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独立主格结构讲解及习题


独立主格结构 常见类型及其用法

独立主格结构

独立主格结构的模式是:

主格名词/代词 + 分词/形容词/副词/不定式/介词短语
(作逻辑主语) (作逻辑谓语)

主格名词/代词 + 分词 (过去分词/现在分词)
1. All our savings gone, we sta

rted looking for jobs.
2. The question settled, we went home.

3. The river having risen in the night, the crossing was impossible.

主格名词/代词 + 形容词
1. His mother being ill, he had to stay home to look after her.

2. Other things being equal, I would buy the black dress.

主格名词/代词 + 副词
The meeting being over, our headmaster soon left the meeting-room.

主格名词/代词 + 不定式
We to care for the children, you are able to be carefree away from home.

主格名词/代词 +介词短语
Our English teacher came into the classroom, papers in hand.

一、独立主格结构的构成形式 1、逻辑主语+V-ing 这种构成形式内部的逻辑主语是分词的 动作执行者,分词表示的动作不是整句 主语发出的动作,而是其逻辑主语发出 的动作。如:
A 1).________no bus, we had to walk home. A.There being B.Being C.Having been D.There was

B 2)_______no bus, we had to walk home.

A.As there being B.As there was

C.Being A.Being
C.It being

D.There was B.There being
D.Having been

C 3)_______Sunday, the library doesn't open.

D 4)______Sunday, the library doesn't open.

A.As it being B.Being C.It is D.As it is

2、逻辑主语+V-ed 该构成形式内部的逻辑主语是分词的动作承受者。

A 1)_________, the train started.
A.The signal given D.The signal giving 2)__________, the train started. D A.After having given the signal B.After the signal given C.Giving the signal D.After the signal B.Giving the signal B.The signal being given

was given

B 3)______, the text became easier for us to learn. A.Explaining new words B.New words explained C.Being explained new words D.Having explained new words A 4)____, the text became easier for us to learn. A.When new words were explained B.Explaining new words C.New words explaining D.Being explained new words

3、逻辑主语+形容词(副词) 该结构相当于一个未带动词的“主—系—表” 结构。如: B 1)___________, the patient can leave the hospital. A.Better conditions B.Conditions better C.Conditions are better D.Being better conditions C 2)_________, the patient can leave the hospital. A.If better conditions B.If conditions better C.If conditions are better D.Being better conditions

B 3._____, we’d like to go outing. A.Being Sunday B.Sunday OK C.Sunday is OK D.If Sunday OK D 4.______, we’d like to go outing. A.If Sunday is OK B.Sunday being OK C.Sunday OK D.A,B and C D 5._____, you can wait a while. A.The play being still on B.The play still on C Being still on the play D.A and B

不能省略being (having been)的情形
? 在下列两种情况下,独立主格结构中的being (或having been)不能省略。 ? (1) 独立主格的逻辑主语是代词时。如:It being Sunday, we went to church.因为是星期天, 我们去了做礼拜。 ? (2)在There being+名词的结构中。如: There being no bus, we had to go home on foot.因 为没有公共汽车,所以我们不得不步行回家

二、独立主格结构在整句中可作以下成分: 1、原因状语 该结构在句中作原因状语时相当于一个原因状语 从句。如: A 1).________ no bus, we had to walk home. A.There being B.As there was C.There was D.A and B 2)._________Sunday, the library doesn't D open. A.It being B.As it is C.Being D.A and B

D 3._____, I had to ask for two days ’ leave.
A.Mother being ill C.As mother was ill the night. A.The exam near B.The exam being near C.As the exam is near D. A,B and C B.Bother ill D. A,B and C

D 4.________, we have to work late into

2、时间状语 独立主格结构作时间状语时相当于一个由 when, as soon as, after等引导的时间状语 从句。如: D 1.________, the train started. A.The signal given B.After the signal was given C.Given the signal D.A and B D 2.________, the text became easier for us to learn. A. New words explained B.When new words were explained C.When teacher explained new words D.all the above

3、条件状语 独立主格结构作条件状语时可以改为由 if 引 导的条件状语从句。如: D 1).________, we'll go to visit the Great Wall. A.Weather permitting B.If weather permits C.If permitting D.A and B 2.)_____, the patient will recover himself D soon. A.If the treatment is in time B.The treatment in time C.The treatment being in time D.A,B and C

4、伴随状语 独立主格结构作伴随状语时相当于一个介词 短语或并列谓语。如: A 1).We have lessons every day, ________. A.Sunday included B.Sunday including C.Sunday is including D.all the above A 2).The boy fell asleep,_________. A.cap on head B.with a cap on head C.a cap on was on head D. all the above

3.Father came home,_________ D

A.a dog following him
B. followed by a dog

C.being followed by a dog
D.all the above .

分词、独立主格和“with + 复合宾语”作 状语的区别
分词结构、独立主格结构、with + 复合宾 语结构在句中均可作状语,其区别是这样 的:

一、分词在句中作状语时句子的主语是分 词的逻辑主语,即主句主语是分词的动作 执行者(用现在分词)或动作承受者(用 过去分词或现在分词被动式)。这种情况 下的分词短语可以改为相应的状语从句或 并列谓语。

分词短语在句中常作以下状语:

1、原因状语 D 1._______late, we had to walk home.
A.Being B.As we were C.We being D.A and B D 2.______ busy, they had no time to play. A.As they were B.Being

C.Because they were

D.all the above

2、时间状语

D 1._______ the students' homework, the teacher
found a lot of mistakes.

A.When he was correcting B.When he corrected C.Correcting D.all the above

D 2.________by your teachers, you are supposed to be modest.
A.When you are praised B.Praised

C.When praised

D.all the above

3、条件状语
D 1.______ more time, he is sure to finish his test paper. A.If he is given B.If given

C.Given D.all the above
D 2._______ another chance, I'll do my job better. A.If I have B.If having

C.Having

D.all the above

4、伴随状语
A 1.Father came back, _______ a bag of money on his left shoulder. A.carrying C.and carrying B.he was carrying D.all the above D 2.Father came back, _______ by a monkey.

A.and he was followed B.followed C.and was followed D.all the above

二、独立主格结构和with + 复合宾 语结构在句子中作状语时,这种结构 内部的分词或介词短语的逻辑主语不 是整句的主语,即主句主语与分词的 逻辑主语不一致。如: C 1.______, we’ll go fishing in the country. A.Permitting weather

B.Weather permitted
C.Weather permitting D.Permitting

2._________, he finished playing B the game of chess. A.His eyes closing

B.With his eyes closed
C.Closed eyes

D.Closed his eyes B 3.________, I couldn’t get the book I wanted.
A.Closed B.Library closed

C.Closing library D.With library closing

三、使用分词短语、独立主格结构、with + 复合 宾语结构分别在句子中作状语时要注意:它们与 主句之间不应有从属连词(如when, if, as soon as, as, while 等 ) 或 并 列 连 词 ( 如 and, but, or, so等)。例如:
1 . _A _ _ _ _ the teacher told the class to go through the text A.Checking the answers B.Checking the answers and C.When checking the answers and D.all the above

C 2._______a rainy day, so all the farmers had to stay inside. A.It being C.It was B.Being D.all the above

B 3.As______a little sick, he remained at the clinic.

A.feeling
C.he felling

B.he felt
D.all the above

四、在使用独立主格结构、 with + 复合宾语 结构、分词结构作句子的状语时,一定要看 句子主语同这些结构的逻辑关系。 1、当句子主语与该状语内部动词之间有逻辑 上的主谓或动宾关系时,该状语可用分词结 构或从句表示。

D 1)______ in thought, he almost ran into the car in front of him.
A.Lost C.He lost B.As he was lost D.A and B

D 2)._______for the bus at the stop, he suddenly caught sight of a thief.
A.Waiting B.When he was waiting C.As he was waiting D.all the above

2、若句子主语与状语内动词之间不存在逻 辑上的主谓或动宾关系且状语内有自已的逻 辑主语。则该状语不能用分词结构,只能用 独立主格结构、with +复合宾语结构或从句。 如:

A 1.The soldier fell asleep ________. A.with the candle burning B.burning the candle C.when he was burning the candle D.when burning the candle C 2.________, the Tiananmen Square looks more beautiful. A.Being on B.When being on C.With all the lights on D.When it turns on all the lights

D 3.____ idea.

the

notice,

he

had

an

A.When he was watching B.Watching C.When D.all the above A watching 4.______ the notice, an idea came to his mind.
A.When he was watching B.Watching C.When watching D.all the above

无论with复合结构还是独立主格结构,都不可有 动词的谓语形式充当其中的逻辑谓语。如下例中 的was就必须去掉: He sat at the desk reading with a pen was in his right hand.

with复合结构可以作后置定语修饰名词,而 独立主格结构则不可作后置定语修饰名词. Soon she arrived at a park with grass green and flowers in blossom. = Soon she arrived at a park whose grass was green and whose flowers were in blossom.


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