必修 2 Unit 4 Wildlife protection
（一）重点单词 1、 野生动植物__________________ 2、 保护__________________ 3、 野生的； 荒凉的； 未开发的__________________ 4、 恐吓；威胁__________________ 5、 减少；或变少__________________ 6、 危
害；使受到危险__________________ 7、 灭亡；逐渐消失__________________ 8、 损失；遗失；丧失__________________ 9、 保护区__________________ 10、 打猎；猎取；搜寻__________________ 11、 地域；地带；地区__________________ 12、 和 平 地 ； 和 睦 地 ； 安 详 地 __________________ 13、 在危险中；垂危__________________ 14、 回 答 ； 响 应 ； 做 出 反 应 __________________ 15、 远的；远处的__________________ 16、 毛皮；毛；软毛__________________ 17、 如释重负；松了口气__________________ 18、 笑；笑声__________________ 19、 突然笑起来 20、 仁慈；宽恕；怜悯__________________ 21、 确定的；某一，一定__________________ 22、 擦；摩擦__________________ 23、 保 护 …… 不 受 ……( 危 害 ) __________________ 24、 包含；容纳；容忍__________________ 25、 强大的；有力的__________________ 26、 影响；感动；侵袭__________________ 27、 注意（短语）__________________ 28、 鉴赏；感激；意识到__________________ 29、 成功；接替；继任__________________ 30、 安全的；可靠的__________________ 31、 收入__________________ 32、 雇佣；利用__________________ 33、 损害；危害__________________ 34、 咬；叮；刺痛__________________ 35、 形成；产生__________________ 36、 检查；视察__________________ 37、 事件；事变__________________ 38、 灰尘；尘土；尘埃__________________ 39、 按照__________________ 40、 41、 42、 消失__________________ 凶猛的；猛烈的__________________ 以致于；结果__________________
（二）重点短语 1. 根据??所说? 2. 形成；产生? 3. 如释重负? 4. 突然笑起来? 5. 和平地? 6. 灭亡；逐渐消失? 7. 保护??不受??（危害）? 8. 注意? 9. 在危险中? 10. 确信 11. 渴望做某事 12. 转身 13. 对··有害 · 14. 以致于，结果 15. decrease by 16. decrease to ______________ 17.a nature reserve___________ 18. endangered animals_______________ 19. without mercy____________ 20. a certain number of______________ 21. need to have a secure income_______________ 22. be employed to work______________ 23. run after____________ 24. hunt for__________ 25. be related to_____________ 26. an extinct species___________ 27. intend/mean/ plan to__________ 28. possible reasons for the disappearance of dinosaurs________________________ （三）重点句型 1. If their habitat is threatened or they can’t find enough food, their numbers may decrease. 2. There has been some progress in saving endangered wildlife in China. 3. We are being killed for the wool beneath our stomachs. 4. It contains a powerful drug which affects mosquitoes. 5. What must be done if wildlife protection is to succeed? 6. What should be done to punish people who do harm to the animals? 7. What should you say if you are being punished by your parent for something you did wrong? 8. They lived on the earth tens of thousands of years ago, long before humans came into being. 9. Some scientists think it came after an unexpected incident when a huge rock from space hit the earth and put too much dust into the air. 10. Nobody knows for sure why and how dinosaurs disappeared from the earth in such a short time. 二、知识精讲
1.long to do sth / long for sth 2. a species / many species 3.respond vi.回答,响应,做出反应 I asked him a question but he did not respond. They didn’t respond to our advice.
归纳： respond to 对??回答/有反应/有作用 in response to 回答；回应 give/make a response to...对……作出回答/回应 respond with a smile 以微笑回答
respond with a blow 报之一击
(全国高考)The government has __________ to public pressure and dropped the proposal. A．answered B．got C．accepted D．responded 4.relief n.（痛苦或忧虑的）减轻或解除 in relief 如释负重地;松了口气;轻松地，欣慰地 He has just finished the big task. He looked out of the window in relief. It was a great relief to find the children safe. To my great relief, the difficulties were all solved. 归纳： in relief 如释重负；松了口气 get relief from sth. to my relief 令我感到解脱的是 relieve one's mind 解除某人的顾虑 relieve sb. of sth.解除某人的(负担等) There was a widespread ________ that with scientific， timely and effective treatment， further deaths had been stopped on Sanlu event. A．satisfaction B．tension C．astonishment D．relief in + 名词 ---表示某人或某物的状态或状况 in danger in trouble in ruins in silence in good condition / state in high spirits in low spirits in peace in tears 流着泪 in anger in sorrow in surprise in debt
5. burst into laughter / tears /a song…_____________________ burst out laughing /crying /singing…_____________________ 6.without mercy / with no mercy____________________ 归纳： have mercy on sb 对某人仁慈 Now people no longer have mercy on beggars. be at the mercy of…任由??摆布；在??掌握之中 The boat was at the mercy of the storm. beg?for mercy 乞求??怜悯 It's a mercy...真是幸运?? (2009· 江西五校联考)It was clear that the small grocer was ________ people he owed money to. A．at the expense of B．at the risk of C．in the way of D．at the mercy of
7.contain / include (1)contain 包含、含有、内装。侧重“整体内含有” ，指在某一范围内或容器能 容纳某物。不用于进行时态。如： These valleys contain gold mines. The box contains a lot of gifts. (2)include 包括。侧重被包含者只是整体中的一部分。 The list includes my name. The wallet contains 500 yuan and a key. The class of twenty includes 7 girls. 注意: Six people were injured in the accident, including a boy. =Six people were injured in the accident, a boy included. 8.affect = have an effect on vt.影响；感动；(疾病)侵袭 be greatly/deeply affected 很/深受感动 be affected by heat/cold 中暑/着凉 be affected with high fever 发高烧 My teacher’s talk with me affected my studies in the coming years. Weather affects planting. Much ________ by the story of Cong Fei，I am also determined to be a volunteer worker. A．affected B．affecting C．admired D．effected 9. appreciate v．赏识；鉴赏；感激 appreciate+n./doing 感激（欣赏；觉得??；感谢??）? appreciate it+if 从句 感激??? appreciation n．鉴赏；感激 I appreciate your help / your helping me very much. Do you appreciate music? I really appreciate the importance of your job. (2009· 浙江宁波十校联考)—Did you enjoy yourself last night? —Yes，it's very nice of you.I appreciated ________ to the party. A．to be invited B．to have invited C．having been invited D．being invited (2009· 复旦大学附中)I'd appreciate ________ if you could lend me a hand with my homework. A．so B．it C．that D．you 10. die out 灭绝；逐渐消失 die out 绝种，灭绝；熄灭；(风俗、习惯等)逐渐消失，不用于被动语态 die away 逐渐减弱，逐渐模糊，逐渐消失 die off (家族、种族等)相继死亡；(草木)先后枯死 die down (火、光线、兴奋、暴风雨等)渐弱，渐息 die of 指死于疾病、衰老、饥饿、悲伤等
die from 指由于外伤、外界原因、粗心、不注意、劳累过度等而死 dying (现在分词)快要死了 dead adj.死亡的 death n．死亡 ①(2008· 云南昆明高三适应性考试)It is widely concerned that this kind of species is ________ rapidly. A．dying out B．dying down C．dying away D．dying back (2)随着汽车越走越远，马达声渐渐消失。? The sound of the engine as the car drove into the distance. 11．loss n．损失；丧失 at a loss 茫然；不知所措 suffer great losses 遭受重大损失 12．protect sb. /sth.from 保护??免受(伤害等) protect...from/against...保护??免受?? prevent/stop/keep...from...阻止??干?? 提示：prevent/stop...from...中的 from 在主动句中可以省略，而 keep...from...中的 from 不能省略 13．employ vt.雇用，用，使用，使忙于 n．雇用 in the employ of 受??雇用 in sb.'s employ 受??雇用 out of employ 失业 employ oneself (in) doing 从事于；花时间在?? To our surprise，the firm ________ the retired professor as an adviser. A．considered B．employed C．looked on D．thought about 14．come into being 形成，产生，开始存在 come into power 上台执政 come into effect 生效 come into use 开始使用 即学即用? (1)没有人知道，世界是何时形成的。 No one knows when the world (2)A 字形短裙再度流行起来了。? A ? line skirts are 15.certain ? (1)for certain 无疑地；确定地? be certain(sure)to do sth. be certain(sure)of sth.对??有把握 make certain (that...)弄清楚；弄明白；弄确实 make certain of sth./of doing sth.确保（做某事）?
It is certain that...肯定?? (2)make sure of sth./doing sth.把??弄清楚；确保? make sure that...务必；确保? be sure of (about) sth./doing sth.表示“确信” ，指句子的主语对某事有信心。? be sure to do sth.表示“一定会做某事” ，指说话者对某事有信心或命令别人做某事。 ? 即学即用? （1）毫无疑问，月亮绕着地球旋转。 It is certain that . （2）他肯定会来。? He come.
一、一般现在时的用法 1．经常性或习惯性的动作，常与表示频率的时间状语连用。 时间状语： every…, sometimes, at…, on Sunday, always, usually, often 等 2．客观真理，客观存在，科学事实。 二、一般过去时的用法 1．在确定的过去时间里所发生的动作或存在的状态。 时间状语有：yesterday, last week, an hour ago, the other day, in 1982 等。 三、一般将来时 1．Shall 或 will + V. 2．be going to +v.，表示将来。 主语的意图，即将做某事，计划、安排要发生的事，有迹象要发生的事。 3．be +to+v.表将来，按计划或正式安排将发生的事。 4．be about to +v.，意为马上做某事。 四、现在完成时 其构成： have (has) +过去分词。 现在完成时的时间状语或副词： for, since, so far, ever, never, just, yet, till / until, up to now, in past years，once，before, already, recently，lately 五、过去完成时 1．概念：表示过去的过去，其构成是“had +过去分词”。我们用时间轴表示如下：
过去完成时的时间状语 before, by, until , when, after, once, as soon as。 When the police arrived, the thieves had run away. He said that he had learned some English before. 六、现在进行时 am/ is/ are + V-ing 七、过去进行时 was/ were + V-ing this morning, the whole morning, all day, yesterday, from nine to ten last evening… when, while 八、将来进行时 will + be doing soon, tomorrow, this evening, on Sunday, by this time, tomorrow, in two days, tomorrow evening
九．现在完成进行时态 （1）表示一个从过去某时开始发生，一直延续到现在并可能延续下去的 动作。 I’ve been waiting for an hour but she still hasn’t come. （2）表示动作刚刚结束（有时指出现结果） My clothes are wet, I’ve been walking in the rain. （3）表示动作的重复性。（指断断续续，而非一直不停） She has been phoning Jim every night for the past two weeks. 十．将来完成时 ①表示在将来某一时间之前已完成的动作，并往往对将来某一时间产生影响。 Pick me up at 8 o'clock,I will have had breakfast by then. 早上 8 点钟你来接我，到时我已经吃完早饭了。 We shall have learned 12 units by the end of this term. 到这个学期末，我们将学完 12 个单元。 By the time you get home I will have cleaned the house from top to bottom. 你到家之前我将把房子彻底打扫一遍。 ② 表示某种状态一直持续到说话人所提及的时间。 We will have been married a year on June 25th. 到 6 月 25 日我们俩结婚就满 1 年了。 各种时态的被动语态举例（以动词 do 为例） 1．一般现在时（am/ is/ are +done） The classroom is cleaned by the students every day. 2．一般过去时(was/ were +done) My bike was stolen last night. 我的自行车昨天被偷了。 When was the book introduced to China? 这本书什么时候引入中国的？ 3．一般将来时与过去将来时(will/ shall be +done; would/should be +done) A speech will be given this afternoon. 今天下午有一个演讲。 I thought thousands of people would be helped. 我认为将有数千人得到帮助。 4．现在进行时与过去进行时(am/ is/ are being +done; was/ were being +done) The machine was being repaired at this time yesterday. 昨天这时，机器正在被修理。 The problem is being discussed now. 问题正在被讨论。 A bus is being pushed by the passengers. 路人正在推一辆公共汽车。 5．现在完成时(have/ has been + done) Two hundred trees have been planted by now. 到现在为止，已经种了二百棵树了。 The book has been read many times by me. 这本书已经被我读了许多遍了。 Several soldiers have already been killed in the conflict. 在冲突中已经有几名士兵被杀害。 6．过去完成时(had been+done)
They said they had been invited to the party. 他们说已经被邀请参加晚会了。 She found the house had been destroyed by the storm. 她发现房子已经被暴风雨摧毁。 He had been tortured by the illness for many years before he died.
练习 把下列句子改写成被动语态 1.They make machines in that factory. __________________________________ 2.Every body likes this song. __________________________________ 3.They sold that kind of shoes in this shop last week.____________________ 4.He has finished his homework __________________________________ 5.They will build a new school.__________________________ 6.He is repairing an old car.____________________________ 7.They had put out the big fire. __________________________________ 8.He was cleaning his house when I came in.__________________________________ 9.He had bought a new book __________________________________ 10..They have cut down more and more trees.__________________________________ 完成句子 1. When you phoned yesterday, I （在下象棋）with my daughter.（play） 2. My hands are dirty, I （一直在漆门）.（paint） 3. I （自学完数学）by the age of fourteen.（learn） 4. By next week, we （将学完 2000 个生词）.（learn） 5. I went to school on foot this morning, because my bike （正在修理）.（repair） 6. By the time the fire men arrived at the building, the fire （已被扑灭了）by the nearby citizens.（put） 7. Great changes in every field （发生）in the last ten years.（take） 8. In response to the audience’s great demand, the play ________ in the theatre twice a week. (put) 应观众的强烈要求，这部戏将会在这个剧院每周上演两次。 9. When I went there last year, a new bridge ____________________(正在修建)across the river. (build) 10. You must do your homework now; you _________________________(一直在玩) computer games all the evening. (play)
课后练习： 一、单词拼写 1. Most people are afraid of ____________(野生) animals. 2. In today’s economy, you need to have specific skills to ___________(成功)。 3. A ________ (猛烈地) storm forced the sailors to abandon the ship. 4. The book _________ (包含) a lot of colorful pictures. 5. Thanks ever so much for your help. I really ___________ (感激) it。 6. The noise outside _________(影响) our study. 7. He didn’t _________(回答) to my questions. 9. Most of the villagers rely on farming for _________.(收入)
11. Another problem is the _______ （流失，损失）of bamboo. 12. What do you ________（建议） we (should) do to protect wildlife? 13. More __________（注意力） should be paid to improving the living condition of farmers. 14. It was as _________ （凶猛的）as tiger. 15. Elephants were once ________ (猎取)and killed for ivory. 二．完成句子 1. 由于吸烟，他们两个都被惩罚了。 They were both punished ________________ smoking. 2. 许多动物都濒临灭绝。 Many animals are _________．(灭绝) 3.听了他的笑话，屋里的每个人爆发出阵阵笑声。 After hearing his joke, everyone in the room ______ ________ _________. 4. 你知道宇宙如何形成的吗？ Do you know how did the world _______ ______ __________ ? 5. 在冬天你应该盖上东西保护那些植物不要冻坏. In winter, you should cover something to _________ the plants ______ the cold. 6.他处于极度危险中。 He is _____ great ______. 7.当你驾驶的时候你应该注意标志。 You should _______ _______ ________ the signs when you are driving. 8.你的薪酬将会根据你的工作量进行支付。 You will be paid _________ __________ the amount of your work. 9. (结果) these endangered animals may even die out. 10. Why are they_______________________________(面临受罚的危险)？ 11.Daisy (一直都渴望帮助) endangered species of wildlife. 12.The flying carpet travelled (如此之快，以致于一转眼) they were in Zimbabwe.? 13. ____________ (这体现了野生动植物保护的重要性),but I’ like to d help as the WWF suggests. 14.Please listen to a story of the dodo and (看看它是如何从地球上消失的).
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