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Unit1 Friendship

1.add vi.做加法,合计, He doesn?t know how to add. 他不会做加法。 vt. 添加,补充说 She added a little sugar to the medicine, as it tasted bitter. 因为药有苦味,她往里加了点糖。 He added that he was pleased with the result.他补充说他对结果满意。

【搭配】 add to增添 add up把……加起来, add up to...总计,总数达 The bad weather added to our difficulty. 恶劣的天气增加了我们的困难。 Add up all these numbers, and you'll get one hundred. 把这些数字加起来,就能得出100。 The bill added up to twenty dollars. 账单总共是20美元。 【经典例题】

I suppose reading this book will _____ your knowledge about wild animals. A add B add up C add to D add up to
【答案】 C

2. calm adj.平静的,镇静的, 沉着的; vt&vi.(使)平静,(使)镇静 calm作形容词时,主要用于指天气、海 洋或人的心情平静;作不及物动词用时, 常与down构成动词短语calm down;也 可作及物动词,意为 “使……平静”。如: He remained calm in an emergency situation.他在情况危急时保持了镇静。 His humorous reply calmed her down. 他幽默的回答使她冷静下来

【辨析】在英语中,表示“静”的还有quiet, silent,still等几个词,但含义和用法不同。 1)quiet强调“宁静,文静” “没有吵闹声的” He had a quiet life. 他过着宁静的生活。 2)silent表示“沉默,不说话的”。如: The quiet girl remained silent throughout the meeting.这个文静的女孩在整个会议 期间都一声不吭。 3)still侧重“静止不动的”。如: The dog lay there still. 那只狗一动不动地躺在那儿。

【经典例题】 ① It is not easy for a person to keep ________ in an emergency. A quiet B still C silent D calm

② Your brother needs peace and ______ because he?s working. A quiet B still C silent D calm
【答案】 A

3.power n.能力,力量,权力 power作不可数名词用时,表示‘‘能 力,权力,力量”等意思;作可数名词 用时,常指“有权力,影响的人,有影 响的机构;强国,大国”。如: He claims to have the power to see the future.他自称能预知未来。 She lost her power of speech. 她失去了 说话的能力。

He is a power in this firm.他在这家公 司是个实权人物。 The world powers will meet in Paris this summer. 今夏世界上的大国将在巴黎聚会。 【搭配】 beyond one?s power某人力所不能及 within one?s power在某人的能力范围内 out of one?s power超越某人的能力

【辨析】power, force,strength 1)force侧重表示外在的力量,及为完成 某事而运用的能力。如: They had to use force to get into the room. 他们不得不破门进入房间。 2)strength 体力,侧重表示身体内在的力量。 He hasn't got enough strength to remove that stone. 他没有足够的力气搬走那块石头。

【经典例题】 He opened the door with great _____. A force B power C strength D ability

4. suffer vt&vi遭受(痛苦),忍受(苦难), 经历(不愉快) suffer作不及物动词用时,常与介词from 构成短语,表示 “患病,受……折磨, 因……而受到损失”等意思。
当suffer作及物动词用时,其后可直接跟 pain, injury, death,loss等表示伤痛、死 亡、损失的名词。

How long has the old man been suffering from repeated stomach trouble? 这位老人胃病反复发作有多久了? The army suffered heavy losses in the battle.部队在战斗中损失惨重。

5. Recover 1) vt. 1. 重新获得;重新找到 Jane recovered her lost wallet. 简找回了丢失的钱包。 2. 恢复;痊愈 She has recovered her health. 她已恢复了健康。

6. advice 是不可数名词,表示“劝告,建议”,中 文常说的‘‘一条建议”英文不能用an advice表达,须借助piece,如:a piece of advice。此外,advice常与动词take, follow等搭配使用。 要表示“关于……的建议”,通常用介词 on。如: You won?t get well unless you follow your doctor?s advice. 如果你不听医生的建议,你就不会康复。

Mr Smith gave me some good advice on the study of English. 史密斯先生就英语学习给我提了一些很好 的建议。 【拓展】advise vt.劝告,忠告,建议 ①advise doing sth ②advise sb to do ③ advise that 主语+ (should)+ 动词原形

The doctor advised me to take a good rest.医生让我好好休息。 We advise them starting early. 我们劝他们早些出发。 I advise that he go at once. 我劝他马上走。

【经典例题】 We should follow the teacher?s ______. A advices B advise C pieces of advice D a piece of advice
【答案】 C

7. dare 作情态动,过去式为dared, 主要 用于疑问句,否定句中;作实意动词, 在疑问句和否定句中,to可用也可省略; 但在肯定句中,要有to。 如: If you dare speak to me like that again, you?ll be sorry. 如果你再敢那样对我说话,你会后悔的。 The children don?t dare (to) make a sound while her parents are sleeping. 父母睡觉时,孩子们不敢出声。


1. get/be tired of对……厌烦 另一个短语be tired from因…而劳累。如: I am tired of being reminded of what I should have done. 老是对我说什么事该做没做,我烦透了。 The boy is tired from long studying. 这男孩因长时间学习感到累了。

2. Join in join, join in, take part in 和 attend 的用法比 较 这几个词或短语都有“参加”的意思, 但用法不同。 1)join有两个用法: (1)指加入某个党派,团体组织等,成为其 成员之一。如: ①When did your brother join the army? 你哥哥什么时候参军的? ②She joined the Young Pioneers. 她加入了少先队。

(2)和某人一道做某事,其结构为: join sb. in (doing) sth 如: ①Will you join us in the discussion? 你参加我们的讨论吗? ②He?ll join us in singing the song. 他将和我们一道唱歌。

2)join in , take part in 多指参加某种活动。 ①They are going to join in the singing. 他们将参加唱歌。 ②Are you going to take part in the first experiment? 你们会参与首次实验吗?

3) attend是正式用语,及物动词,指参加 会议,婚礼,葬礼,典礼;去上课,上 学,听报告等: ① I attended his lecture. 我听了他的讲课。② He'll attend an important meeting tomorrow. 他明天要参加一个重要的会议。

? 【经典例题】 Would you like to _____ us in cleaning up the beach? ? A take part in B join C join in D take part
【答案】 B

3. set down 1)记下 I have set down everything that happened. 我已将发生的每件事记了下来。 2) 放下 He set down the heavy box and rested for a while. 他放下沉重的箱子,歇了一会儿。


set about doing 开始做某事 set off ①出发②引爆 set out ①出发②开始做某事(to do) set aside ①把…放一边 ②留出,拨出 set up 建立,创立

? 【经典例题】 After the meeting, we ______ making some posters to raise money for those homeless people. ? A set about B set out C set down D set up
【答案】 A

4. be concerned about 关心,挂念 She is concerned about your safety. 她担心你的安全。 【拓展】be concerned with 与…有关 His new book is concerned with Africa. 他的新作是关于非洲的。 【经典例题】 We are all concerned ____ our teacher?s health. A about B with C to D at

5. fall in love with sb 爱上某人,为具体动作; be in love with sb与某人相爱,表状态。 He fell in love with Mary at first sight. 他第一眼就爱上玛丽了。 They are in love for now.现在他们相爱了。 (for now 至今为止,暂时,到现在为止) 【经典例题】 They ____ for many years and they have decided to get married. A had been in love B have been in love C had fallen in love D have fallen in love

Key sentences
1.When he/she borrowed it last time, he/she broke it and you had to pay to get it repaired. 上一次他/她借用时将它弄坏了,而你 不得不花钱请人把它修好。 句中get it repaired的表达来自句型get sth done,也可用have sth done的形式表示, 意为 “请/让他人做某事”,其中的过 去分词作宾语补足语。也可用这个句型 表示一种不幸的遭遇。如:

He had his money stolen yesterday. 他的钱昨天被人偷了。 I got my leg broken while playing football. 我踢足球时把腿摔断了。 【联想】 1) get+宾语+ doing 使…发动/开始起来 Can you get the machine running? 你能把这机器发动起来吗? 2) get+宾语+ to do 让(人或物)做某事 I?ll get my friends there to find me a good hotel. 我要那儿的朋友替我找一家好旅馆。

【经典例题】 The wall is quite dirty. Get it ___, please. A painting B paint C be painted D painted
【答案】 D

2.Do you want a friend whom you could tell everything to, like your deepest feelings and thoughts?你是不是想有一位 无话不说,能推心置腹的朋友呢? whom you could tell everything to是一个 定语从句,修饰先行词a friend。whom 在从句中作介词to的宾语。口语中常用 who来代替whom,但当介词to前置构成 to whom时,就只能用whom。如:

I don?t know to whom I could turn for help.我不知道可以向谁求助。 Do you still remember the girl whom/ who I introduced to you at the party last night? 你还记得我昨晚在晚会上向你介绍的 那个女孩吗?

3.She and her family hid away for nearly twenty-five months before they were discovered. 她和她的家人躲了两年多才被发现。 (1)本句中的before意思是“…才…”。 before根据不同的上下文可译为“还没… 就…,,“刚……就……”等意思,实际 使用较为灵活,是高中阶段的一个重点, 要在平时的学习中注意不断积累。如: I hadn?t waited long before he came. 我没等多久他就来了。

He bought a new car before he sold the old one. 他旧车还没卖掉就买了辆新车。 【经典例题】 ---- How long do you think it will be ____ China sends a manned spaceship to the moon? ----- Perhaps two or three years. A when B until C that D before

(2) hide away意为“躲藏,把……藏起 来”,有时也以hide out的形式出现,意 思一样。如 They hid away the wounded soldier at a secret place so that he wouldn?t be found. 他们把那位受伤的战士藏在一个秘密 的地方,这样他就不会被发现。 The thief hid away behind the curtain. 小偷躲在窗帘后面。

4.1 wonder if it?s because I haven?t been able to be outdoors for so long that I?ve grown so crazy about everything to do with nature.我不知道是不是因为我 长久无法出门的缘故,我变得对一切与 大自然有关的事物都无比狂热。 (1)本句中if引导了一个宾语从句,而这 个宾语从句又是一个强调句“It is because…that…”,

被强调的部分是由because引导的原因 状语从句。可还原为: I've grown so crazy about everything to do with nature because I haven?t been able to be outdoors for so long.

“It is…that…”可以强调除谓语以外的其 它句子成分。如: I met him in the park last Sunday. →It was him that I met in the park last Sunday. →It was in the park that I met him last Sunday. →It was last Sunday that I met him in the park.

【经典例题】 I just wonder _____ that makes him so excited. A why it does B what he does C how it is D what it is

(2) to do with nature是动词不定式作后 置定语,修饰不定代词everything,表示 “与大自然有关的事物”。have something /nothing to do with意为“与……有关/无 关”。如: This has nothing to do with him. 这与他无关。 He likes to see films to do with animals. 他喜欢看与动物有关的影片。

5.Another time five months ago, I happened to be upstairs at dusk when the window was open. 还有一次,就在五个月前的一天黄昏, 我碰巧在楼上,窗户是开着的。 happen的后面如果接动词不定式,表示 的是一种巧合,意为“碰巧,恰好”; 如果不定式所表示的动作正在进行或已 经完成,可用动词不定式的进行式或完 成式表示。如:

I happened to be out when he dropped in.他来拜访时我碰巧外出了。 She happened to have heard of the story. 她碰巧听说过这件事情。 【联想学习】Sb happened to do sth的 句式有时也可用It happened that sb did sth表 示。如上面两句也可写为: It happened that I was out when he dropped in. It happened that she had heard of the story.

6.Mother asked her if /whether she was very hot with so many clothes on. 妈妈问她穿这么多衣服是不是很热。 (1)本句中出现的if/whether she was very hot with so many clothes on是本单 元要学习的主要语法项目——直接引语 和间接引语。 (2)本句有一个由with引导的复合结构 “with+宾语+宾补”,这种结构在句中 可作定语和表方式、原因、条件的状语;

其中宾补可以是名词、形容词、副词、 介词短语、动词不定式或分词。通常表 示正在进行的动作用现在分词;表示将 来的动作用动词不定式;表示被动或完 成了的动作用过去分词。如: He often goes to sleep with the light on. 他常常开着灯入睡。 The man was brought in with his hands tied behind his back. 那个双手绑在背后的男人被带了进来。

With so much work to do.I can't go with you to the cinema. 因为有这么多的工作要做,我不能和你 们一块去看电影了。 With the crowds cheering,the athletes walked into the stadium. 在人群的欢呼声中,运动员们步入了体 育馆。

【经典例题】 He usually works in his room with the door and windows _____. A closed B closing C close D to be closed


7.I do want to change this situation, but I don't know how.我确实想改变这 种现状,但是我却不知道该怎么办。 句中的I do want to change this situation 是一个强调句式。在英语中常用助动词 do来强调谓语。一般现在时或祈使句, does用于第三人称;用did来强调动词谓 语的一般过去时。如: My son does like sports. 我儿子的确喜欢运动。

He did come here just now, but you were out.他刚才确实来过,但你出去了。 Do be careful when you cross the road. 过马路时务必小心。

8.I'm sorry you are having trouble in making friends.你在交友方面遇到麻烦, 我表示同情。 句中have trouble in doing sth表示“做 某事有困难,费事”,该短语中的介词 in常可省略,trouble可以用difficulty替换。 需要注意的是,不论在短语中是用 trouble还是difficulty,均只能是单数形 式,不能用复数形式。此外,还有一个 相似的表达:have a hard time(in) doing sth。如:

I had a lot of trouble/difficulty finding the book you wanted. 我费了很大的劲儿才找到你要的书。 She had great trouble/difficulty in understanding him.她要理解他很难。 I had a hard time trying to make myself heard.我很难让人听清我讲话。

直接引语和间接引语(I) 学习间接引语必须注意三个问题,选 用正确的引导词;语序(陈述句语序); 时态变化;时间状语,地点状语及指 示代词的变化。

I 间接引语的引导词 1.陈述句, 在间接引语中加上引导词 that ,(也可省略 that ,但如果是两个或 以上的宾语从句并列,则that不可省)。 “I don?t want to set down a series of facts in a diary,” said Anne.
→ Anne said (that) she didn?t want to set down a series of facts in a diary.

2.一般疑问句,在间接引语中加上if或 whether,注意要用陈述句语序(主语+谓 语) He asked,“Are you leaving tonight?” → He asked us whether/if we were leaving that night.

3· 特殊疑问句,在间接引语中保留原有 的疑问词,注意要用陈述句语序 (主语+谓语) “When did you go to bed last night?” Father said to Anne.
→ Father asked Anne when she went to bed the night before.

Ⅱ 时态变化(降级原则)
一般现在时 现在进行时 现在完成时 一般过去时

一般过去时 过去进行时 过去完成时 过去完成时



注意:当直接引语阐述的是客观真理、 客观事实,变间接引语,其时态不变。 如: Our teacher said to us: “The sun rises in the east and sets in the west.”

→ Our teacher told us that the sun rises in the east and sets in the west.

III 时间状语,地点状语变化 this→that; these → those; ago →before; today →that day; yesterday→the day before; tomorrow→ the next day → the following day; the day after tomorrow →in two days? time; the day before yesterday → two days before


1. “You?ve already got well, haven?t you?” she asked. →She asked ________. A. if I have already got well, hadn?t you B. whether I had already got well C. have I already got well D. had I already got well.
答案: B

2. He asked , “ Are you a Party member or a League member?” C →He asked me _________. A. am I a Party member or a League member B. was I a Party member or a League member C. if I was a Party member or a League member D. whether was I a Party member or a League member.

3. He asked, “How are you getting along?” →He asked _______. A. how am I getting along B. how are you getting along C. how I was getting along D. how was I getting along
答案: C

4. He asked me ________ with me. A. what the matter is B. what the mater was C. what?s the matter D. what was the matter

5.John asked me _______ to visit his uncle?s farm with him. A. how would I like B. if or not would I like C. whether I would like D. which I would like


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