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2014届高三一轮复习英语精品资料 专题十 特殊句式(新课标专用)Word版含解析



一、倒装句 1.全部倒装 (1)在 There be/seem/appear/live/stand/lie/fly/exist/remain 等存在句中。 Look,there’s that bookshop I was telling you about. (2)表示时间、地点和动作转移的副词如 here,there

,now,then,up,down,in,away, out 等置于句首时,为使生动地描述情景而采用倒装语序。此时,句子多用一般现在时或一 般过去时。 There goes the phone.I’ll answer it. (3)such 作表语置于句首时。 Such was Albert Einstein,a simple man but the 20th century’s greatest scientist. (4)直接引语的全部或部分位于句首时。 “If you die,who will get your money?” asked Holmes. (5)表示地点的介词短语位于句首时。 In the center of the square stands a monument. (6)为平衡句子结构,或使上下文衔接紧密,而将作表语的介词短语、形容词、副词或 分词提到句首,引起倒装。 Gone forever are the days when the Chinese people had to use foreign oil. 2.部分倒装 在下列几种情况下,只把助动词、系动词或情态动词放在主语之前,构成部分倒装。 (1)little,never,not,seldom,neither,nor,hardly,rarely,by no means,at no time, under no circumstances,in no case 等表示否定意义的单词或短语位于句首时。 Little does he care about what others think. (2)在 not...until...,no sooner...than...,scarcely/hardly...when...,not only...but also..., neither...nor...等句式中。 Neither does he drink nor smoke. (3)当 only 修饰副词、介词短语或状语从句位于句首时。 Only then did I find I had made a mistake. (4)在 so/such...that...从句中,当 so+形容词/副词或 such+名词位于句首时。 So exhausted was she that she wanted to have a rest.

(5)当表示前面所说的情况也适用于另一个人或事物时, 常用 so/as+系动词/助动词/情态 动词+主语,表示“??也是??”。 Times have changed and so have I. (6)当 neither,nor 位于句首,表示前面否定的内容也适用于另一个人或事物时,常用 neither/nor+系动词/助动词/情态动词+主语,表示“??也不??”。 They couldn’t understand it at that time,and nor could we. (7)省略 if 的虚拟条件句,把助动词 were,had,should 提到主语前面。 Had it not been for your help,we shouldn’t have achieved so much. (8)as 和 though 引导的让步状语从句。 Try as she might,Sue couldn’t get the door open. (9)“may+动词原形”表示祝愿,通常把 may 置于句首,构成倒装语序。 May you succeed! 二、强调句 1.使用助动词 do,does 和 did 对谓语动词进行强调。 First impressions really do count. 2.运用强调句型来强调除谓语以外的其他句子成分。 强调句型的基本句型结构为:It is/was+被强调部分+that/who+句子的其他部分。可用 来强调句子的主语、宾语、状语成分。在复习强调句型时,要注意以下几个方面: (1)强调句型中的主谓一致 在强调句型中,当对陈述句中的主语进行强调时,无论被强调的主语是单数还是复数, 主句中的谓语动词都要用单数形式 It is/was...,同时,that 从句中的谓语动词要与被强调的 主语在人称和数方面保持一致。 It is my parents that/who often help me get out of trouble. (2)当对地点状语、时间状语或其他状语从句进行强调时,只能用连接词 that,而不能用 when,where,why 或 how 等。 It was on August 8,2008 that 29th Summer Olympic Games were opened in Beijing. (3)强调句型的疑问句 在强调句中,无论被强调部分是什么句子成分,变为一般疑问句时,都须将主句改为疑 问语序,即将“It is/was+被强调部分+that+其他成分”改为“Is/Was it+被强调部分+that +其他成分?”或“疑问词+is/was it that+其他成分?”结构。 Was it her failing her exam that made her parents unhappy? When was it that she changed her mind? (4)在对 not...until 结构中的 until 时间状语或时间状语从句进行强调时,要将句中的 not 移至 until 之前,构成:It is/was not until...that...。注意 that 从句中的谓语动词要变成肯定形 式,而且不再采用倒装语序。

I didn’t realize she was a famous film star until she took off her dark glasses.=It was not until she took off her dark glasses that I realized she was a famous film star. 三、省略句 1.状语从句中的省略 由 when,while,if,as if,although/though,as,until,once,whether,unless,where 等引导的状语从句中,如果其谓语为 be,而主语与主句的主语相同时,则从句的主语和 be 可省略。或从句的主语为 it 时,谓语为 be,也可省略从句中的 it 和 be。如: When (I am) in trouble,I always turn to my classmates for help.遇到麻烦时,我总是找同 学帮忙。 If (it is) possible,this machine can be fixed at once. 可能的话,这台机器会立即修好。 2.不定式的省略 单独使用不定式符号 to 代替不定式后被省略的动词,常用在 be afraid,expect,forget, hope,intend,like,love,mean,prefer,refuse,try,want,wish 等词后;或放在表情绪的 词后,代替被省略的动词,常见词有:glad,happy,pleased 等;但是,如果不定式中含有 be,have,have been,则要保留 be,have,have been。 I asked him to see the film,but he didn’t want to. —Will you please look after my house when I’m away? —I’m glad to. —Are you a sailor? —No.But I used to be. Your work hasn’t been handed in,but it ought to have been. 3.常考的几个省略形式 if ever,if any,if not better/worse/taller...than 等 4.并列句中的省略 并列句中的两个对等句里的动词相同时,后者的动词可以省略。如: He is going to Hong Kong,but his brother (is going) to America.他要去香港,但是他的弟 弟要去美国。 My room is on the third floor and his,on the fifth. 我的房间在三楼,他的在五楼。 四、注意事项 1.如果由特殊疑问词引导的强调结构在句中作宾语从句时,从句必须使用陈述语序, 不可用疑问语序。 He asked me who it was that took his umbrella by mistake.

2.强调句型结构中的反意疑问句式。 在强调句型结构中,其反意疑问句的主语及助动词必须与主句 It is/was...保持一致。 It is Mary not you who wants to ask me about that matter,isn’t it? 3.强调句型结构与定语从句的混合使用。 在高考试题中,为了增加试题的难度,命题人常将强调句型与定语从句混合起来,使句 子结构更加复杂。我们要注意从语法角度来分析句子,理清结构“强调句型与定语从句”。 It was on the farm where we worked that I got to know her. 4.强调句型与时间状语从句的辨析。 当用强调句型强调时间状语时,去掉“it is/was”和连词“that”原句仍然完整。而在时间 状语从句中,若去掉“it is/was”和连词“when/before”,原句不完整。 It was at 14∶28 that the terrible earthquake broke out.(强调句型) It was 14∶28 when the terrible earthquake broke out.(状语从句)

技巧 1 分析句型结构,注意特殊句式 在一些试题中要注意区别一些特殊的句型,如倒装句、强调句、反意疑问句、祈使句等,特 别注意强调句型的一般疑问句、特殊疑问句形式。 [考题印证] It was from only a few supplies that she had bought in the village________the hostess cooked such a nice dinner.(2010· 安徽,27) A.where B.that C.when D.which 答案 B 解析 句意为:仅仅用她从村庄里买来的一些简单的东西,女主人就做了一顿丰盛的晚餐。 从句式看此句是强调句,故选 B 项。 技巧 2 还原特殊句型,显现本来面目 一般说来,对于一些特殊的句型,我们可以把它还 原为正常的句型,如把倒装句还原为陈述句,把省略句补全等等。 [考题印证] —Is everyone here? —Not yet...Look,there________the rest of our guests!(2010· 江苏,33) A.come C.is coming 答案 A B.comes D.are coming

解析 句意为:——大家都来了吗?——还没有??看!我们其余的客人来了。there 放在 句首时,句子谓语动词用完全倒装结构,由 guests 可知 the rest 指代复数内容,故谓语动词 用复数形式。

1.It ________ we had stayed together for a couple of weeks ________ I found we had a lot in common. A.was until;when B.was until;that

C.wasn’t until;when D.wasn’t until;that 答案 D 解析 It was...that...构成强调句,对 not until we had stayed together for a couple of weeks 进

行强调。在这种强调句式中,一般用 that 引出句子的其他部分。如果被强调的部分是表示 人的名词时,可以用 who 代替 that 引出句子的其他部分。 2.—Will you go to see the movie A Simple Noodle Story tomorrow evening? —No,I am going to a lecture,or at least I am planning________. A.to C.go 答案 A 解析 考查省略的用法。I am planning to 是 I am planning to go to a lecture 的省略。 3.I don’t suppose anyone will volunteer,________? A.do I C.will they 答案 C 解析 句意为:我认为不会有人自愿,是不是?当陈述部分是“I don’t think/suppose+ 宾语从句”结构时,附加问句的主语与动词与从句一致且用肯定形式。 4.—I just wonder ________ that made Mark Twain so famous a writer. —Of course his early experiences. A.it was what C.how he did 答案 D 解析 句意为:——我只想知道是什么使得马克· 吐温成为一个如此出名的作家。——当 B.what he did D.what it was B.don’t I D.won’t they B.so D.that

然是他的早期经历了。从题干的含义看,本题涉及强调句的特殊疑问句和语序。被强调的 成分在从句中作主语,用 what,且 wonder 后作宾语的疑问句要用陈述句语序,故选 D。

5.—It’s nice.Never before________such a special drink! —I’m glad you like it. A.I have had C.have I had 答案 C 解析 句意为: ——太好喝了。 我以前从未喝过这么特别的饮料! ——你能喜欢我很高兴。 否定词 never 置于句首,句子需用部分倒装语序,排除 A、B 两项;又由时间状语 before 可知,句子要用现在完成时,故 C 项正确。 6.Only after they had discussed the matter for several hours________a decision.(2011· 湖南,32) A.they reached C.they reach 答案 B 解析 句意为:他们只有在讨论这个问题几个小时后才做决定。“only+状语从句”放在 句首, 主句需用部分倒装句式, 由从句中的“had discussed”可知主句应用一般过去时态。 7.—The man has great determination and never gives up halfway. —________. A.So do you C.So is with you 答案 D 解析 当表达前者的情况适合于后者,而这种情况既有否定也有肯定时,用 It is the same with..或 So it is with.. . .。 8.It is not how much we do but how much love we put into what we do ________ benefits our work most. A.who B.which C.that D.what 答案 C 解析 句意为: 对我们的工作最有益的不是我们做了多少, 而是我们对所做的事情注入了 多少爱。本句是一个强调句,其结构是:It is/was...that/who...。因为所强调的内容是“not how much we do but how much love we put into what we do”,所以选 that。另外,强调句 式常与定语从句结合起来考查。如:It was the words that he spoke that made the teacher angry.。 9.The police were seeking more information to find out ________ the rich merchant. A.who was it that killed C.it was who killed B.who it was that killed D.who was it killed (2011· 陕西,23) B.Neither do you D.It is the same with you B.did they reach D.do they reach B.I had D.had I (2011· 福建,29)

答案 B 解析 句意为:警方在搜查更多线索,以便查清是谁杀了这位富商。本题考查特殊疑问句 的强调句式。首先考虑 Who killed the rich merchant?的强调句应为:Who was it that killed the rich merchant?然后考虑把“...find out who killed the rich merchant.”变为“...find out who it was that killed the rich merchant.”。故选 B。 10.—Have you got any plans for the coming birthday? —Yes.________,I’m going to try bungee jumping. A.If not C.If anything 答案 D 解析 句意为:——你对你马上到来的生日有什么计划吗?——有的。如果可能的话, 我打算去试一下蹦极跳。A“如果不”;B“如果忙”;C 项“若有区别”;D 项相当 于 If it is possible(如果可能的话)。 11.Only when________in the afternoon________able to leave. A.the match was over;they were B.was the match over;were they C.was the match over;they were D.the match was over;were they 答案 D 解析 考查倒装句。句意为:只有当下午的比赛结束后他们才能够离开。only 引导的时 间状语从句位于句首时,主句需要用倒装结构,从句不倒装。 12.—________you write so well? —By reading and keeping diaries every day. A.How is it C.How is it that 答案 C 解析 考查强调句型。问句是强调句的特殊疑问形式,还原为陈述句是:It is by reading and keeping diaries every day that I write so well.其中对方式进行提问用 how。 13.Mrs.Green got up late,so she ran as fast as she could________the bus. A.catch C.catching 答案 B 解析 该句中 could 后省略了谓语动词 run,后面应用不定式表目的,故选 B。 14.He is supposed to make his visit to the club soon,but I’m not sure whether he________or B.to catch D.caught B.What is it D.What is it that B.If busy D.If possible

not. A.does B.is C.had D.will 答案 D 解析 考查时态与省略句。由前面 is supposed to...soon 可知应用一般将来时。will 是 will make his visit 的省略,即我不知道他是否会来俱乐部。 15. ________has been heated discussion over which country bakes the world’s best pizza: Italy, where pizza began or the US,where it was globalized. A.It B.There C.That D.This 答案 B 解析 考查 there be 句型。there be 句型中的 be 可以根据具体的要求有多种变化形式。 本句用了现在完成时,表示“一直有这种激烈的讨论”,所以选 B 项。


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