Part I Warming-up Exercises
1. What are differences between English and French in borrowing foreign words? 2. According to Otto Jespersen, what c
auses English to become what it is? 3. What is the English language in the author’s opinion?
Part II Detailed Reading of the Text
? 1. corrupt: vt.
1) cause errors to appear in The Academy ruled that such foreign expressions were not permitted, as they corrupted the language. Has Japanese been corrupted by the introduction of foreign words? 2) cause to act dishonestly in return for personal gains To our great surprise, the former mayor turned out to have been corrupted by the desire for money and power. To gain more profits, the businessman tried every means to corrupt the officials in the local
? 2. ban:
1. vt. forbid (sth.) officially Pattern: ban sth.; ban sb. from sth./doing sth. The local government will ban smoking in all offices later this year. Tom was banned from driving for six months after being caught speeding again. Lady Chatterley’s Lover was banned when it was first published.
? 3. CF: ban, forbid & prohibit
这三个词都可用作及物动词，表示“禁止”。 ban 语气最重，指权威机关“正式禁止”。一般含 有“严厉谴责”的意思，只能用于严重危害公众利益 的事物。例如:The treaty bans all nuclear tests. forbid是普通用词，可用于较细小的事物。例如： He forbade his children sweets because he didn’t want their teeth to be ruined. prohibit指“（通过法律、法令或严正警告）禁止某 些事物”，应用范围较ban广。例如： In some countries the sale of alcoholic beverages is prohibited.
? 4. invent: vt. 1) make or design (sth. that has not existed before); create (sth.) Walter Hunt and Elias Hone invented the sewing machine 2) give (a name, reason, etc. that doesn’t exist or is not true) Standing still in the teacher’s office, the boy tried to invent a plausible excuse for his absence from class.
? 5. fascinating: adj. of great interest or
attraction The story of his adventures in the Arctic was fascinating to listen to. It is fascinating to imagine what might have happened if the US had not declared war against Japan in World War II.
? 7. strictly speaking: if one uses words, applies rules, etc. in their exact sense Strictly speaking she was not qualified for the job. But we employed her because of her honesty. He’s not strictly speaking an artist; he is more of a performer.
? 8. tolerance: n.
1) the quality of allowing other people to say and do as they like, even if you don’t agree or approve of it (followed by for) School teachers have to have a great deal of tolerance in order to deal with difficult children. 2) the ability to bear sth. painful or unpleasant (followed by of/for/to) The patient had no tolerance for/to pain. Whenever he was injected he would cry. Collocation： display/show tolerance have tolerance tolerance for/of/towards
? 9. to a (very real, certain, etc.) extent: to the
degree specified I agree with him to some extent but there are still some areas of sharp disagreement between us. To a certain extent the failure of the restaurant was due to bad management.
? 10. necessity: n.
1) something necessary or indispensable A lot of people would consider a TV as more of a necessity than a luxury item. 2) circumstances that force one to do sth.; the state of being necessary; the need for sth. (followed by of/for) There is absolutely no necessity for you to be involved in the project.
Collocation： ? feel the necessity of ? the bare necessities ? the necessities of life ? by / of necessity
? 11. arouse: vt. provoke (a particular feeling
or attitude) ? These educational toys give children a feeling of self-worth by arousing their interest in challenging tasks. The man’s strange behavior aroused the policeman’s suspicions.
? 13. surrender: v. give in (followed by to)
After several weeks of severe attacks, Afghanistan’s Taliban forces surrendered to the Northern Alliance.
? After the bombs fell on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the Japanese surrendered.
? 14. mystery: n. sth. that people can’t, or
have not been able to understand or explain The politician’s sudden death remains a mystery to us all. No one has ever been able to explain the mystery of the Bermuda Triangle.
mystery: n. sth. that people can’t, or have not been able to understand or explain
Collocation： ? pose a mystery ? remain a mystery ? clear up a mystery ? solve/unravel a mystery ? shrouded/cloaked/wrapped in mystery
? 15. resemble: vt. be like or similar to
John resembles his father very much in all ways. I’d say he resembles his mother more than his father.
? 16. descend: v. come down (from a source),
go down These ideas descend from those of the ancient philosophers. The sun descended behind the hills.
CF: descend, fall & drop 这几个词都可用作动词，都有 “下落”之意。 descend是相当正式的用法，表示从某一高处落到某 一低处。例如： On turning the corner, we saw that the road descended steeply. fall为不及物动词，表示由于地球吸引力或失去支撑 而导致的下落。广义上讲，指任何形式的下落。例如： Large masses of rock are constantly falling into the sea. drop表示一点一滴地落下，但通常表示下落或使下落 时的速度、方向出乎意料或不经意。 例如： The rain was still dropping from the trees.
? 17. establish: vt.
1) cause to be, set up The school was established in 1905 by an Italian professor. 2) place or settle sb./oneself in a position, an office, etc. Ingrid Bergman established her fame as a film star at the age of 20.
? 18. drift:
1. vi. move or go somewhere in a slow casual way The football match was over, and the crowds drifted away from the stadium. 2. n. 1) the movement or course of sth. Drifting Nowadays there is a drift of young people from the country to the city. 2) the general meaning I’m sorry: I can’t catch/get the drift of what you’re saying.
? ? ? ? ? ?
Collocation: drift along drift apart drift into/toward drift from…to… a general drift
get/catch the drift of… ? follow sb’s drift
? 19. addition: n.
1) a person or thing added (followed by to) The baby is a welcome addition to the Smith family. 2) the act of adding, esp. adding numbers together Before I entered the primary school, my mother taught me to do addition and subtraction. Collocation： do addition make an addition in addition to in addition
? 20. conquer: vt. take possession and
control of (a country, city, etc.) by force; defeat
Afghanistan’s Northern Alliance conquered Kabul a month ago.
There has been a tremendous international effort to conquer cancer.
? 21. alternative:
1. n. one of two or more possibilities (followed by to) His father gave John the alternative of staying in high school or going to work. 该词本意是“另一个，每两者中的第二个”，因此仅 限于在两者之间进行选择，但现在也可指“几种可能 中的一种”，诸如 We have several alternatives to chose from.（有几种可能性可供我们选择。）这样的 句子也相当普遍。
? 2. adj. (of two things) that may be used, had, done, etc. instead of another; other We returned by an alternative road.
有 时 alternate 可 用 来 代 替 alternative ： They had an alternate/alternative plan.（他们另有 一个计划。) 但是，alternative被认为是更地 道的英语。
? 22. enrich: vt.
1) make rich or richer That once poor coastal village has been enriched by the profits from tourism. 2) improve It is important to enrich the soil prior to planting.
? 23. source: n.
1) a place from which sth. comes or is obtained Tourism, which is a major source of income for the city, has been seriously affected by SARS. 2) the place where a stream of water starts Where is the source of the Amazon River?
? 24. out of control: no longer under the
regulation, domination, or command of another
The fire was out of control by the time the second fire engine arrived.
Part III Exercises
? Useful phrases:
1. 排行榜 a hit parade ? 2. 严格地说 strictly speaking ? 3. 对我们真正至关重要的事 ? the things that really matter to us ? 4. 发表演说make a speech ? 5.为了加强效果for effect
? ? ? ? ?
6.系统的研究 7.起源于 8.提出 9.向西漂泊 10.留传给我们
a systematic study a systematic study come up with drift west pass on to us
Write a composition entitled “Leading Causes of Road Accidents in China”. The composition should be based on the following graph.
Percentage of Accidents
Motor Vehicles Bicycles Pedestrians Others
Your composition should be in three paragraphs:
1) introduce the causes; 2) report the information given in the graph; 3) conclude the composition by giving some suggestions.
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