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U1P4 Grammar--direct speech & indirect speech


Unit 1 Grammar

Direct & Indirect Speech
statements and questions

当我们想引述别人说的话时有 两种表达方式:直接引述别人

的原话,叫直接引语;用自己
的话转述别人的话,叫间接引

语。下面我们就直接引语

和间
接引语进行详细的讲解。

How to change direct speech into indirect speech? a. 把直接引语变成宾语从句或不定式; b. 人称代词; c. 时态; d. 时间状语,地点状语, e. 指示代词和少数动词等

a. Change sentence structure
1. 转述他人的陈述→陈述句
He said, “I’m going to Beijing.” 宾语从句 → He said that he was going to Beijing. “Don’t worry,” the mother said to the children. 不定式 The mother told the children not to worry. 2. 转述他人的疑问→一般疑问句 He asked, “Are you a teacher?” → He asked me if /whether I was a teacher.

3. 转述他人的问题→特殊疑问句 She said, “What are you doing?” → She asked me what I was doing.

b. Change personal pronouns: He said, “I like it very much.” he He said that ___ liked it very much.

He said to me, “I’ve left my book in your room.” he his He told me that ___ had left ___ book in my room.
I said to her, “I have done my best.” I my I told her that __ had done ____ best.

c. The changes of the tenses Direct Indirect Direct Indirect speech speech speech speech do will /shall would do did do am / is / was / were are doing doing have / has had done done

did

did /
had done

had done

had done

1.He said, “I’m a teacher.”
He said that he was a teacher.

2. Zhou Lan said, “I’ll do it after class.”

Zhou Lan said that she would do it after class.

3. The boy said, “I’m reading a book.”
The boy said that he was reading a book.

4. Mary said to me, “I haven’t finished my homework.”
Mary told me that she hadn’t finished her homework.

5. He said, “I had received the gift before supper.”
He said that he had received the gift before supper.

注意

由直接引语转变为间接引语,下列情况 时态不变: 1. 不变的真理 The teacher said to the students, “Water freezes when the temperature falls below 0℃.” → The teacher told the students that water freezes when the temperature falls below 0℃.

2. 经常的习惯: He said to the doctor, “I smoke two packs every day.” → He told the doctor that he smokes two packs every day. 3. 历史事件: The teacher said, “World War Ⅱ ended in 1945.” → The teacher said that World War Ⅱ ended in 1945.

d. Change adverbials of time and place He said, “I lost a key here yesterday.” He said that he had lost a key there the day before/the previous day. “I read the book here a week ago,” Jane said to him.
Jane told him that she had read the book there a week before.

Direct speech

Indirect speech

then now that day today tomorrow the next day / the following day yesterday the day before / the previous day next week the next week / the following week

last year a week ago

the year before / the previous year

a week before / a week earlier

e. Other cases Direct speech Indirect speech that this

these
here come

those

there go
take

bring

He said, “I want this.”

He said that he wanted that.
She said she would go there again that night. Mary said to Tom, “I’ll bring some photos here to you tomorrow.” Mary told Tom she would take some photos there to him the next day.

She said, “I’ll come here again tonight.”

把下列的句子变成间接引语。 1. “I’m leaving for London next week,” my sister said to me. My sister told me that she was leaving for London the next week. 2. John said, “Mr. Smith has come here.” John said that Mr. Smith had gone there. 3. She said, “Do you want me to help you?” She asked whether I wanted her to help me.

4. “Did the man in the shop understand him at last?” she said. She asked whether the man in the shop understood him at last. 5. “How many people are there in your family?” he asked the boy. He asked the boy how many people there were in his family. 6. “Don’t be late,” the mother said to the children. The mother told the children not to be late.

1.There was a time when girls could not receive education at school. 2.It is the first time that I have seen such nice scenery in my life. 3.It’s because I insist on speaking English every day that I have made such rapid progress. 4. He has got tired of walking the dog with his girl friend at dusk every day.

5. The little girl doesn’t dare (to) go out alone at night. 6.The excited speaker couldn’t calm down in a short time. 7.My mother is always concerned about the family wherever she is. 8. She suffered from the gossip of her neighbors.

1.You will know the result when you add up all the numbers. 2. We tried to calm him down but he kept shouting excitedly. 3. After a long stay in hospital, Mary recovered. 4. Since Li Ming settled here, he has got along well with his neighbours. 5. If you don’t want to stay with me, you can pack up and go. 6. During the war, I suffered a lot. I wrote my diary to set down my experiences. So I would remember them when I was old.

由直接引语转变为间接引语, 有时会引起
时态的变化, 注意以下几个方面。
直接引语(变化前) 主句动词为一般现在 时或现在完成时 She often says, “All men and women are equal under the law.” 间接引语(变化后) 从句动词时态不变 She often says that all men and women are equal under the law.

直接引语(变化前) 主句 引语时态为: 动词 为一 一般现在时

间接引语(变化后) 从句 从句时态变为: 动词 一般过去时

时态 “I know it,” He said that 般过 相应 he said. he knew it. 去时 变化

直接引语(变化前) 主句 动词 为一 般过 去时 引语时态为:

间接引语(变化后) 从句时态变为: 过去进行时 She said she was making coffee for us all.

从句 现在进行时 动词 “I’m 时态 making 相应 coffee for 变化 you all,” she said.

直接引语(变化前)

间接引语(变化后)

主句 引语时态为: 从句 从句时态变为:

动词 现在完成时 动词 过去完成时 为一 “I have 时态 He said he had 般过 seen her 相应 seen her
去时 before,” he 变化 before. said.

直接引语(变化前)

间接引语(变化后)

主句
动词

引语时态为:
一般过去时 “I saw her last Monday,” he said.

从句
动词

从句时态变为: 过去完成时
He said he had

为一
般过

时态
相应

seen her the
previous Monday.

去时

变化

直接引语(变化前)

间接引语(变化后)
从句时态变为: 从句 动词 时态 相应 变化 过去完成时 Jack asked if I knew Rick had been ill in bed for many days till he died.

引语时态为:
主句 动词 为一 般过 去时 过去完成时 “ Do you know Rick had been ill in bed for many days till he died?” Jack asked.

直接引语(变化前) 主句 动词 为一 般过 去时

间接引语(变化后)

从句 一般将来时 动词 He said, 时态 “We shall 相应 start 变化 tomorrow.”

引语时态为:

从句时态变为:
过去将来时 He said they would start the next day.

1.He said, “I’m a teacher.” 2. Zhou Lan said, “I’ll do it after Zhou Lan said that she would do it after class. class.”
The boy said that “I’m reading a book.” 3. The boy said, he was reading a book. Mary told me that finished 4. Mary said to me, “I haven’t she my homework.” hadn’t finished her homework. He said that he was a teacher.

5. He said, “I had said that he had received He received the gift before supper.”the gift before supper.

d. Change adverbials of time and place He said, “I lost a key here yesterday.” He said that he had lost a key there the day before/the previous day. “I read the book here a week ago,” Jane said to him. Jane told him that she had read the book there a week before.

He said, “I want this.”

He said that he wanted that.
She said she would go there again that night. Mary said to Tom, “I’ll bring some photos here to you tomorrow.” Mary told Tom she would take some photos there to him the next day.

She said, “I’ll come here again tonight.”

由直接引语转变为间接引语,下列情况 时态不变:
1. 不变的真理 The teacher said to the students, “Water freezes when the temperature falls below 0℃.” → The teacher told the students that water freezes when the temperature falls below 0℃.

2. 经常的习惯: He said to the doctor, “I smoke two packs every day.” → He told the doctor that he smokes two packs every day. 3. 历史事件: The teacher said, “World War Ⅱ ended in 1945.” → The teacher said that World War Ⅱ ended in 1945.

1. 转述他人的陈述→陈述句 He said, “I’m going to Beijing.” → He said that he was going to Beijing. 2. 转述他人的疑问→一般疑问句 He asked, “Are you a teacher?” → He asked me if /whether I was a teacher. 3. 转述他人的问题→特殊疑问句 She said, “What are you doing?” → She asked me what I was doing.

直接引语 (变化前) 间接引语(变化后) 陈述句 that引导的宾语从句 Jane said, “I’m Jane said that she was very fond of very fond of traveling. traveling.” whether / if 引导的宾 一般疑问句 语从句 “Is this your John asked Mary if umbrella, Mary?” that was her umbrella. asked John.

直接引语 (变化前) 特殊疑问句 “Mary, when will you return me the book?” asked John.

间接引语(变化后) wh-词引导的宾语从句 John asked Mary when she would return him the book.

把下列的句子变成间接引语。 1. “I’m leaving for London next week,” my sister said to me. My sister told me that she was leaving for London the next week. 2. John said, “Mr. Smith has come here.” John said that Mr. Smith had gone there. 3. She said, “Do you want me to help you?” She asked whether I wanted her to help me.

4. “Did the man in the shop understand him at last?” she said. She asked whether the man in the shop understood him at last. 5. “How many people are there in your family?” he asked the boy. He asked the boy how many people there were in his family. 6. “Don’t worry,” the mother said to the children. The mother told the children not to worry.

1.There was a time when girls could not receive education at school. 2.It is the first time that I have seen such nice scenery in my life. 3.It’s because I insist on speaking English every day that I have made such rapid progress. 4. He has got tired of walking the dog with his girl friend at dusk every day.

5. The little girl doesn’t dare (to) go out alone at night. 6.The excited speaker couldn’t calm down in a short time. 7.My mother is always concerned about the family wherever she is. 8. She suffered from the gossip of her neighbors.

1.You will know the result when you add up all the numbers. 2. We tried to calm him down but he kept shouting excitedly. 3. After a long stay in hospital, Mary recovered. 4. Since Li Ming settled here, he has got along well with his neighbours. 5. If you don’t want to stay with me, you can pack up and go. 6. During the war, I suffered a lot. I wrote my diary to set down my experiences. So I would remember them when I was old.

单选
1. Jack said to me, “You look worried today.” Jack told me that ___ worried ___. A. he looks…today B. you look…today C. we looked…that day D. I looked…that day

2. We said to her, “They’re walking through the street now.” We told her that ___ through the street ___. A. we were walking…then B. you are walking…now C .they were walking…then D. they walking…now

3. Mr Black said, “I have walked a long way this week.” Mr Black said that __ a long way __. A. I had walked…last week B. he had walked…that week C. I walked…last week D. he has walked…this week

4. The man thought, “I shall take it back tomorrow.” The man thought that __ take it back ____. A. I shall…tomorrow B. I shall…the next day C. he should…tomorrow D. he would …the next day

5. They said to us, “Are you afraid to leave this house ?” They asked us ____ afraid to leave _____ house. A. that were we…this B. that we were…that C. if were we …this D. if we were…that

6. Jane said, “What did he hear about a week ago?” Jane asked ____ about _____.

A. that he heard…a week ago
B. what he had heard…a week before

C. what he had herd… a week ago
D. if he heard…a week ago

7. She asked, “Whose house will he break into next time ?” She asked whose house ____ break into _____. A. will he…next time B. would he…the next time C. he would…the next time D. he will…next time

8. Jack said to her, “Where do you spend your holidays?”

Jack asked her where ____ holidays.
A. she spent her

B. you spend your
C. she spend her

D. you spent your

9. Black asked me, “ Why haven’t you left here yet?” Black asked me why ____ yet.

A. I hadn’t left there
B. I haven’t left here

C. hadn’t I left there
D. haven’t I left here

10. The teacher asked her, “Does the sun rise in the east?” The teacher asked her ___ the sun ___ in the east. A. if…rise B. if…rises C. whether…rose D. whether did …rise

根据句型及句意将下列直接引语变为 间接引语,每空一词。
1. Alice said, “I've just got a letter from my father.” Alice said that ___ ____ just got a letter she had from ____ father. her 2. Jane asked Dick, “Have you finished writing the report?” Jane asked Dick __________ __ ____ whether/if he had ________ writing the report. finished

3. “Don’t grow plants in the same place year after year,”the farmer said. The farmer _____ me not __ _____ ___ to grow told plants in the same place year after year. 4. Mr. Smith said to the girl, “I will come here to see you next Sunday.” Mr. Smith ____ the girl that told ___ would ___ there to see ___ ____ he _____ go her the _____ Sunday. next

根据句型及句意将下列间接引语变为 直接引语,每空一词。 1. He told me that a friend in need is a friend indeed. He ____ ___ me, “A friend in need said to ___ a friend indeed.” is 2. He said that he liked the film very much. He said, “ ___ _____ the film very I like much.”

3. She said that she had received a

letter two days before. She said ,“ ___ received a letter _______ I ____ _____ ____.” two days ago 4. He asked me whether I liked black tea or green tea. He asked me, “ ____ ____ _____ Do you like black tea or green tea?”


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