1.必修三 MODULE 1 Europe 欧洲 a landmark in Paris 巴黎的标志性建筑 an art gallery in Florence 佛罗伦萨的美术馆 a church in Barcelona 巴塞罗那的教堂 a building in Athens 雅典的一座建筑 The Eiffel Tower 埃菲尔铁塔 The Parthenon 帕台农神庙
The Uffizi Palace 乌菲齐美术馆 The Sagrada Familia 圣家大教堂 Great European Cities 欧洲大城市 PARIS 巴黎 Paris is the capital and largest city of France, situated on the River Seine. It is one of the most beautiful cities in the world and is visited by more than eight million tourists every year. 巴黎是法国的首都，也是法国最大的城市，坐落在塞纳河畔。巴黎是世界上最漂 亮的城市之一，每年有超过八百万的游客来这里旅游。 The most popular place for tourists is the Eiffel Tower, the famous symbol of Paris. One of the world's largest art galleries, the Louvre, is also located in Paris. 最受游客欢迎的旅游景点是埃菲尔铁塔，它是巴黎著名的象征。世界上最大的美 术馆之一——卢浮宫，也在巴黎。 The city is also famous for its restaurants, cafes and theatres. About two-thirds of France's artists and writers live in Paris. 这个城市也以餐馆、 咖啡馆和剧院而闻名。法国大约三分之二的艺术家和作家都 生活在巴黎。 BARCELONA 巴塞罗那 Barcelona is the second largest city of Spain and is situated on the northeast coast, about five hundred kilometers east of the Spanish capital, Madrid. 巴塞罗那是西班牙的第二大城市，它位于西班牙东北海岸，大概在离西班牙首都 马德里东边五百千米的地方。 One of Barcelona's most famous landmarks is the Church of the Sagrada Familia,
which was designed by an architect called Antonio Gaudi. 巴塞罗那最著名的标志性建筑之一就是由建筑师安东尼奥.高迪建造的圣家大教 堂。 Gaudi worked on the project from 1882 until his death in 1926. The church hasn't been finished yet! 高迪从 1882 年起从事这项工程直至 1926 年逝世，这座家庙还没有竣工。 FLORENCE 佛罗伦萨 Florence is an Italian city which became famous because of the Renaissance, a great artistic movement which began in the 1300s and lasted for three hundred years. 佛罗伦萨是意大利的一座城市， 这座城市因文艺复兴而变得著名。文艺复兴是一 次大型的文艺运动，开始于 13 世纪，持续了三百年。 During the Renaissance, some of the greatest painters of all time lived and worked in Florence. 在文艺复兴时期，历史上一些最伟大的画家在佛罗伦萨生活和工作。 Many of Florence's most beautiful paintings and sculptures were produced by great artists such as Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo. 佛罗伦萨很多非常漂亮的油画和雕塑都是由伟大的艺术家如莱昂纳多?达?芬奇 和米开朗琪罗创作的。 Florence is visited each year by about a million tourists who come to see the art galleries, churches and museums. The Uffizi Palace is the most famous art gallery in the city. 每年大约有一百万的游客来佛罗伦萨参观美术馆、教堂和博物馆，乌菲齐美术馆 是这座城市最著名的美术馆。 ATHENS 雅典 Athens, the capital of Greece, is known as the birthplace of western civilisation. 雅典是希腊的首都，作为西方文明的发祥地而闻名于世。 Two thousand four hundred years ago, it was the world's most powerful city. 2400 年前，雅典是世界上最强大的城市， Buildings such as the Parthenon on the Acropolis Hill were built during this period. Greece's best writers lived in ancient Athens. Their work has influenced other writers
ever since. 像位于雅典卫城山的帕台农神庙这样的建筑等就是在那个时期建造的。 希腊最优 秀的作家就住在古雅典，他们的作品影响了后世的作家。
2.必修三 Module 2 Developing and Developed Countries 发展中国家与发达国家 What did world leaders agree to do in 2000? 2000 年各国领导人达成了什么协议？ What does the Human Development Index measure? 衡量人类发展的尺度是什么？ What are the first two Development Goals? 最初的两个发展目标是什么？ What progress have we made towards these goals? 我们朝着这些目标取得了哪些 进步？ What do developed countries need to do? 发达国家需要做些什么？ The Human Development Report 人类发展报告 In the year 2000,147 world leaders agree to work together to reduce poverty by 2015 or earlier. From this agreement came the Human Development Report. 2000 年，147 个国家领导人达成协议，一起努力到 2015 年甚至更早缓解贫困， 这个协议达成后接下来便产生了《人类发展报告》。 One of the most important sections of this report is the Human Development Index. This examines the achievements of 175 countries. 这个报告最重要的一部分就是“人类发展指标”， 这对 175 个国家的成果作了分析 检测。 The Index measures a country's achievements in three ways: life expectancy (how long people usually live),education and income. The index has some surprises. Norway is at the top of the list, while the US is at number 7. 这项指标从三个方面衡量一个国家的成就：寿命（人们通常能活多久）、教育和 收入。这项指标显示了一些令人感到意外的情况。挪威高居榜首，而美国则排在 第七。 The other top five countries are: Iceland (2), Sweden (3), Australia (4), the Netherlands (5).
中间五个国家按名次分别是冰岛、瑞典、澳大利亚和荷兰， The UK is in the thirteenth position, while China is in the middle of the list. The bottom ten countries are all African countries, with Sierra Leone (in West Africa) at the bottom of the list. 英国位居第十三，而中国排在名单的中间。处于末端的十个国家均是非洲国家， 西非的塞拉利昂排在最后。 The report describes eight Development Goals. The most important goals are to: 这个报告描述了八个发展目标，最重要的目标是： reduce poverty and hunger;缓解贫穷和饥饿； make sure that all children have education up to the age of 11; 确保 11 岁以上的孩子都能接受教育； fight AIDS and other diseases;战胜艾滋病和其他疾病 improve the environment of poor people, e.g. make sure they have safe drinking water; 改善穷人的生活环境，如确保他们都喝上安全健康的饮用水； encourage developed countries to give more help to other countries. 鼓励发达国家给予其他国家更多的帮助。 The 2003 Human Development Report gives examples of successful development. For example, in nine years(1953-1962),China increased life expectancy by 13 years. 2003 年的 《人类发展报告》 报告了几个发展成功的实例， 譬如， 在九年 （1953-1962） 的时间里，中国的人均寿命就增加了 13 岁； In the last ten years in China, 150 million people moved out of poverty. However, the challenges are still great. 在过去的十年中， 中国有 1.5 亿人摆脱了贫穷， 然而， 仍然还存在着很大的挑战。 Every day 799 million people in developing countries are hungry. Over half of these are in South Asia or Africa. 在发展中国家每天仍有 7.99 亿人处于饥饿中，这些人中有一半是南亚或者非洲 的； Although more than 80% of children in developing countries go to primary school, about 115 million children are not being educated.
虽然发展中国家超过 80%的孩子能上小学，但是仍然有 1.15 亿的孩子没有接受 教育； More than 1 billion people in developing countries do not drink safe water. 在发展中国家还有超过一百万的人喝不到安全健康的饮用水， However, in other regions of the world, e.g. Eastern Europe,water is now mostly safe to drink. 但是在世界的其他地区，如东欧，水已经基本上可以安全饮用了。 The report shows that we are making some progress but that we need to make greater efforts. 报告显示我们正在进步，但是我们必须作出更大的努力。 Although developed countries give some financial help, they need to give much more. 虽然发达国家提供了一些经济救援，但是提供救援的数量应该大大增加。 Interestingly, the countries that give the most money are the Netherlands, Norway and Sweden. 有趣的是，给予最多经济资助的国家分别是荷兰、挪威和瑞典。 These are among the five richest countries in the world, so it is right that they should do so. 这几个国家都是世界上最富裕的五个国家中的，所以它们应该这么做的。
3.必修三 Module 3 The Violence of Nature 自然的暴行 The Gulf Stream is a warm ocean current which starts in the Gulf of Mexico and flows northeast across the Atlantic. It also travels past the east coast of the United States towards eastern Canada. It is one of the strongest currents anywhere in the world. Because of the Gulf Stream, The United Kingdom and other places in Europe are much warmer than parts of Canada on the same latitude.墨西哥湾流是发源于墨 西哥湾， 穿过大西洋向东北流动的温暖洋流。它还沿着美国东海岸向加拿大东部 流动。它是世界上最强大的一股水流。因为有墨西哥湾流，英国和欧洲其他地方 比处于同纬度的加拿大很多地区更暖和。
What Is a Tornado?龙卷风是什么？ A tornado is a rotating column of air from a thunderstorm to the ground. 龙卷风是指一个从空中的雷暴延伸到地面而生成的旋转气柱。 The most violent have winds of more than 400 kilometres per hour. 最强的龙卷风风速超过 400 千米每小时 Almost all of them occur in the US, in the area from Texas in the southeast to South Dakota in the north.，几乎所有的龙卷风都发生在美国，从东南部的得克萨斯州到 北部的达科他。 Tornadoes can pick up cars, trains and even houses and put them down in the next street--or even in the next town. 龙卷风可以卷起汽车、 火车甚至是房子并把它们卷到旁边的街道——甚至能卷到 邻近的城镇。 They can take the fur off the back of a cat and the feathers off a chicken. 它们可以将猫背上的皮毛和鸡身上的羽毛拔下来， They can destroy houses, but leave the furniture inside exactly where it was. 它们可以摧毁房子，却把房内的家具留在原处。 On average, there are 800 tornadoes in the US each year, causing about 80 deaths and 1,500 injuries. 美国平均每年会发生 800 次龙卷风，造成大约 80 人死亡，1500 人受伤。 The worst tornado of all time occurred in 1925, affecting three US states: Missouri,Illinois and Indiana. 最严重的一次龙卷风发生在 1925 年，影响了美国的三个州：密苏里州、伊利诺 伊州和印第安纳州。 By the time it ended, more than 700 people had been killed and 2,700 had been injured. 等到风停时，已有 700 多人死亡，2700 多人受伤。 What Is a Hurricane?飓风是什么？ Hurricanes are strong tropical storms, and they usually occur in the southern Atlantic Ocean, the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico.
飓风是强烈的热带风暴，它们通常发生在大西洋南部、加勒比海和墨西哥湾。 There are violent winds of 120 kilometres per hour or more, which cause huge waves, heavy rain and floods. 猛烈的飓风以 120 千米每小时甚至更快的速度移动，引起巨大的波浪，大雨和洪 水。 There are on average six Atlantic hurricanes each year and they usually affect the east coast of the US from Texas to Maine. 平均每年会发生 6 次大西洋飓风， 通常会影响美国东部海岸从得克萨斯州到缅因 州。 The worst hurricane disaster of all time occurred on the 8th September 1900 in Galveston, Texas. 最严重的飓风灾害是 1900 年 9 月 8 日发生在得克萨斯州的加尔维斯顿， Winds of 200 kilometers per hour and five-metre high waves hit the city. 飓风以 200 千米每小时的速度卷起 5 米高的波浪向城市袭来， The disaster killed 6,000 people in a population of 37,000 and destroyed 3,600 buildings. 那次灾害夺去了 37000 人口中的 6000 条人命，摧毁了 3600 栋建筑物。 An Extraordinary Event 非比寻常的事件 This is a story about the 1900 Galveston hurricane.这是一个关于 1900 年的加尔维 斯顿飓风的故事。 Charles Coghlan was a nineteenth-century Irish actor who went to live in Canada. 查尔斯· 科格伦是 19 世纪一位居住在加拿大的爱尔兰演员， He then moved to New York, where he became famous. By the late 1890s, he had moved to Galveston, where he died in 1899, a year before the hurricane struck. 那时， 他搬到纽约并在那里出了名， 世纪 90 年代后期， 19 他搬到了加尔维斯顿， 并于 1899 年，也就是飓风来袭的前一年去世。 The cemetery where Coghlan was buried was destroyed by the hurricane and Coghlan's coffin ended up in the sea. 埋葬科格伦的公墓被飓风摧毁了，科格伦的棺材最后被卷入了大海。 Eight years later, the coffin was found by fishermen in the sea near his home on
Prince Edward Island in the east of Canada. 八年之后， 科格伦的棺材在加拿大东部的爱德华王子岛省被一位渔夫在离他家不 远的海里发现了。 The Gulf Stream had carried it 3,000 kilometres up the eastern US coast to Prince Edward Island. 墨西哥湾流载着它漂了 3000 千米沿着美国东海岸漂到了爱德华王子岛省。 Coghlan travelled back to Canada--after he had been buried in Texas! 被葬在得克萨斯州后，科格伦又漂回了加拿大。
4.必修三 MODULE 4 Sandstorms in Asia 亚洲沙尘暴 Sandstorms have been a major disaster for many Asian countries for centuries. 几个世纪以来，沙尘暴已经成为很多亚洲国家的严重灾害。 Scientists have tried many ways to solve this problem and in China, a mass campaign has been started to help solve it. 科学家已经想了很多办法来解决这个问题，在中国，已经开展了一场帮助解决沙 尘暴问题的大型战争。 Sandstorms are strong, dry winds that carry sand. They are often so thick that you cannot see the sun, and the wind is sometimes strong enough to move sand dunes. 沙尘暴是带有沙石和尘土的强大而干燥的风。 沙尘暴通常很浓密以至于人们都看 不见太阳，有时候，风的强度大到可以掀动沙丘。 The four main places in the world where there are sandstorms are Central Asia, North America, Central Africa and Australia. Ren Jianbo, from Inner Mongolia described a terrible sandstorm he experienced as a child in the desert. 世界上四个主要的有沙尘暴的地方是：亚洲中部、北美、非洲中部和澳大利亚。 来自内蒙古的任建波描述了他小时候在沙漠中经历过的一次严重的沙尘暴， “To have been caught in a sandstorm was a terrible experience,” he said. “There was nothing to be done. “被困在沙尘暴中是一种很可怕的经历，”他说，“什么也干不了, It was the most frightening and the most dangerous situation I've ever been in. You
just had to hope you'd survive. I thought I was going to disappear under the sand.” 那是我遭遇过的最可怕、最危险的境况，你只能希望自己能够幸存，我原以为我 会消失在沙石底下。” Northwest China is part of the sandstorm centre in Central Asia. Sandstorms begin in desert areas. 中国西北是亚洲中央沙尘暴中心的一部分。沙尘暴开始于沙漠地带， Sandstorms in China appear to have increased in recent years as a result of “desertification”. 近年来因为“沙漠化”，中国发生沙尘暴的次数明显增加了。 This is a process that happens when land becomes desert because of climate changes and because people cut down trees and dig up grass. 这是发生在由于气候变化以及人们砍伐树木、 开垦草地等使得陆地变成沙漠时的 过程。 Sandstorms sometimes affect Beijing. Citizens wake up to an orange sky and strong winds that cover the city in a thick, brown-yellow dust. 有时候沙尘暴会影响北京，市民醒来时，发现昏黄的天空，狂风夹着黄沙在城里 肆虐。 The storms sometimes continue all day and traffic moves very slowly because the thick dust makes it difficult to see. 暴风有时持续一整天，因为浓密的尘土降低了能见度，所以车辆等开得很慢。 The Chinese Central Weather Station can forecast a sandstorm some weeks before it arrives in Beijing, but the strength of the storm sometimes surprises people. 中国中央气象台在沙尘暴到达北京前的几个星期就能预见到， 但是风暴的威力有 时是惊人的。 When a sandstorm arrives in the city, weather experts advise people not to go out. Huang Xiaomei, who lives in Beijing says, 当沙尘暴到达一个城市时，专家会建议人们不要出门。居住在北京的黄小梅说； “To be cycling in a sandstorm is frightening. The winds are very strong. It's difficult to breathe and the dust makes me ill. So if you want to go out, you'd better wear a mask.”
“在沙尘暴中骑车是很可怕的，风力非常强，很难呼吸，而且尘土会让我得病， 所以如果你想出门，最好带上面罩。” The desert is only 250 kilometres away to the west of Beijing. To prevent it coming nearer, the government is planting trees. 沙漠位于北京西边距离北京仅仅 250 千米，为了防止沙漠进一步向北京延伸，政 府正在植树。 Already the government has planted more than 30 billion trees and plans to continue planting for the next five years. 目前政府已经种了超过三十亿棵树，而且计划在接下来的五年中继续植树。
5.必修三 MODULE 5 Philosophers of Ancient China 中国古代的哲学家 Ancient China was a place where states were often at war with each other. But it was also a time when there were many great philosophers. Confucius(551BC-479BC) is the philosopher whose influence has been the greatest. 古代中国各诸侯国之间经常发生战争。但那也是一个产生了许多哲学家的时期。 孔子（公元前 551--公元前 479）是影响最大的哲学家。 He stressed the importance of kindness, duty and order in society. Chinese society was influenced by these ideas for more than 2,000 years. 他强调了仁爱、 责任和社会秩序的重要性。中国社会受孔子学说的影响已长达两 千多年。 Mencius was a thinker whose teachings were very similar to those of Confucius. Mencius was born in 372 BC. 孟子是一位思想家，他的理论和孔子的理论很相似。孟子生于公元前 372 年， His father died when he was young, and he was brought up by his mother, He became a student of Confucius's ideas, and was then given an important position in the government of a state. 自小就丧父，他母亲把他抚养成人。他成为儒家弟子，并在一个国家政府谋得很 重要的职位。
However, when he saw that the ruler was not following his advice, he resigned. For many years he travelled from state to state, teaching the principles of Confucius. He then became an adviser to another ruler. 但是当他发现统治者并不听从他的建议时，他辞职了。好几年的时间，他周游列 国，宣扬儒家学说。然后他又成为了另一个统治者的顾问。 He spent his last years preparing a book of his teachings called The Book of Mencius. 他晚年一直在准备记载他自己学说的书《孟子》。 Mencius believed that the reason why man is different from animals is that man is good. 孟子认为人区别于动物的本质就是人是性善的。 He taught that if the government was kind, then people would be good. He believed that people were more important than rulers, and hated the state when it treated people badly. 他主张“仁政”、“王道”，提倡“民为重，君为轻”，反对暴政。 Mozi was another teacher who was very influential. Born in 476 BC, he came from a family which was very poor. 墨子是又一位极具影响力的先哲。墨子于公元前 476 年出生于一个贫苦家庭。 He became famous for his unusual clothes and behaviour. Mozi founded the philosophy called Mohism. 他因为不同寻常的服装和行为举止而出名。墨子创立了墨家学派， In some ways, his beliefs were similar to those of Confucius. For example, he considered that government was most important. As a result, he spent many years trying to find a state where people would follow his teachings. 他的理论在某些方面和孔子的理论相似。例如，他认为统治非常重要，因此他花 了好多年努力寻找一个人们愿意听从他的理论的国家。 Mozi believed that all men were equal. His idea of love was different from the Confucian idea of kindness. 墨子认为人人都是平等的，他主张的“兼爱”与孔子的“仁爱”不同。 Mozi taught that we should love all human beings and look after those who are weaker than ourselves. He hated the idea of war. Mozi died in 390 BC.
墨子认为我们必须爱护所有的人，照顾比我们弱小的人。墨子反对统治者发动的 侵略战争。墨子逝世于公元前 390 年。
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