话题：热点话题 常用词汇： topic 话题，主题 点 反对 赞成 论 differ 不同，差异 agree 同意 advantage 优点 in favor of 赞成 heated discussion 热烈的讨论 different 不同的 ban 禁止 hot 热 object to
st 反对 be for argument 争
have an effect/impact/influence on 对??有影响 affect 影 响 be worth considering 值得考虑 be concerned about 关心 in terms of 从??角度 contribute to solving the problem of 有 助于??问题的解决 a sound attitude 正确的态度 unethical 不道德的 medical breakthrough 医学上的突破
范例： With the College Entrance Exam coming, from time to time we hear students discuss whether Senior 3 students should take a lot of tonics (补品) to keep fit.There are different opinions about it.Some students object to taking tonics, because tonics will make them put on more weight, which is not appropriate for their health.Moreover, the parents will have a great impact on the Senior 3 students if they show too much concern by offering them tonics, which is bound to bring more stress to the Senior 3 students.
They will feel cast down and ashamed when they can't get a high mark as their parents have expected.Besides, they don't think their effort will pay off only if they take tonics.However, some students' opinion completely differs from it.They are in favor of the opinion that it is easy for the Senior 3 students to feel tired by working hard, and tonics can help to bring themselves back to energy as soon as possible, so it is good to take some tonics.
一、单词识记 根据词意写英文单词或写出单词的汉语意思。 differ 1．不同，相异 v.______________
exact 2．精确的，准确的 adj.______________ undertake 3．着手，承担 v.______________ breakthrough 4．突破 n.______________
cast 5．扔，投 v.______________ object 6．反对 v.______________
obtain 7．获得，赢得 v.______________
forbid 8．禁止 v.______________ accumulate 9．积累，聚集 v.______________
owe 10．欠；归功于 v.______________ 不久，立刻 11．shortly adv.________________
义务的 12．compulsory adj.________________ 宪法，宪章 13．constitutionn.________________ 保守的 14．conservative adj.________________
获得 15．attain v．__________________ 媒介，手段 16．mediumn.________________ 任意的 17．arbitrary adj.______________ 程序，步骤 18．proceduren.______________ 商业的 19．commercial adj.____________ 复杂的 20．complicated adj.______________
being treated 1．I strongly object to____________(treat) like a child. objection 2．If no one has any______________(object), I will declare
the meeting to be closed.
resistance 3．The nosmoking policy was introduced with little_____
(resist) from staff.
decoration 4． When will they finish the______________(decorate) of the
was decorated 5．The building________________(decorate) with flags, and
the event was a great success.
unreasonable 6 ． Don't let your boss make______________(reason)
demands on you.
popularity 7．The president's__________(popular) has declined
popular 8．The president is very__________(popularize) with Jewish
differ from 1．跟??不同??______________ be bound to do 2．一定；注定(做)??______________ from time to time 3．不时；偶尔______________ look back on one's life 4．回首往事；回顾；回忆____________________ bring back to life 5．使复生；使复活______________ with satisfaction 6．满意地______________
in vain 7．白费力气；枉费心机______________ pay off 8．得到好结果；取得成功；偿清______________ be a long way from 9．离??还很远；还有很长的路程______________ pass on?to? 10．遗传；传递给??______________
赞成；支持 11．in favor of______________ 总是；一直 12．all the time______________ 沮丧；不愉快 13．cast down______________
把??除去 14．remove?from?______________ 然而；但是；另一方面 15．on the other hand_______________________ 状况很好(坏)；情况很好(坏) 16．in good/poor condition__________________________ 对??有很大影响 17．have a great impact on?______________ 开拓某人的视野 18．open one's eyes______________ 使??刻骨铭心 19．strike?into one's heart______________ 在很多方面 20．in many aspects______________
valuable 1．Secondly, it is____________(value) for research on new on plant species and for medical research______animals. while 2 ． Cloning plants is straightforward__________cloning
animals is very complicated.
3．But at last the determination and patience of the scientists off a paid______in 1996 with______breakthrough—the cloning of Dolly the sheep.
were 4．Cloning scientists________cast down to find that Dolly's to illness were more appropriate______a much older animal.
5． On ________the other hand, Dolly's appearance raised a storm objections on of__________(object) and had a great impact______the media and public imagination.
6． Dolly the sheep became a scientific breakthrough when the that was announced news______she had been born_____________(announce) in 1997.
over 7 ． Besides that, there is also a fierce debate______the whether question_________human cloning experiments should be allowed. a 8．Scientists believe human cloning is just____matter of time that but the assumption______human clones have already been born hasn't been proved yet.
Based 9．______(base) on what we know now, you cannot clone that animals______have been extinct longer than 10,000 years. returning 10．So the chance of dinosaurs ever______________(return) a to the earth is merely____dream.
五、课文内容理解 根据课文内容，请用适当的词或短语的正确形式填空。 copy Cloning is a way of making an exact 1.________of another
major animal or plant.Cloning has two 2.________ uses.Firstly, valuable gardeners use it to produce plants.Secondly, it is 3.________for medical research on animals.Cloning plants is straightforward but complicated the cloning of animals is more 4.______________.The procedure undertake is difficult to 5.______________.In 1996, scientists succeeded in cloning Dolly the sheep.
disturbing Then came the 6.________news that Dolly was ill.Altogether Dolly lived for six years.Dolly's appearance raised a storm of objections 7._____________.Governments became nervous and many forbade 8.________research into human cloning.Scientists still wonder harm whether cloning will help or 9.________us and where it is leading 10.________us.
六、单元语法复习 用适当的连接词填空，并判断从句是定语从句还是同位语 从句。
that 1．The fact__________he used to be a thief is known to all. that/which 2．We were surprised by the fact_____________she told us. that 3．The next thing________must be done is to make a plan. that 4．Word came________our army had won the battle.
that 5．The president has given an order________everyone in the that/which country should prepare for a war______________might last for
that 6 ． We've just heard a warning on the radio________a
hurricane is likely to come.
that 7．There is no doubt________he has told a lie. whether 8．There is some doubt___________he will come tomorrow. where 9．The coat is in the place________you left it. how 10．You have no idea________anxious I was!
(除第 2、3、9 题及第 5 题的第二个空是定语从句，其余为 同位语从句)
1．differ vi.不同；相异 difference n．不同之处 different adj.不同的 A differs from B in?A 与 B 在??方面不同 A differs with B about/on/over?A 与 B 就??意见相左
运用： 根据句子意思用适当的词或用所给词的适当形式填空 in in 1)The two squares differ______color but not______size. with on/about/over 2)The husband differs______his wife________________who is to take charge of the money. difference 3)It doesn't make a____________(differ) to me whether you are going to stay. from 4)This is a different car________the one I drove yesterday.
2．forbid vt.(forbade or forbad; forbidden) 禁止；不准；阻 止；妨碍 forbid sth./doing sth.禁止，不许(做某事) forbid sb.to do sth.禁止某人做某事 forbid sb.sth.禁止/不准某人??
运用： 完成句子 1)飞机上禁止吸烟。 Smoking is forbidden ___________________on the plane. 2)他爸爸不准他和她交谈。 His father forbade him to talk _____________________________to her. 3)要禁止小孩子不玩电脑游戏很难。 It is hard to forbid children to play _______________________________computer games.
3．bother vt.打扰 vi.操心 n．烦扰 bother (sb./oneself) with/about 为??而烦恼；因??而操心 bother to do 费神做??
bothering me for weeks 1)The problem has been________________________.(烦了
我好几个星期了) 2)—Shall I help you with the cases? Don't bother —________________.(不要操心)I can manage.
bother about us 3)Don't ____________________， (为我们操心)we will soon
4．undertake vt.(undertook; undertaken) 着手；从事；同意； 保 证(后接 to do) undertake the responsibility for ?承担??的责任 undertake to do sth. 答应做?? 运用：完成句子 1)他答应在周五之前完成那份工作。
undertook to finish the work He____________________________before Friday.
undertook the organization work She_________________________________of the whole project.
5．obtain vt. (正式；尤指通过努力或计划) 获得；得到 obtainable adj.能得到的； 可获得的 比较： obtain 意为“获得，得到”，指通过努力或请求而得到， 含有满足要求或达到目的的意味，用于正式语体中。 acquire 意为“经过努力逐步获得才能、知识、习惯等，也 可用于对财物等的获得”，强调“一经获得就会长期持有”的 含义。
gain 意为“通过较大努力获得某种利益或好处，亦可指军 事上的武力夺取等”。 earn 意为“挣得， 赢得”， 指因工作等而得到报酬或待遇。 achieve 意为“得到；获得”，多指成就、目标、幸福的取 得。
运用：用 obtain，acquire，gain，earn，achieve 的适当 形式填空
earn 1)How much do you________a week? achieved 2)The movie star____________success and wealth. obtained 3)He____________experience through practice. acquires 4)It is through learning that the individual_________many habitual ways of reacting to situations. gains 5)An investor____________by buying stocks that go up in value.
1．pay off 得到好结果，取得成功(常用主动语态)；偿清 拓展： pay for 付??的钱；为??而付出代价 pay back sth.(pay sb.back sth.) 偿还 pay sb.(?) for sth.因某事而付某人?? pay sb.(?) to do sth.付某人(??)去做某事
运用：用适当的短语或所给词的适当形式填空 paid off 1)After ten years of hard working she finally__________her debt.
pay off 2)Our efforts are sure to____________. paid 3)Have you________the milkman this week? paid to 4)Have you__________the money__________the bank yet? pay back 5)I will________you______next week. to clean 6)I paid the boy ten yuan________(clean) the window.
2．in favor of 赞成；支持；对??有利 ask a favor 请求帮忙 do sb.a favor＝do a favor for sb.帮某人的忙
运用：完成句子 1)我赞成你的提议。 in favor of I am_______________your suggestion. 2)我与苏珊谈了这件事，她完全赞同走。 in favor of going I talked to Susan about it, and she' s all________________. 3)请你帮忙把收音机关掉好吗？ do me a favor Would you______________and turn off the radio?
3．be bound to do 一定；注定(做) 运用：完成句子
almost bound to arise 1)These problems were________________________.
(几乎就要发生) 2)When you are dealing with so many patients， mistakes are bound to happen _____________________________.(差错难免)
4．be in good/poor/excellent condition 处于好的/坏的/极佳 的状况 拓展： out of condition 健康状况欠佳 working/living/studying conditions 工作/生活/学习环境 on condition (that)?在??条件下；倘若?? on no condition 一点也不； 决不
运用： 根据句子的意思在横线上填入适当的介词 in 1)The car has been well maintained and is_____excellent condition. in for 2)He's_____excellent condition_________a man of his age. out of 3)I had no exercise for ages, I' m really__________condition. on 4)You can go out__________condition that you wear an overcoat.
1．The initial requirement is that you need perfect DNA which gives information for how cells are to grow. 【模仿要点】 句子结构： The requirement is that?(should) do?要求是?? 1)他唯一的要求是你能努力学习。 His only requirement is that you should work hard. ___________________________________________ 2)他的要求是今天完成这项工作。 His requirement is that the work (should) be finished today. ___________________________________________
2．Based on what we know now, you cannot clone animals that have been extinct longer than 10,000 years. 【模仿要点】 句子结构：Ved＋what 引导的宾语从句， 主句＋定语从句。 1)根据调查所示，我们可以更好地理解我们对大自然所做 的一切。 2)根据我们所读到的，我们可以得出结论是人类该对环境 污染负责。
【答案】 1)Based on what was shown on the survey, we can make a better understanding about the thing that we have done to nature. 2)Based on what we've read, we can make a conclusion that it is human beings that are to blame for the pollution of the environment.
The advantage is that if there is a new illness some of these animals may die, but others will survive and pass on the ability to resist that disease to the next generation. 句子结构： 主句结构是“主语＋系动词＋表语”。 that 引 导的是一个表语从句，表语从句中又有一个 if 引导的条件从 句， 后面再加一个表转折的 but 分句。
一、语法填空。 The whole scientific world followed the progress of the first that successful clone, Dolly the sheep.The fact 1.________she seemed to develop normally was very encouraging.Then came 2.________(come) the disturbing news that Dolly had become to find seriously ill.Cloning scientists were cast down 3.________(find) to that Dolly's illnesses were more appropriate 4.________a much older animal.Sadly the same arbitrary fate affected other species, such as cloned mice.
The question that occurred to the scientists was: “Would this
a be 5.________major difficulty for all cloned animals ？ ” length Altogether Dolly lived for six years, half the 6.________(long) of despite the life of the original sheep. 7.________her problems, Dolly natural successfully produced a lamb in a 8.________(nature) birth.
On the other hand, Dolly's appearance raised a storm of on objections and had a great impact 9.________the media and public It imagination.10.________became controversial.It suddenly opened everyone's eyes to the possibilities of using cloning to cure serious illnesses, and even producing human beings.
二、基础写作：尽可能用本单元学过的词或短语翻译下列句子， 然后将这些句子连成一篇由 5 个句子组成的意义连贯的短文。 1．随着科学技术的发展， 人类已经能够克隆动物，甚至人了。 ( clone) 2．关于克隆动物，大家都能接受。(accept) 3．但是，对于克隆人，很多人持反对态度。( object) 4．人们很难想象有一天另外一个你出现在眼前时，你如何面 对？ (imagine) 5．关于克隆人，还有很多法律问题需要解决，因此很多国家都 禁止克隆人。(forbid)
【答案】 With the development of science and technology, humans have been able to clone animals, and even humans themselves.For cloning animals, people can accept it.But a lot of people object to cloning humans.It is hard to imagine that one day another you appear before you, and how can you face? For cloning humans, there are still many legal problems to be solved, so cloning humans is forbidden by many countries in the world.
二、写作 归类表达经典句式(三) 9．表示数量 1)It has increased(decreased)from?to? 2)The population in this city has now increased (decreased)to 800, 000. 3)The output of July in this factory increased by 15% compared with that of January.
例如： With the improvement of the living standard, the proportion of people's income spent on food has decreased while that spent on education has increased. 再如： From the graph listed above, it can be seen that students' use of computers has increased from an average of less than two hours per week in 1990 to 20 hours in 2000.
10．表示看法 1)People have(take/adopt/assume)different attitudes towards sth.. 2)People have different opinions on this problem. 3)People take different views of(on)the question. 4)Some people believe that?Others argue that?
例如： People_have_different_attitudes_towards_failure.Some_belie ve_that failure leads to success.Every failure they experience translates into a greater chance of success at their renewed endeavor.However, others_are_easily_discouraged by failures and put themselves into the category of losers.
再如： Do “lucky numbers” really bring good luck ？ Different_people_have_different_views_on_it. 注：一个段落有时很适宜以问句开始，考生应掌握这一写 作方法。
11．表示结论 1)In short, it can be said that? 2)It may be briefly summed up as follows. 3)From what has been mentioned above, we can come to the conclusion that?
例如： From_what_has_been_mentioned_above,_we_can_come_to_ the_conclusion_that examination is necessary, however, its method should be improved.
12．套语 1)It's well known to us that? 2)As is known to us，? 3)From the graph(table/chart)listed above, it can be seen that? 4)As a proverb says, “Where there is a will, there is a way”．
As_is_well_known_to_us,_it is important for the students to know the world outside campus.The reason for this is obvious.Nowadays, the society is changing and developing rapidly, and the campus is no longer an “ivory tower”． college students, As we must get in touch with the world outside the campus.Only in this way can we adapt ourselves to the society quickly after we graduate.
阅读理解之词义猜测(二) 4．根据因果关系进行猜测 在一篇阅读文章中，根据原因可以预测结果，根据结果也 可以找出原因。例如：
The lack of movement caused the muscles to weaken.Sometimes the weakness was permanent. So the player could never play the sport again. 从后面的结果“永远不能再运动”中，可以推测 permanent 的意思为“永远的，永久的”。
The low test score, they think, will make it impossible for them to get into a good college.And without a degree from a_prestigious_university,_they fear that many of life's doors will remain forever closed. 学生认为考试分数低就不可能进入一所好大学，而没有名校的 毕业文凭，将来生活中的很多大门可能就会对他们永远关闭。由此 推知 a prestigious university 应是 a famous university(名校)。
5．根据上下文的指代关系进行猜测 文章中的代词 it, that, this, he, him 或 them 可以指上文提 到的人或物，其中 it 和 that 还可以指一件事。有时代词指代的 对象相隔较远，要认真查找；也有时需要对前面提到的内容进 行总结，才能得出代词所指代的事。例如：
Like Schmid, the editors of several selfpublished art magazines also champion (捍卫) found photographs.One of them,_called simply Found, was born one snowy night in Chicago, when Davy Rothbard returned to his car to find under his wiper(雨刷) an angry note intended for someone else: “Why's your car HERE at HER place？” them 指的是前面出现的 selfpublished art magazines。 However, the question that “moon people” asked is still an interesting one.A growing number of scientists are seriously thinking about it. it 指的是月球人(moon people)所问的问题(the question)。
6．根据同义关系进行猜测 当词或短语之间有并列连词 and 或 or 时，其连接的两项 内容在含义上是接近的或递进的，由此确定同等关系中的某个 生词所属的义域，由此可推知其大致意思。 Although he often had the opportunity, Mr.Tritt was never able to steal money from a customer.This would have endangered his position at the bank, and he did not want to jeopardize his future.
作者为避免重复使用 endanger 一词， 用其同义词 jeopardize 来替代它，由此推知其词义为“使??陷入危险，危及，危 害”。 Doctors believe that smoking cigarettes is detrimental to your health.They also regard drinking as harmful. 句 中 detrimental 是 个 生 词 ， 但 判 断 出 harmful 替 代 detrimental 后，不难推断出其词义为“不利的，有害的”。
7．根据转折或对比关系进行猜测 根据上下句的连接词， but, however, otherwise 等就可以 如 看到前后句在意义上的差别，从而依据某一句的含义，来确定 另一句的含义。另外，分号也可以表示转折、对比或不相干的 意义。例如：
arrived in the middle of her first class.but 一词表转折，因此 but 前后的意思正好相反。后半句的意思是她今天“第一节上了一 半才来”， 因此反向推理， 可得出她平时一向“准时”的结论。
8．通过上下文理解猜测词义 如： A Emma had never read it, nor had she ever purchased a copy.But, when she opened it up, she was floored to see her own name and address inside the cover, in her own handwriting.It turned out that the summer before, at a concert back in Montreal, Emma had met a Californian who was in town visiting friends.
They decided to exchange addresses, but neither of them had any paper.The man had opened up a book he was carrying in his backpack and asked Emma to write her name and address inside.When he returned to California, he left the book behind in Montreal, and his friend Alex kept it.When Alex later relocated to Jerusalem, he took the nowtreasured book along.
What does the underlined word “floored” in the paragraph mean？( ) B．shocked D．excited A．interested C．frightened
【解析】答案为 B。从上文可知，在一个从未到过的地方， 在一本从未读过的书的封面，看到自己亲笔写的姓名和地址， 当然感到“震惊”。此处“but”是关键提示。
B Oxygen is vital to life, it is needed by the body cells of all animals.It is also very useful in industry.The method Priestley used produces only small quantities.The large amounts needed for industry are produced in a different way.Air is put into containers under great pressure.This turns it into liquid and makes it very cold.It is then gradually warmed up and each substance evaporates at a different temperature.The boiling point of oxygen is － 183℃.It is caught and stored in strong steel cylinders at a pressure of 136 atmospheres.The process is known as fractional distillation.
Which word has the rough meaning of “vital”？( A．important B．useful C．helpful D．interesting
【解析】答案为 A。根据下句“氧是所有动物细胞所必不 可少的元素”的内容，判断出氧非常“重要”。
C A child's birthday party doesn't have to be a hassle;_it can be a basket of fun, according to Beth Anaclerio, an Evaston mother of two, ages 4 and 18 months.
What does the underlined word “hassle” probably mean in the paragraph？( ) A．a party designed by specialists B．a plan requiring careful thought C．a situation causing difficulty or trouble D．a demand made by guests
【解析】答案为 C。通过上下句 A child's birthday party doesn't have to be a hassle; it can be a basket of fun.可以看出， hassle 和 a basket of fun 肯定是近乎相反的意义。 所以不难判断， 答案为 C。
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