1. Festival are meant to celebrate important times of year. 1) mean doing sth. “意味着(必须要做某事或
导致种结果)”, 其主语通常是指事物的词。 2) mean to do sth. “打算或企图做某事”， 其主语通常是表示人的名词或代词, 其过去 完成式表示“本来打算做某事”。
3) mean sb. to do sth. “打算让某人做某事”,
4) mean 后接名词、副词或从句
后接 that 从句, 意为“表示??”。 5) be meant for “打算给予；打算作??用”。
In some parts of London, missing a bus means _____ A for another hour. A. waiting B. to wait C. wait D. to be waiting 句意为: 在伦敦的一些地方, 错过一班 公共汽车意味着再等一个小时。
2. Discuss when they take place, what they celebrate and what people do at that time. 讨论它们(中国节日)什么时间进行, 庆祝的 是什么事件, 和人们在那天所做的事。 take place 发生; 举行 The performance didn’t take place after all. 演出终于没有进行。 Was there anybody passing by when the accident took place? 事故发生时, 有人路过那里吗？
in the first place 首先, 第一点 in the last place 最后 in one’s place 处于某人的位置, 为 某人设身处地想一想 in place 放在原来的位置, 就位 in place of 代替, 用??而不用?? take one’s place 找某人接替某人的位置
A in the rural areas in Great changes _____ the last two decades. A. have taken place B. took place C. have been taken place D. are happening 解析: take place 不能用于被动语态中, 句中 短语in the last two decades 可确定句子的 时态为现在完成时。
辨析: take place, happen, break out, come about 1) take place 相当于不及物动词, 没有被动语态, 指 事先计划或预想到的事情的发生。 我们学校的运动会将于下周三举行。 Our school sports meeting is going to take place next Wednessday. 2)happen 也是不及物动词, 没有被动语态, 指一切 客观事物或情况的偶然或未能预见的发生, 可以和to 连用或接that引导的从句。 他碰巧没有读过那部小说。 He happened not to have read the novel.
3) break out 仅用于负面场合, 常用于灾难, 战争, 发生了大火/战争爆发了。 A fire / war broke out.
4) come about 属于中性词组, 既可用于表达正面
Can you tell me how the accident came about？
3. Festivals and celebrations of all kinds have been held everywhere. of all kinds all kinds of 各种各样的 各种各样的 相同种类的
the same kind of
different kinds of
this/that kind of
a kind of
这 (那 )种
That kind of question is very difficult to answer. = Questions of that kind are difficult to answer. 那类问题是很难解答的。 We sell all kinds of shoes. = We sell shoes of all kinds. 我们卖各式各样的鞋。 You can see different kinds of animals in the zoo. = You can see animals of different kinds in the zoo. 你在动物园可以看见不同种类的动物。
① Books of this kind _____ sell (sell) well in the bookstore. ② This kind of books _____ sells (sell) well in the bookstore. ①句中谓语动词的单复数由“books”确定。 ②句中的谓语动词由“kind”确定。
4. At that time people would starve if food was difficult to find, especially during the clod winter months . 在那个时代, 如果食物难以找到, 特别是 在寒冷的冬月, 人们就会挨饿。 starve v. 1) suffer or die from great hunger Millions of people starved to death during
2) long for sth greatly needed or wanted
The people in the disaster area were starving for food and medicine . 词组归纳： starve for sth. starve sb. of sth. 3) to feel very hungry 仅用于进行时态 When will dinner be ready? I’m starving. 晚饭什么时候做好?我快饿死了。 starvation n. [U] 饿死
starvation wages 不够维持基本生活的工资
5. in memory of =in honor of They set up a monument in memory of the soldiers who died in World War II. The museum was built in memory of the famous scientist.
歌颂 为庆祝 为寻找
in praise of in celebration of in search of
6. Halloween also had its origin in old beliefs about the return of the spirits of dead people. 1) origin n. [U]/ [C] Starting point; source, 通常用作复数形式 The tradition has its origins in the Middle Ages. He told me it was a word of unknown origin.
2) belief n. [U]信任; 信心; [C]信仰。 religious beliefs 宗教信仰 Several members hold very strong political beliefs.
7. It is now a children’s festival, when they can dress up and go to their neighbors' homes to ask for sweets. dress sb./ oneself eg. Wake up children and dress them. get dressed / be dressed (in)
Hurry up and get dressed.
The girl was dressed in red.
dress up You should dress up when you take part in the party.
dress n. 1) [C] 连衣裙, (上下连身的)女装 She makes all the dresses for her daughter. 2) [U] clothes, esp. outer garments, for either men or women 衣服(男女均可) casual dress 便服
D in red today and looks She is _____ very beautiful. A. wearing B. having on C. dressing D. dressed
8. play a trick on… 捉弄 The naughty boy loves playing tricks on others. trick 玩笑、 恶作剧、 诡计 do/perform a trick 玩把戏
9. gain v. 1) 获得,得到 她在这个国家住了十年后才取得公民身份 Only after ten years in the country did she gain her citizenship. 不劳则无获. No pains, no gains. 2) (钟,表) 走快 这只表每天快5分钟. This clock gains five minutes every day. 3) (经努力) 到达; 达到 我们终于到达了山顶 In the end we gained the top of the mountain.
10. gather 搜集,集合,聚集 可作及物动词, 不及物 动词, 名词。如: 经理召集了全体选手. The manager gathered all the players . gather , collect 的用法区别 二者都含有“收集; 聚集”的意思。 1) gather是常用词, 指收集, 聚集, 集合在一起。 The clouds are gathering. 云在聚集。 2) collect 指有计划, 有选择地收集。 He collects stamps.
11. award n. 奖, 奖品 v. 判给, 授予 award sb. sth. 奖赏某人某物 辨析: award 和reward award后接双宾语 award sb. a metal 授予某人奖章 reward 奖赏, 给??报酬, 不能接双宾语; reward sb. for sth. 因 ??奖赏某人； reward sb. with sth. 用某物酬劳某人 She rewarded herself with a cup of coffee after a whole morning’s hard work.
12. admire v. “look at sth. with pleasure or think
highly of sth.”
在某方面钦佩某人 admire sb. for sth.
We all admire him for his courage and bravery. 13. look forward to (doing) sth. 期待着(做) Children are looking forward to Spring Festival. He’s looking forward to hearing from his pen pal.
The boy has been looking forward to C ________ his present for a whole day, so now he’s looking forward to ______ whether his father is back home. A. see; seeing B. seeing; seeing C. seeing; see D. see; see
14. day and night “日夜; 昼夜; 整天”，
He worked day and night in order to pay off the debt . Her mother is ill. She has to take care of her day and night in the hospital.
15. clothing n. an article of clothing a piece of clothing 一件衣服 a wolf in sheep’s clothing 披着羊皮的狼 辨析: cloth, clothes, clothing
1)cloth 指做衣服等用的材料, 如布料, 毛料, 丝绸等, 不可数。“一块布料”是 a piece of cloth. cloth 指具体用途的布时, 可与冠词连用。 a table cloth 一块桌布 a dish cloth 一块擦碗布
2) clothes 指具体的衣服, 包括上衣, 裤子等, 不能 与不定冠词或数词连用, 但可与物主代词, 指示 代词, 少数不定代词连用。作主语时, 谓语用 复数形式。 He wears fine clothes. 他穿着很讲究。
16. as though= as if 1) 引导方式状语从句 She acted as though nothing had happened． 当从句主语和主句主语一致, 从句谓语中又含 有动词 be时, 可以把主语和 be一起省去。 He looked about as though (he was) in search of something.
2) 引导表语从句 It looks as if it’s going to rain．
The child talks as if she were an adult.
17. have fun (with sb) (与某人)玩得开心
e.g. We had fun with each other on that day.
make fun of 取笑??
funny adj. 有趣的
18. custom n. 风俗、习俗 So many countries, so many customs. It is the custom (for sb) to do sth 做??是一种习俗/惯例 It is the custom for the Japanese to take off their shoes when they get into a hall.
“风俗习惯”－社会或团体许多人长期 custom 形成的习惯
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