D. has been preparing
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5) By the time he realizes he ______ into a trap, it’ll be too late for him to do anything about it. A. walks B. walked C. has walked D. had walked 6) We first met on a train in 2000. We both felt immediately that we ______ each other for years. A. knew B. had known C. have known D. know 7) —Have you got any job offers? —No. I ______. A. waited B. had been waiting C. have waited D. am waiting 8) If the weather had been better, we could have had a picnic. But it ____ all day. A. rained B. rains C. has rained D. is raining 9) –Did you go to the show last night? –Yeah. Every boy and girl in the area _________ invited A. were B. have been C. has been D. was 10) The telephone _______, but by the time I got indoors, it stopped. A. had rung B. was ringing C. rings D. has rung 11) —Have you read the book called Waiting for Anya? —Who _______ it? A. writes B. has written C. wrote D. had written 12) The hotel wasn’t particularly good. But I ____ in many worse hotels. A .was staying B. stayed C. would stay D. had stayed 13) No decision about any future appointment until all the candidates(候选人) have been interviewed. A. will be made B. is made C. is being made D. has been made 14) He _____ football regularly for many years when he was young. A. was playing B. played C. has played D. had played 15) Teenagers __ their health because they play computer games too much. A. have damaged B. are damaging C. damaged D. will damage 16) ----Do you know if Terry will go camping this weekend? ----Terry? Never! She ___ tents and fresh air! A. has hated B. hated C. will hate D. hates 17) Years ago we didn’t know this, but recent science _________ that people who don’t sleep well soon get ill. (广东卷) A. showed B. has shown C. will show D. is showing 18) The country life he was used to _________ greatly since 1992. (山东卷) A. change B. has changed C. changing D. have changed 19) “Hurry up! Alice and Sue are waiting for you at the school gate.” “Oh ! I thought they _________ without me.‖ (江西卷) A. went B. are going C. have gone D. had gone 20) Months ago we sailed ten thousand miles across this open sea, which _________ the Pacific, and we met no storms. (辽宁卷) A. was called B. is called C. had been called D. has been called 21) “What would you do if it _________tomorrow?” “We have to carry it on, since we’ve got everything ready.‖ (全国卷 I) A. rain B. rains C. will rain D. is raining 22) As soon as he comes back, I’ll tell him when _________and see him. (北京卷)
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A. you will come B. will you come C. you come D. do you come 23) Scientists think that the continents _________always where they _________ today. (北京卷) A. aren’t; are B. aren’t; were C. weren’t; are D. weren’t; were 24) Since I won the big prize, my telephone hasn’ t stopped ringing. People _________ to ask how I am going to spend the money. A. phone B. will phone C. were phoning D. are phoning 25)---- ―Did you tell Julia about the result?‖ ----―Oh, no, I forgot. I _________her now.‖ A. will be calling B. will call C. call D. was to call

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