主格名词/代词 + 分词/形容词/副词/不定式/介词短语
主格名词/代词 + 分词 (过去分词/现在分词）
1. All our savings gone, we sta
rted looking for jobs.
2. The question settled, we went home.
3. The river having risen in the night, the crossing was impossible.
主格名词/代词 + 形容词
1. His mother being ill, he had to stay home to look after her.
2. Other things being equal, I would buy the black dress.
主格名词/代词 + 副词
The meeting being over, our headmaster soon left the meeting-room.
主格名词/代词 + 不定式
We to care for the children, you are able to be carefree away from home.
Our English teacher came into the classroom, papers in hand.
一、独立主格结构的构成形式 1、逻辑主语+V-ing 这种构成形式内部的逻辑主语是分词的 动作执行者，分词表示的动作不是整句 主语发出的动作，而是其逻辑主语发出 的动作。如：
A 1).________no bus, we had to walk home. A.There being B.Being C.Having been D.There was
B 2)_______no bus, we had to walk home.
A.As there being B.As there was
D.There was B.There being
C 3)_______Sunday, the library doesn't open.
D 4)______Sunday, the library doesn't open.
A.As it being B.Being C.It is D.As it is
A 1)_________, the train started.
A.The signal given D.The signal giving 2)__________, the train started. D A.After having given the signal B.After the signal given C.Giving the signal D.After the signal B.Giving the signal B.The signal being given
B 3)______, the text became easier for us to learn. A.Explaining new words B.New words explained C.Being explained new words D.Having explained new words A 4)____, the text became easier for us to learn. A.When new words were explained B.Explaining new words C.New words explaining D.Being explained new words
3、逻辑主语+形容词（副词） 该结构相当于一个未带动词的“主—系—表” 结构。如： B 1)___________, the patient can leave the hospital. A.Better conditions B.Conditions better C.Conditions are better D.Being better conditions C 2)_________, the patient can leave the hospital. A.If better conditions B.If conditions better C.If conditions are better D.Being better conditions
B 3._____, we’d like to go outing. A.Being Sunday B.Sunday OK C.Sunday is OK D.If Sunday OK D 4.______, we’d like to go outing. A.If Sunday is OK B.Sunday being OK C.Sunday OK D.A,B and C D 5._____, you can wait a while. A.The play being still on B.The play still on C Being still on the play D.A and B
不能省略being (having been)的情形
? 在下列两种情况下，独立主格结构中的being （或having been）不能省略。 ? (1) 独立主格的逻辑主语是代词时。如：It being Sunday, we went to church.因为是星期天， 我们去了做礼拜。 ? (2)在There being＋名词的结构中。如： There being no bus, we had to go home on foot.因 为没有公共汽车，所以我们不得不步行回家
二、独立主格结构在整句中可作以下成分： 1、原因状语 该结构在句中作原因状语时相当于一个原因状语 从句。如： A 1).________ no bus, we had to walk home. A.There being B.As there was C.There was D.A and B 2)._________Sunday, the library doesn't D open. A.It being B.As it is C.Being D.A and B
D 3._____, I had to ask for two days ’ leave.
A.Mother being ill C.As mother was ill the night. A.The exam near B.The exam being near C.As the exam is near D. A,B and C B.Bother ill D. A,B and C
D 4.________, we have to work late into
2、时间状语 独立主格结构作时间状语时相当于一个由 when, as soon as, after等引导的时间状语 从句。如： D 1.________, the train started. A.The signal given B.After the signal was given C.Given the signal D.A and B D 2.________, the text became easier for us to learn. A. New words explained B.When new words were explained C.When teacher explained new words D.all the above
3、条件状语 独立主格结构作条件状语时可以改为由 if 引 导的条件状语从句。如： D 1).________, we'll go to visit the Great Wall. A.Weather permitting B.If weather permits C.If permitting D.A and B 2.)_____, the patient will recover himself D soon. A.If the treatment is in time B.The treatment in time C.The treatment being in time D.A,B and C
4、伴随状语 独立主格结构作伴随状语时相当于一个介词 短语或并列谓语。如： A 1).We have lessons every day, ________. A.Sunday included B.Sunday including C.Sunday is including D.all the above A 2).The boy fell asleep,_________. A.cap on head B.with a cap on head C.a cap on was on head D. all the above
3.Father came home,_________ D
A.a dog following him
B. followed by a dog
C.being followed by a dog
D.all the above ．
分词、独立主格和“with + 复合宾语”作 状语的区别
分词结构、独立主格结构、with + 复合宾 语结构在句中均可作状语，其区别是这样 的：
一、分词在句中作状语时句子的主语是分 词的逻辑主语，即主句主语是分词的动作 执行者（用现在分词）或动作承受者（用 过去分词或现在分词被动式）。这种情况 下的分词短语可以改为相应的状语从句或 并列谓语。
1、原因状语 D 1._______late, we had to walk home.
A.Being B.As we were C.We being D.A and B D 2.______ busy, they had no time to play. A.As they were B.Being
C.Because they were
D.all the above
D 1._______ the students' homework, the teacher
found a lot of mistakes.
A.When he was correcting B.When he corrected C.Correcting D.all the above
D 2.________by your teachers, you are supposed to be modest.
A.When you are praised B.Praised
D.all the above
D 1.______ more time, he is sure to finish his test paper. A.If he is given B.If given
C.Given D.all the above
D 2._______ another chance, I'll do my job better. A.If I have B.If having
D.all the above
A 1.Father came back, _______ a bag of money on his left shoulder. A.carrying C.and carrying B.he was carrying D.all the above D 2.Father came back, _______ by a monkey.
A.and he was followed B.followed C.and was followed D.all the above
二、独立主格结构和with + 复合宾 语结构在句子中作状语时，这种结构 内部的分词或介词短语的逻辑主语不 是整句的主语，即主句主语与分词的 逻辑主语不一致。如： C 1.______, we’ll go fishing in the country. A.Permitting weather
C.Weather permitting D.Permitting
2._________, he finished playing B the game of chess. A.His eyes closing
B.With his eyes closed
D.Closed his eyes B 3.________, I couldn’t get the book I wanted.
A.Closed B.Library closed
C.Closing library D.With library closing
三、使用分词短语、独立主格结构、with + 复合 宾语结构分别在句子中作状语时要注意：它们与 主句之间不应有从属连词（如when, if, as soon as, as, while 等 ） 或 并 列 连 词 （ 如 and, but, or, so等）。例如：
1 . _A _ _ _ _ the teacher told the class to go through the text A.Checking the answers B.Checking the answers and C.When checking the answers and D.all the above
C 2._______a rainy day, so all the farmers had to stay inside. A.It being C.It was B.Being D.all the above
B 3.As______a little sick, he remained at the clinic.
D.all the above
四、在使用独立主格结构、 with + 复合宾语 结构、分词结构作句子的状语时，一定要看 句子主语同这些结构的逻辑关系。 1、当句子主语与该状语内部动词之间有逻辑 上的主谓或动宾关系时，该状语可用分词结 构或从句表示。
D 1)______ in thought, he almost ran into the car in front of him.
A.Lost C.He lost B.As he was lost D.A and B
D 2)._______for the bus at the stop, he suddenly caught sight of a thief.
A.Waiting B.When he was waiting C.As he was waiting D.all the above
2、若句子主语与状语内动词之间不存在逻 辑上的主谓或动宾关系且状语内有自已的逻 辑主语。则该状语不能用分词结构，只能用 独立主格结构、with +复合宾语结构或从句。 如：
A 1.The soldier fell asleep ________. A.with the candle burning B.burning the candle C.when he was burning the candle D.when burning the candle C 2.________, the Tiananmen Square looks more beautiful. A.Being on B.When being on C.With all the lights on D.When it turns on all the lights
D 3.____ idea.
A.When he was watching B.Watching C.When D.all the above A watching 4.______ the notice, an idea came to his mind.
A.When he was watching B.Watching C.When watching D.all the above
无论with复合结构还是独立主格结构，都不可有 动词的谓语形式充当其中的逻辑谓语。如下例中 的was就必须去掉： He sat at the desk reading with a pen was in his right hand.
with复合结构可以作后置定语修饰名词，而 独立主格结构则不可作后置定语修饰名词. Soon she arrived at a park with grass green and flowers in blossom. = Soon she arrived at a park whose grass was green and whose flowers were in blossom.
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